Global Markets for Gasifiers

NEW YORK, April 15, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Global Markets for Gasifiers

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INTRODUCTION

Gasification is a centuries–old thermochemical energy conversion technology that has slowly achieved modernity over the decades. The technology is undergoing its third evolutionary surge. Fuel shortages in WWII spurred widespread adoption for vehicle fuels. The oil crisis 1973 spurred a re–evaluation and renewed development. Rising oil prices, globally increasing fuel demand, and overwhelming scientific evidence of climate change have spurred this last leg to full industrialization.

The central concept of gasification is that by raising carbon–rich materials to high temperatures in an oxygen–deficient containment, the material will break down thermochemically instead of burning. If the same material is combusted (burned), it emits carbon monoxide and a host of pollutants, besides being incompletely consumed. If gasified, the products are hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2). This is synthetic gas, simply called "syngas." It can be burned, captured, stored, or its molecules rearranged to form fuels and chemical feedstocks.

The process is moderately more efficient than incineration, has significantly fewer emissions and waste, and the syngas can be shaped into a myriad of products for power production, chemical industries, liquid fuels, and heat.

Feedstock for gasification can be coal, the organic components of municipal waste, industrial waste streams, chemical feedstocks, forestry residues, forest products and crop residues, medical waste, unrecycled plastic or, in the case of plasma gasifiers, almost any nonradioactive material.

A gasifier is the central component of a gasification plant. Surrounding it are the feedstock conditioning and delivery systems, oxygen, steam and air input systems, waste removal components, syngas cooling and cleaning systems, power plants, heat recovery units, Fischer–Tropsch molecule rearrangers, and so on. This report focuses on the markets for gasifier units that are in place and will be installed by application segment and geographic location through the year 2017.

WHY JUST THE GASIFIER?

Gasifier technology is actually a group of technologies that has emerged commercially in a number of applications and is being evolved for others. For several decades, gas and oil refiners, chemicals companies, remote–from–grid communities, and techno–hobbyists have been advancing the design and functional performance of gasifiers. As oil prices have risen and the specter of carbon emissions regulations draws nearer, the intensity of interest in gasifiers has grown apace.

From a 5,000 ft. altitude view, an industrial scale gasifier plant appears remarkably similar to an integrated circuit. There are connecting pipelines (circuits) everywhere, and various specialized devices (subprocessors) to provide input and take the output of the central processor, the gasifier, and do something with the syngas.

As in the semiconductor industry, there are only a few major, very large unit, central processor (gasifier) integrated chip "fabs," but a host of suppliers for the smaller on–chip support components. It is becoming more difficult for new technologies to emerge now that gasifiers have reached truly large proportions, capable of processing thousands of tons of feedstock daily, mass–producing a product (syngas) that is at the foundation of many essential industries (energy, plastics, medicines, liquid fuels, and more).

Gasifiers can also be standalone fuel conversion devices that range from a rural home cook stove to a megawatt–scale, micro–industry gas supplier.

The number of companies producing gasifiers increases in inverse proportion to the output capacity of the gasifier product. Output, usually expressed in megawatt– or kilowatt–thermal, can range from hundreds of watts to hundreds of megawatts.

Only a few companies are capable of supplying and servicing gasifiers with utility–scale output capabilities of hundreds of megawatts–thermal. Well over a hundred companies manufacture gasifiers with outputs in the tens of megawatts–thermal. The smallest gasifiers, for individual or small commercial use, are produced by a large array of manufacturers spread throughout the world.

THE MOST SIGNIFICANT GASIFIER MARKETS

This study of the markets for gasifiers recognizes that the various market segments involve different operational characteristics, economics and feedstocks. The financing arrangements for gasification systems are different among municipal, utility, industrial, gas and oil, and low–level economies.

Gasification provides a venue to power generation using carbon fuels without exposing project developers to risk from environmental and health concerns. Gasification also empowers users to utilize high carbon, low value fuels (e.g., lignite, sub–bituminous coals, peat) and derive electricity, industrial chemicals, clean fuels, synthetic transportation fuels, and inert re–usable waste.

It also provides a way to deal with trash. All societies with operating economies must deal with garbage, and the bigger the economy, the more garbage generated. It all must go somewhere, for reasons of public health and fiscal responsibility, real estate values, and as a source of raw materials. Besides the energy carrier (syngas) that is produced from organic material in refuse by gasifiers, a major side benefit is a significant reduction in the volume of feedstock waste material, and possible economic value in the solid waste remaining after gasification.

Another global situation is a dependence on fossil fuels, particularly coal, which is abundant, relatively low tech and low cost, but accompanied by significant environmental risk at all stages of use. IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power plants have been and are currently being built that demonstrate that gasification technologies meet the conceptual goal of "clean coal," at least at the consumption stage, as well as on the emissions side.

Gasifiers are pre–combustion devices, providing operators an opportunity to capture carbon before combustion, when it is easier than after combustion, when the thermochemistry is much more complex.
A confluence of forces in developed nations (economic upheaval, recession, rising energy costs, inexorable generation of waste, environmental regulations, municipal money shortfalls) is a perfect storm to spur gasification markets to expand. Utilities, municipalities, heavy industries (petrochemicals, chemicals, metal refining, others) need large energy supplies, have large amounts of waste, must economize, and must reduce their carbon footprints.

The largest gasifiers for power plants have yet to be the default choice for power plants because of price (unless the price of carbon penalties increases). A number of other applications, such as coal to liquids (CTL – fuel, industrial feedstock), wastes (solid, sludge, industrial waste) waste to energy (WTE), petcoke/refinery residuals, and biomass to energy and liquid (BTE, BTL) are now proven in the field and on the short lists of options when dealing with garbage volume, on–site power from industrial waste, refinery energy and supplies of industrial feedstocks.

The central concept of the gasifier scales down quite well to simple personal use stoves for residential cooking and recreational camping.

This report characterizes the state of gasification technologies, the way they serve their most significant applications, and quantifies the number and regional trends in gasifier utilization throughout the globe. The economics and influencing financials, laws and regulations, and feedstocks are investigated, along with technical and operational maturity.

What is revealed is that in some market segments gasification is not ready for prime time, in others the financials don't work for a number of reasons that are explored, and in others, the use of gasification is compelling, profitable, and inevitable. The discussion also seeks to provide clarity in the confounding situation that some gasifier markets are now viable in some geographic regions, while the same technologies are unlikely to make headway in others.

The bottom line is that gasifiers have become a mainstream product in a broad range of applications that include central power stations, waste treatment, industrial chemicals production, on–site small industrial operations, district cogeneration, residences in rural economically poor areas, and more. They are becoming an essential part of the energy conversion landscape and are already a multi–billion dollar a year diversified industry on a strong growth path globally.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This report was written to characterize and quantify the world markets for gasifiers in terms of gasifier technologies, unit counts, regions, feedstocks and end product application. Gasifier technologies have been evolving for well over a century, but only recently emerged as either at or near being economically and technologically viable as a short–list choice for the production of syngas and chemical feedstocks on an industrial scale and energy sources for a variety of smaller regional, municipal, village and commercial or residential sectors. A very limited number of opportunities also exist where gasifiers are a de facto choice for syngas production.

In sum, this report is designed to adequately identify and describe the markets in which gasifiers are playing, will expand their roles, or will gain entry to markets that encompass both thermal and chemical energy generation, and fuel and industrial chemicals production.

This report summarizes the market drivers that are raising demand for gasifiers. These forces include a relentlessly increasing consumption of electricity and liquid fuels, rising fuel costs, environmental laws and regulations, a lack of natural gas resources in key locations, abundant coal resources, rising volumes of municipal, industrial and agricultural wastes, surging economies in Asia, and the improving sophistication and performance of gasifiers.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

Gasifiers can be regarded as a new/old technology. Their functioning principles have been known – and applied commercially since the 19th century. Before the electric light, gasification supplied town gas for lighting city streets.

Low–cost fossil fuels have regularly distracted industries and research organizations from continuing to develop the technology. With the arrival on the world economic stage of surging economies in Asia, Southwest Asia, Southeast Asia, and Latin America, the era of low–cost liquid fossil fuels has passed for good. There is too much competition for every barrel of oil, thus keeping prices elevated. Advanced materials, thermodynamics modeling, attractive economics and tightening emissions regulations have formed a perfect storm that is driving the appearance and quick expansion of markets for gasifiers. As long as there are feedstocks available in sustainable quantities, gasifiers can deliver syngas for a variety of applications.

This report was written because conditions are finally right for long–running markets for gasifiers. A critical mass of technologies, engineering competence and tools, diverse markets, environmental regulations and international agreements to minimize greenhouse gas emissions, industrial production capacity and demonstrated pilot and commercial applications now exist. There are established markets for gasifiers that range in capacity by a factor of a million (thermal output). This established base, the worldwide spread of the technology, decades of experience with the equipment, vendors with large balance sheets, a developing world that now has substantial economic inertia, and the flexibility of applications of gasifiers have opened the gates to extremely widespread adoption.

This market study was undertaken to identify, characterize, and quantify the status of the markets for gasifiers and the extent to which the gasifier universe will expand, where activity will take place, at what pace, and what the trends in gasifier markets will be through 2017.

SCOPE OF REPORT

This report identifies, characterizes, describes, and forecasts world markets for gasifiers on global and regional bases. Attention is given to national/state incentives, international agreements, regulatory regimes, and political policies that foster, hinder or neglect (whether benignly or otherwise) the implementation of gasifiers.

Forecasts are provided to estimate the robustness of gasifier markets in their different size ranges, feedstocks, and applications over time, covering the period 2012 through 2017.

Regional forecasts are made as granular as feasible or appropriate, covering the global market in terms of 10 geographic areas with what is perceived to be a commonality of usage patterns, market demand, and geographic proximity. This last factor is taken to indicate an organic proximity that will enable development of a regional market awareness of the availability of gasifiers and a need for their particular attributes as key components in energy, fuel or chemicals production systems.

A high level approach is taken to describe the theory of gasification and its various common forms, (i.e., downdraft, updraft, fixed bed, fluidized bed and plasma). Greater detail is developed for the characteristics of the markets for gasifiers, and the types of gasifiers that serve those markets, namely coal to energy (CTE), coal to liquids (CTL), direct reduction of iron (DRI melt) in steel mills, petcoke/refinery residuals, biomass to energy (BTE), biomass to liquids (BTE), waste to energy (WTE) and plasma. These market segments encompass nearly all applications and configurations of gasifiers, from utility–scale to jungle hut.

Attention is also given to market segmentation and proliferation of small gasifiers, with particular focus on factors that enhance or hinder both their usage and market size. The factors considered include reliability, the necessity of support services, the differences between developed world and developing world markets, and success factors for each type of application.

METHODOLOGY

The development of this report involved foundation research into existing technology assessments, as well as market data for worldwide gasifier implementation.

Materials that were examined include conference proceedings, research reports from work carried out and sponsored by the U.S. National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), publicly available presentations and marketing materials by various gasification equipment and project development companies and gasification and biomass energy organizations, companies' 10–K and 10–Q reports where available, telephone interviews and discussions with gasifier vendors and buyers, municipal waste management officials and town managers, and chemical industry executives. An attempt was made to balance discussions among technology experts, market developers, corporate management, and regulatory agencies, as well as prospective buyers of gasifiers. Consultations were held with various political advisors to gain an understanding of the machinations that influence state and local level decisions on whether or not to adopt gasification installations into the public weal, and under what circumstances they will or will not.

The study considers the various market segments that are served by gasifiers, and how those niches are conditioned by regulatory drivers, economics, incumbent technologies, national policies, environmental mandates, government subsidy programs, and the economics of each type of application, and where. Due to the expense associated with large gasifiers, and the concomitant total bill for an entire functioning plant, care was taken to understand the payback, and whether or not there were sufficient factors in play to reliably sustain a gasifier market in the various world regions, and separately within the various market segments being examined.

Project specifications for as–built and planned undertakings were examined to derive rational estimates of gasifiers in the field and the number of units to be deployed through 2017 (and beyond). Reports and case histories were studied to understand the economics of capital expenditures and ROIs for gasifier–based power plants, chemical feedstock and fuel production, refinery use with petcoke and residuals, direct reduction of iron (DRI melt), biomass energy and chemical liquid conversion, and waste to energy (WTE), as well as remote rural use for thermal energy and biofuels production.

The research and analysis led to the development of a quantitative picture of the status of the gasifier industry, its major segments, and the geographic market activity and indicators of the directions of evolution of those markets. The accumulated data, (i.e., installed, contracted for, financed, and scheduled for deployment) was analyzed in terms of a world segmented into 10 regions, each with multiple countries having sufficient key similarities and geographic proximity to be included within that region.

Some considered choices were required to identify various cut–off points for market segmentation. The diversity of applications now under way with gasifiers (a few hundred watts–thermal up to hundreds of megawatts–thermal) indicate that future studies may consider a more limited scope, for example, output capacity ranges, specific market segments such as coal–to–energy (CTE) gasifiers, fuel production using coal (CTL) or best–fit gasifiers to obtain particular chemicals from a given regionally ubiquitous biomass feedstock (biomass to energy – BTE or biomass to liquid – BTL).

The chief metrics in this report are new and cumulative units (gasifiers) broken down by world markets, by application and region. The discussions explore the market dynamics driven by particular feedstock availability, and the annual regional market for gasifiers in a given application segment.

As was discovered in the course of research for this report, the necessity of reducing carbon emissions is imparting a significant upward push to the market for the largest gasifiers. It is not the only driving force, but has a powerful compatibility with the performance characteristics of gasifiers (efficient fuel conversion, emissions control facilitation, minimal solid waste, mitigation of water contamination).

This report covers the locations, quantities and trends of the world gasifiers markets. If a reasoned analysis showed that a particular market segment would not appear or progress in a given area, attention was immediately withdrawn from that area of research, for that application segment, and no further discussion was included. In some cases, the causes and conditions of a failure to grow the market are discussed, as is the reasoning behind the identification and quantification of regional markets that will succeed and why.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

The report is of interest to manufacturers, marketing, sales, production planning, strategic planning, and service planners for gasifier manufacturers, balance of plant component manufacturers, plant designers, and service organizations. It is also of use to buyers, and investors in gasifiers of any size and geographic region. The information is of interest to project planners, refinery operators, coal and biomass energy and liquid product extraction equipment and engineering firms, coal company owners, coal shipment companies, liquid fuel project developers, legislative bodies, regulatory authorities, municipal waste disposal management authorities and project developers, renewable and fossil fuel energy proponents and opponents, regional grid operators, coal mine company managers, and developers of competitive and complementary combustion, anaerobic digestion, and bio–gasification technology development companies.

Matters covered in this report may be helpful to university and governmental energy, fossil fuel, biomass, forestry and forestry products, and agricultural research staff. Manufacturers, investors and developers of various biofuel production technologies may benefit from the market intelligence contained herein.

The information presented covers both the technology and the applications of gasifiers, as well as their associated markets and the factors that shape the markets for gasifiers. Details are provided that affect buyers' choice of product, the requirements of gasifiers for different applications, and thus are pertinent to the needs of gasifier equipment vendors, product investors, and product evaluators.

Discussions of the market conditioning factors is likely to be of use to government regulators and legislators, regulators, corporate executives, project developers, equipment manufacturers and marketers, particularly because of the suitability of gasifiers to satisfy various power production, chemical supply, clean energy and industrialization feedstock requirements, as well as use fuels extracted from beneath the earth, within mountains in political regions of influence, and grown in similar areas.

International funding agencies seeking to aid the development of power production infrastructure in evolving economies can gain insight into the gainful and positive economic benefits of gasifiers, their limitations, and the capabilities of devices that enable bulk molecular manipulation of carbonaceous materials that are often either common to many regions of the world, or, as with biomass, vary widely among climate zones, continents, and economic development stage.

INFORMATION SOURCES

The information sources accessed for this report included telephone interviews with a number of private and federal researchers investigating various gasifier technologies and operations. Discussions were also held with project developers and officials in utilities, municipal waste treatment, wastewater treatment, coal mining, and biomass power plant development and operation, as well as cogeneration and trigeneration operations and planning. As much as possible, attention was given to obtaining primary information about all sizes of gasifiers and the diverse gasifier platforms, including plasma reactors.

Extensive efforts were made to understand the global distribution of fossil fuels (the various coals, natural gas deposits, and shale plays), and prominent biomass species indigenous to areas where gasifiers might be considered.

International agreements and programs were examined in the light of follow–through by various governments to provide funding for gasifier technology development, pilot plants and demonstration projects. The economics of each type of application were examined through case histories, academic and central government–funded analyses and projections, and many International Gasification Council conference proceedings. Reports from various U.S. national laboratories in particular proved very helpful in framing an informed knowledge base on the functions of gasifiers, their configurations, components and balance of plant, and the status and rate of evolution of the technologies and their costs.

Trade publications covering fossil fuels, power plants, biomass, waste management, energy projects, biofuels, and the renewable energy world ecosystem were thoroughly studied.

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

Michael Kujawa has authored market research analysis reports covering a wide gamut of conventional and renewable energy technologies, including topics such as bulk power installations of photovoltaics, large wind turbines, small hydro, biogas, geothermal and ocean energy conversion systems. He has also covered world markets for stationary and transportation fuel cells, building integrated photovoltaics, cogeneration equipment, building management systems, distributed generation, and U.S. markets for power production machinery in a deregulated power industry. Mr. Kujawa has co–founded several companies engaged in the development of clean energy technologies, onshore and offshore wind projects, marine high definition aerial wildlife monitoring, and multi–megawatt solar parks. He is also involved in the commercial development of a marine aquaculture operation.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

This report provides:
• An exploration of the global markets for gasifiers.
• Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2011 and 2012, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2017.
• A breakdown of the types of gasifier technologies, including fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, entrained-flow, and plasma.
• Examinations of feedstocks, such as fossil fuel (coal, petcoke, and residuals), wood, forestry products, waste and waste wood, seed hulls, nut shells, organic refuse, and others (oil palm plantation waste, corn cobs and stover, coconut husks).
• Examination of government support mechanisms, climate change policy impacts, and market expansion constraints, such as emissions, component costs, natural gas and shale gas prices, and land requirements for feedstocks.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2

WHY JUST THE GASIFIER? 2
THE MOST SIGNIFICANT GASIFIER MARKETS 3
STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 4
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 5
SCOPE OF REPORT 6
METHODOLOGY 6
INTENDED AUDIENCE 8
INFORMATION SOURCES 8
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 9
RELATED BCC REPORTS 9
BCC ON-LINE SERVICES 10
DISCLAIMER 10

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 12

SUMMARY FORECAST FOR ANNUAL GASIFIER UNITS 13
SUMMARY TABLE WORLD MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS, BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 15
SUMMARY FIGURE CUMULATIVE INSTALLATIONS OF GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION
PLUS PLASMA ARC, 2011-2017 (LOGARITHMIC SCALE - CUMMULATIVE UNITS
INSTALLED)
17

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 20

A RELATIVELY QUICK EVOLUTION TO USEFULNESS 21

CHAPTER 4 GASIFIER TECHNOLOGIES 24

TYPES OF GASIFIERS 24
OTHER GASIFIER FUNCTIONAL DISTINGUISHING DESIGN FEATURES 25
GASIFIER SYSTEM COMPONENTS 26
THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GASIFIERS 26

CHAPTER 5 GASIFIER APPLICATIONS 29

THE NEWEST KID ON THE BLOCK: PLASMA 29
GASIFICATION COMES IN MANY SIZES 29
COAL TO ENERGY (CTE) -UTILITY-SCALE GASIFICATION 30
THE SHALE GAS NEW NORMAL 30
FIGURE 1 MAP OF WORLD SHALE GAS DEPOSITS 31
COAL AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR NATURAL GAS 32
FIGURE 2 MAJOR WORLD COAL DEPOSITS (IN GRAY) 32
UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION 33
COAL TO LIQUID (CTL) GASIFIERS: SEVERAL MW TO >100 MW 33
BIOMASS TO ENERGY (BTE): HUNDREDS OF WATTS TO TENS OF MEGAWATTS 34
THE SMALL HOME GASIFIER MASSIVE OPPORTUNITY 35
BIOMASS TO LIQUIDS (BTL) 35
COSTS OF BIOFUEL PRODUCTION 36
FIGURE 3 COST OF BIOFUEL LIPIDS PER LITER (BY COUNTRY) 36
TABLE 1 TOP 10 COUNTRIES RANKED FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION POTENTIAL 37
PETCOKE (AND REFINERY RESIDUALS) 38
DIRECT REDUCTION IRON MELT GASIFIERS (DRI) 38
WASTE TO ENERGY (WTE - INCLUDES MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE, WASTEWATER
TREATMENT SLUDGE AND ANIMAL EXCREMENT SOLIDS) 40
THE ASH QUESTION FOR WTE 41
Small/Village/Microindustry Gasifiers 41

CHAPTER 6 WORLD GASIFIER MARKET DRIVERS 44

GASIFIER MARKET STRUCTURE 45
TABLE 2 CAPACITY RANGES FOR GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION SEGMENT 45
LARGE SCALE GASIFIERS 45
MEDIUM SCALE GASIFIERS 46
SMALL SCALE GASIFIERS 47
The Large Small-scale BTL Opportunity 48

CHAPTER 7 GOVERNMENT POLICIES AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENTS IMPACTING
GASIFIER MARKETS 50


LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS INFLUENCING MARKETS FOR GASIFIERS 50
LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS THAT IMPACT MARKETS FOR COAL TO
ENERGY (CTE) GASIFIERS 51
LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS THAT IMPACT MARKETS FOR COAL TO
LIQUIDS (CTL) GASIFIERS 52
LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS THAT IMPACT MARKETS FOR
PETCOKE/RESIDUALS GASIFIERS 52
LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS THAT IMPACT MARKETS FOR DIRECT
REDUCTION IRON (DRI) MELT GASIFIERS 52
LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS THAT IMPACT MARKETS FOR BIOMASS
TO ENERGY (BTE) GASIFIERS 53
LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS THAT IMPACT MARKETS FOR BIOMASS
TO LIQUIDS (BTL) GASIFIERS 54
Industrial Chemical Legal and Regulatory Issues for BTL Gasifiers 54
Fuel Production Legal and Regulatory Issues for BTL Gasifiers 55
LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS THAT IMPACT MARKETS FOR WASTE
TO ENERGY (WTE) GASIFIERS 55
LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS THAT IMPACT MARKETS FOR PLASMA
GASIFIERS 56

CHAPTER 8 FINANCIAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VARIOUS GASIFIER MARKETS
SEGMENTS 59


COAL TO ENERGY (CTE) GASIFIER MARKET FINANCIAL INFLUENCES 59
THE PRICE OF COAL VS. FRACED GAS 60
THE FEDERALISM OF INDIGENOUS COAL VS. IMPORTED GAS 60
ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES OF COAL TO ENERGY (CTE) 61
THE PRICE POINT IS MOOT IN SOME INSTANCES 61
COAL TO LIQUIDS (CTL) GASIFIER MARKET FINANCIAL INFLUENCES 61
LIQUIDS FROM COAL VS. SHALE GAS AND NATURAL GAS 62
BIOMASS TO ENERGY (BTE) GASIFIER MARKET FINANCIAL INFLUENCES 63
BIOMASS TO LIQUIDS (BTL) GASIFIER MARKET FINANCIAL INFLUENCES 64
PETCOKE/REFINERY RESIDUES GASIFIER MARKET FINANCIAL INFLUENCES 65
COMPETITION WITH COAL TO LIQUID (CTL) 65
DRI MELT GASIFIER MARKET FINANCIAL INFLUENCES 66
MUNICIPAL WASTE TO ENERGY GASIFIER MARKET FINANCIAL INFLUENCES 67
DISCUSSION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES OF WTE GASIFICATION 67
PLASMA GASIFIER MARKET FINANCIAL INFLUENCES 69
VILLAGE-SCALE GASIFIER MARKET FINANCIAL INFLUENCES 69
IN REMOTE SITES, THERMAL MEANS SIMPLICITY AND RELIABILITY 70
SMALL-SCALE GASIFIER MARKET FINANCIAL INFLUENCES 70
O&M-A KEY ELEMENT 71
HEAT-ONLY IS BEST (WHEN IT IS THE BEST YOU CAN GET RELIABLY) 72
POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS TO THE THERMAL ENERGY-PLUS X SMALL GASIFIER
MARKET 72
IS CARBON WORTH ANYTHING? (AND DOES IT ALWAYS MATTER?) 73
CONCLUSION ON THE IMPACT OF CARBON PRICING 75

CHAPTER 9 WORLD GASIFIERS MARKETS FORECASTS 77

GLOBAL GASIFIER MARKETS FORECASTS 77
TABLE 3 SIZE RANGES FOR GASIFIERS IN THE FORECASTS (MW-TH) 78
WORLD GASIFIER MARKET FORECAST BY NEW UNITS 79
DISCUSSION OF FORECASTS FOR NEW GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT 79
CTE Gasifiers - New Units 80
CTL Gasifiers - New Units 80
BTE Gasifiers - New Units 81
BTL Gasifiers - New Units 82
Petcoke/Refinery Residuals Gasifiers - New Units 82
DRI Melt Gasifiers - New Units 83
Waste to Energy (WTE) Gasifiers - New Units 83
Plasma Gasifiers - New Units 84
The Value of the Gasifiers Markets 85
TABLE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NEW GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017
(ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 86
GLOBAL MARKETS FOR GASIFIERS - CUMULATIVE UNITS AND TRENDS 86
CTE Gasifiers - Cumulative Units 87
CTL Gasifiers - Cumulative Units 88
Petcoke/residuals Gasifiers - Cumulative Units 89
DRI Melt Gasifiers - Cumulative Units 89
BTE Gasifiers - Cumulative Units 90
BTL Gasifiers - Cumulative Units 91
WTE Gasifiers - Cumulative Units 92
Plasma Gasifiers - Cumulative Units 93
TABLE 5 CUMULATIVE WORLD INSTALLATIONS OF GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2017 (TOTAL UNITS DELIVERED) 94

CHAPTER 10 REGIONAL GASIFIER MARKETS 96

CHAPTER 11 NORTH AMERICAN GASIFIER MARKETS 99

FORECAST FOR NORTH AMERICAN GASIFIER MARKETS - NEW UNITS 100
COAL TO ENERGY (CTE) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - NEW
UNITS 100
COAL TO LIQUIDS (CTL) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - NEW
UNITS 100
PETCOKE (AND RESIDUALS) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - NEW
UNITS 101
DRI MELT GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - NEW UNITS 102
BIOMASS TO ENERGY (BTE) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - NEW
UNITS 102
BIOMASS TO LIQUIDS (BTL) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - NEW
UNITS 102
WASTE TO ENERGY (WTE) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - NEW
UNITS 103
PLASMA GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - NEW UNITS 104
TABLE 6 ANNUAL NEW INSTALLATIONS OF GASIFIERS IN NORTH AMERICA BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 (TOTAL NEW UNITS) 105
FORECAST FOR NORTH AMERICAN GASIFIER MARKETS - CUMULATIVE UNITS 105
COAL TO ENERGY (CTE) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA -
CUMULATIVE UNITS 105
COAL TO LIQUIDS (CTL) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA -
CUMULATIVE UNITS 106
PETCOKE (AND RESIDUALS) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA -
CUMULATIVE UNITS 106
DRI MELT GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - CUMULATIVE UNITS 107
BIOMASS TO ENERGY (BTE) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA -
CUMULATIVE UNITS 107
BIOMASS TO LIQUIDS (BTL) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA -
CUMULATIVE UNITS 107
WASTE TO ENERGY (WTE) GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA -
CUMULATIVE UNITS 108
PLASMA GASIFIER MARKETS IN NORTH AMERICA - CUMULATIVE UNITS 108
TABLE 7 CUMULATIVE INSTALLATIONS OF GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION IN NORTH
AMERICA, THROUGH 2017 (TOTAL UNITS) 109
U.S. GASIFIER MARKETS 110
LEGAL AND REGULATORY ISSUES IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKETS IN THE
U.S. 110
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR GASIFIERS IN THE U.S. 110
Gasifier-Related Government Policies in the U.S. 110
Self-financing a Key 111
TABLE 8 INDIVIDUAL STATES BIOMASS TO ENERGY (BTE) INCENTIVES 113
OPPORTUNITIES IN U.S. GASIFIER MARKETS SEGMENTS 115
CTE Gasifier Opportunities in the U.S. 115
FIGURE 4 MAP OF U.S. COAL DEPOSITS BY TYPE OF COAL 115
CTL Gasifier Opportunities in the U.S. 116
Petcoke Gasifier Opportunities in the U.S. 116
DRI Melt Gasifier Opportunities in the U.S. 117
TABLE 9 U.S. STEEL MILLS AND LOCATIONS 118
BTE Gasifier Opportunities in the U.S. 118
TABLE 10 COSTS OF THERMAL ENERGY FROM COMMON U.S. BIOMASS
FEEDSTOCKS ($/MMBTU) 119
FIGURE 5 MAP OF LOCATIONS OF FORESTS PRODUCTS FACILITIES IN THE U.S. 120
BTL Gasifier Opportunities in the U.S. 121
WTE Gasifier Opportunities in the U.S. 122
Plasma Gasifier Opportunities in the U.S. 123
U.S. NEW GASIFIERS MARKETS FORECAST 123
CTE Gasifier Market Forecast for the U.S. 123
CTL Gasifier Market Forecast for the U.S. 123
Petcoke/Residuals Gasifier Market Forecast for the U.S. 124
DRI Melt Gasifier Market Forecast for the U.S. 125
BTE Gasifier Market Forecast for the U.S. 125
BTL Gasifier Market Forecast for the U.S. 125
WTE Gasifier Market Forecast for the U.S. 126
Plasma Gasifier Market Forecast for the U.S. 126
TABLE 11 ANNUAL NEW U.S. GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION THROUGH 2017 (TOTAL
UNITS) 127
U.S. CUMULATIVE GASIFIER MARKET FORECAST BY APPLICATION 127
TABLE 12 CUMULATIVE U.S. INSTALLATIONS OF GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION,
THROUGH 2017 (TOTAL UNITS) 129
CANADIAN GASIFIER MARKETS 129
LEGAL AND REGULATORY ISSUES IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKETS IN
CANADA 129
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR GASIFIERS IN THE CANADIAN MARKETS 130
OPPORTUNITIES IN CANADIAN GASIFIER MARKETS SEGMENTS 130
CTE Gasifier Opportunities in Canada 130
CTL Gasifier Opportunities in Canada 131
Petcoke Gasifier Opportunities in Canada 131
BTE Gasifier Opportunities in Canada 131
BTL Gasifier Opportunities in Canada 132
DRI Melt Gasifier Opportunities in Canada 132
WTE Gasifier Opportunities in Canada 132
TABLE 13 FORECAST OF CUMULATIVE CANADIAN WTE GASIFIER INSTALLATIONS,
THROUGH 2017 (CUMULATIVE UNITS) 133
Plasma Gasifier Opportunities in Canada 133
MEXICO GASIFIER MARKETS 134
LEGAL AND REGULATORY ISSUES IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKETS IN
MEXICO 134
Financial Incentives for Gasifiers in Mexico 134
Opportunities in Gasifier Market Segments in Mexico 135
CTE Gasifier Opportunities in Mexico 135
CTL Gasifier Opportunities in Mexico 135
BTE Gasifier Opportunities in Mexico 135
BTL Gasifier Opportunities in Mexico 135
Petcoke Gasifier Opportunities in Mexico 136
DRI Melt Gasifier Opportunities in Mexico 136
WTE Gasifier Opportunities in Mexico 137
Plasma Gasifier Opportunities in Mexico 137

CHAPTER 12 WESTERN EUROPE GASIFIER MARKET FORECASTS 139

LAWS AND REGULATIONS IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKETS IN WESTERN EUROPE 140
EUROPEAN COMMISSION (EC) DIRECTIVES AND POLICIES THAT IMPACT
MARKETS FOR COAL GASIFIERS 140
EUROPEAN COMMISSION (EC) DIRECTIVES AND POLICIES THAT IMPACT
MARKETS FOR PETCOKE/RESIDUAL GASIFIERS AND DRI MELT GASIFIERS 141
EUROPEAN COMMISSION (EC) DIRECTIVES AND POLICIES THAT IMPACT
MARKETS FOR BIOMASS TO ENERGY (BTE) GASIFIERS 141
EUROPEAN COMMISSION (EC) DIRECTIVES AND POLICIES THAT IMPACT
MARKETS FOR BIOMASS TO LIQUID (BTL) GASIFIERS 141
Biofuels Directive 141
Energy Tax Directive 142
Renewable Energy Directive 142
Fuel Quality Directive 142
Greenhouse Gas Emission Allowance Trading 143
EUROPEAN POLICIES THAT IMPACT WTE AND PLASMA GASIFIER MARKETS 143
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR GASIFIERS IN WESTERN EUROPE 144
CTE FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR GASIFIERS IN WESTERN EUROPE 144
CTL FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR GASIFIERS IN WESTERN EUROPE 145
PETCOKE/RESIDUAL FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR GASIFIERS IN WESTERN
EUROPE 145
DRI MELT FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR GASIFIERS IN WESTERN EUROPE 145
BTE FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR GASIFIERS IN WESTERN EUROPE 146
BTE Financial Incentives in Germany 146
BTL FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR GASIFIERS IN WESTERN EUROPE 146
WTE FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR GASIFIERS IN WESTERN EUROPE 146
The UK ROCs 147
PLASMA FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR GASIFIERS IN WESTERN EUROPE 147
GASIFIER MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN WESTERN EUROPE 147
CTE GASIFIER MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN WESTERN EUROPE 147
CTL GASIFIER MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN WESTERN EUROPE 148
TABLE 14 REFINERIES IN EUROPE BY REGION AND CAPACITY 148
PETCOKE/RESIDUAL GASIFIER MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN WESTERN
EUROPE 149
DRI MELT GASIFIER MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN WESTERN EUROPE 149
BTE GASIFIER MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN WESTERN EUROPE 150
TABLE 15 BIOMASS FITS (FEED-IN TARIFFS) IN WESTERN EUROPE, APRIL 2010 € 151
BTL GASIFIER MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN WESTERN EUROPE 151
WTE GASIFIER MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN WESTERN EUROPE 152
PLASMA GASIFIER MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN WESTERN EUROPE 152
WESTERN EUROPE NEW GASIFIERS MARKETS FORECAST BY APPLICATION 152
FORECAST FOR NEW CTE GASIFIERS IN WESTERN EUROPE 153
FORECAST FOR NEW CTL GASIFIERS IN WESTERN EUROPE 153
FORECAST FOR NEW PETCOKE/RESIDUAL GASIFIERS IN WESTERN EUROPE 154
FORECAST FOR NEW DRI MELT GASIFIERS IN WESTERN EUROPE 154
FORECAST FOR NEW BTE GASIFIERS IN WESTERN EUROPE 154
FORECAST FOR NEW BTL GASIFIERS IN WESTERN EUROPE 155
FORECAST FOR NEW WTE GASIFIERS IN WESTERN EUROPE 156
FORECAST FOR NEW PLASMA GASIFIERS IN WESTERN EUROPE 156
TABLE 16 ANNUAL NEW WESTERN EUROPE GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH
2017 (TOTAL UNITS) 157
WESTERN EUROPE CUMULATIVE GASIFIERS MARKETS FORECAST BY
APPLICATION 157
FORECAST FOR CUMULATIVE CTE GASIFIER MARKETS IN WESTERN
EUROPE 158
FORECAST FOR CUMULATIVE CTL GASIFIER MARKETS IN WESTERN
EUROPE 158
FORECAST FOR CUMULATIVE PETCOKE/RESIDUAL GASIFIER MARKETS IN
WESTERN EUROPE 159
FORECAST FOR CUMULATIVE DRI MELT GASIFIER MARKETS IN WESTERN
EUROPE 159
FORECAST FOR CUMULATIVE BTE GASIFIER MARKETS IN WESTERN
EUROPE 159
FORECAST FOR CUMULATIVE BTL GASIFIER MARKETS IN WESTERN
EUROPE 160
FORECAST FOR CUMULATIVE WTE GASIFIER MARKETS IN WESTERN
EUROPE 160
FORECAST FOR CUMULATIVE PLASMA GASIFIER MARKETS IN WESTERN
EUROPE 161
TABLE 17 FORECASTS OF CUMULATIVE WESTERN EUROPE INSTALLATIONS OF
GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 (TOTAL UNITS) 162

CHAPTER 13 PACIFIC RIM GASIFIERS MARKETS 164

LEGAL AND REGULATORY FACTORS IMPACTING PACIFIC RIM GASIFIER MARKETS 165
FINANCIAL FACTORS IMPACTING PACIFIC RIM GASIFIER MARKETS 166
GASIFIER MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN PACIFIC RIM NATIONS 167
CHINA GASIFIERS MARKETS 167
LEGAL AND REGULATORY ISSUES IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKETS IN CHINA 167
Biofuel-related Regulations in China 168
National Plan on Renewable Energy Development 168
National MSW Policies and Regulations in China 169
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR GASIFIERS IN CHINA 170
OPPORTUNITIES IN CHINESE GASIFIER MARKET SEGMENTS 170
CTE Gasifier Opportunities in China 170
Analysis of the CTE Gasifier Market Opportunity in China 171
CTL Gasifier Opportunities in China 172
Petcoke/residual Gasifier Opportunities in China 172
DRI Melt Gasifier Opportunities in China 172
BTE Gasifier Opportunities in China 173
BTE Gasifier Quirks and Innovations in China 174
BTL Gasifier Opportunities in China 175
WTE Gasifier Opportunities in China 175
Many New MSW Waste Plans on the Way 176
Chinese MSW Characteristics 176
CHINA GASIFIER MARKET FORECAST 178
CHINA NEW GASIFIERS MARKETS FORECAST 178
New China Coal to Energy (CTE) Gasifier Market Forecast 178
New China Coal to Liquids (CTL) Gasifier Market Forecast 178
New China Petcoke/Residual Gasifier Market Forecast 178
New China DRI Melt Gasifier Market Forecast 178
New China Biomass to Energy (BTE) Gasifier Market Forecast 179
New China Biomass to Liquids (BTL) Gasifier Market Forecast 179
New China Municipal Waste to Energy (WTE) Gasifier Market Forecast 179
New China Plasma Gasifier Market Forecast 179
CHINA NEW GASIFIER MARKET FORECAST SUMMARY DISCUSSION 180
TABLE 18 FORECAST FOR NEW GASIFIERS IN CHINA BY APPLICATION SEGMENT,
THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 181
CHINA CUMULATIVE GASIFIER MARKET FORECAST 181
Cumulative Market for CTE Gasifiers in China 181
Cumulative Market for CTL Gasifiers in China 182
Cumulative Market for Petcoke/Residual Gasifiers in China 182
Cumulative Market for DRI Melt Gasifiers in China 182
Cumulative Market for BTE Gasifiers in China 183
Cumulative Market for BTL Gasifiers in China 183
Cumulative Market for WTE Gasifiers in China 183
Cumulative Market for Plasma Gasifiers in China 184
TABLE 19 FORECAST FOR CUMULATIVE GASIFIERS IN CHINA BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2017 (CUMULATIVE UNITS) 184
JAPAN GASIFIER MARKETS 185
LEGAL AND REGULATORY ISSUES IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKETS IN JAPAN 185
BTE-Specific Regulation 185
WTE-Specific Regulation 186
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR GASIFIERS IN JAPAN 186
BTE Gasifier Incentives 186
OPPORTUNITIES IN JAPAN GASIFIER MARKET SEGMENTS 186
CTE Gasifier Opportunities in Japan 186
CTL Gasifier Opportunities in Japan 187
TABLE 20 COAL TO LIQUID (CTL) CHEMICAL PLANTS IN JAPAN BY COMPANY AND
TONNAGE (2005) 187
Petcoke/Residual Gasifier Opportunities in Japan 188
DRI Melt Gasifier Opportunities in Japan 189
BTE Gasifier Opportunities in Japan 190
BTL Gasifier Opportunities in Japan 190
WTE Gasifier Opportunities in Japan 191
Plasma Gasification Opportunities in Japan 192
The Great East Japan Earthquake 192
JAPAN GASIFIERS MARKETS FORECASTS 193
NEW JAPAN MSW (MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE) GASIFIERS MARKET
FORECAST 193
TABLE 21 FORECAST FOR NEW WTE GASIFIERS IN JAPAN THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL
NEW UNITS) 194
CUMULATIVE JAPAN GASIFIERS MARKET FORECAST 194
TABLE 22 FORECAST FOR CUMULATIVE GASIFIERS IN JAPAN BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2017 (CUMULATIVE UNITS) 196
THE PHILIPPINES GASIFIERS MARKETS 196
LEGAL AND REGULATORY ISSUES IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKETS IN THE
PHILIPPINES 196
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR GASIFIERS IN THE PHILIPPINES 197
OPPORTUNITIES IN PHILIPPINES GASIFIER MARKET SEGMENTS 198
CTE Gasifier Opportunities in the Philippines 198
CTL Gasifier Opportunities in the Philippines 199
Petcoke Gasifier Opportunities in the Philippines 199
DRI Melt Gasifier Opportunities in the Philippines 199
BTE Gasifier Opportunities in the Philippines 199
Philippines Biomass Resource 200
TABLE 23 PHILIPPINES MAJOR CROP ANNUAL WASTE (K/TONS) 200
BTL Gasifier Opportunities in the Philippines 201
WTE Gasifier Opportunities in the Philippines 201
Plasma Gasifier Opportunities in the Philippines 202
FORECASTS FOR PHILIPPINES NEW GASIFIERS MARKETS 202
Forecast for New BTE Gasifiers in the Philippines 202
Forecast for New BTL Gasifiers in the Philippines 202
Forecast for New WTE Gasifiers in the Philippines 203
Forecast for New Plasma Gasifiers in the Philippines 203
TABLE 24 FORECAST FOR NEW GASIFIERS IN THE PHILIPPINES BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2017 (CUMULATIVE UNITS) 204
FORECAST FOR PHILIPPINES CUMULATIVE GASIFIER MARKET 204
Forecast for Cumulative BTE Gasifiers in the Philippines 205
Forecast for Cumulative BTL Gasifiers in the Philippines 205
Forecast for Cumulative WTE Gasifiers in the Philippines 205
Forecast for Cumulative Plasma Gasifiers in the Philippines 206
TABLE 25 FORECAST FOR CUMULATIVE GASIFIERS IN THE PHILIPPINES BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2017 (CUMULATIVE UNITS BY MARKET
SEGMENT)
207
SOUTH KOREA GASIFIERS MARKETS 207
LEGAL AND REGULATORY ISSUES IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKETS IN
SOUTH KOREA 208
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR GASIFIERS IN SOUTH KOREA 208
South Korea Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) 209
OPPORTUNITIES IN SOUTH KOREAN GASIFIER MARKET SEGMENTS 209
CTE Gasifier Opportunities in South Korea 209
CTL Gasifier Opportunities in South Korea 210
Petcoke Gasifier Opportunities in South Korea 210
DRI Melt Gasifier Opportunities in South Korea 210
BTE Gasifier Opportunities in South Korea 211
BTL Gasifier Opportunities in South Korea 212
WTE Gasifier Opportunities in South Korea 212
Plasma Gasifier Opportunities in South Korea 213
FORECASTS FOR NEW GASIFIER MARKETS IN SOUTH KOREA 214
Forecast for New CTE Gasifiers in South Korea 214
Forecast for New CTL Gasifiers in South Korea 214
Forecast for New DRI Melt Gasifiers in South Korea 214
Forecast for New BTE Gasifiers in South Korea 214
Forecast for New BTL Gasifiers in the South Korea 214
Forecast for New WTE Gasifiers in South Korea 215
Forecast for New Plasma Gasifiers in South Korea 215
TABLE 26 FORECASTS FOR NEW GASIFIERS MARKETS IN SOUTH KOREA BY
APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 (TOTAL UNITS) 215
FORECASTS FOR CUMULATIVE GASIFIER MARKETS IN SOUTH KOREA 216
Forecast for Cumulative CTE Gasifiers in South Korea 216
Forecast for Cumulative CTL Gasifiers in South Korea 217
Forecast for Cumulative DRI Melt Gasifiers in South Korea 217
Forecast for BTE Gasifiers in South Korea 217
Forecast for BTL Gasifiers in South Korea 218
Forecast for WTE Gasifiers in South Korea 218
Forecast for Plasma Gasifiers in South Korea 218
TABLE 27 FORECASTS OF CUMULATIVE SOUTH KOREA INSTALLATIONS OF
GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 (TOTAL UNITS) 219
TAIWAN GASIFIERS MARKETS 219
LEGAL AND REGULATORY ISSUES IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKETS IN
TAIWAN 220
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKETS IN TAIWAN 220
Carbon Trade Incentives that Impact Gasification Markets in Taiwan 220
Biomass-oriented Incentives that Impact Gasifier Markets in Taiwan 221
OPPORTUNITIES IN TAIWAN GASIFIER MARKETS SEGMENTS 221
CTE Gasifier Opportunities in Taiwan 222
CTL Gasifier Opportunities in Taiwan 222
BTE Gasifier Opportunities in Taiwan 222
BTL Gasifier Opportunities in Taiwan 223
Petcoke Gasifier Opportunities in Taiwan 223
DRI Melt Gasifier Opportunities in Taiwan 223
WTE Gasifier Opportunities in Taiwan 223
Plasma Gasifier Opportunities in Taiwan 224
TAIWAN PLASMA GASIFIERS TAIWAN MARKET FORECASTS 224
Plasma Gasifier Market Forecast for Taiwan - New Units 224
TABLE 28 FORECASTS FOR NEW PLASMA GASIFIERS MARKET IN TAIWAN THROUGH
2017 (NEW UNITS) 225
Plasma Gasifier Market Forecast for Taiwan - Cumulative Units 225
TABLE 29 FORECASTS FOR CUMULATIVE PLASMA GASIFIERS MARKET IN TAIWAN,
THROUGH 2017 (CUMULATIVE UNITS) 225
PACIFIC RIM COUNTRIES GASIFIERS MARKETS FORECASTS 226
FORECASTS FOR PACIFIC RIM NEW GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION 226
Forecast for Coal to Energy (CTE) Gasifier Markets for the Pacific Rim
- New Units 226
Forecast for Coal to Liquid (CTL) Gasifier Markets for the Pacific Rim -
New Units 227
Forecast for Petcoke/Residual Gasifier Markets for the Pacific Rim -
New Units 227
Forecast for Direct Reduction Iron (DRI) Melt Gasifier Market for the
Pacific Rim - New Units 227
Forecast for Biomass to Energy (BTE) Gasifier Market for the Pacific
Rim - New Units 228
Forecast for Biomass to Liquid (BTL) Gasifier Market for the Pacific
Rim - New Units 228
Forecast for Waste to Energy (WTE) Gasifier Market for the Pacific
Rim - New Units 228
Forecast for Plasma Gasifier Market for the Pacific Rim - New Units 229
TABLE 30 FORECAST FOR PACIFIC RIM MARKETS FOR NEW GASIFIERS BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 229
FORECASTS FOR PACIFIC RIM CUMULATIVE GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION 230
Forecast for Cumulative CTE Gasifier Market for the Pacific Rim 230
Forecast for Cumulative CTL Gasifiers for the Pacific Rim 230
Forecast for Cumulative Petcoke/Residual Gasifier Market for the
Pacific Rim 231
Forecast for Cumulative DRI Melt Gasifier Market for the Pacific Rim 231
Forecast for Cumulative BTE Gasifier Market for the Pacific Rim 231
Forecast for Cumulative BTL Gasifier Market for the Pacific Rim 232
Forecast for Cumulative WTE Gasifier Market for the Pacific Rim 233
Forecast for Cumulative Plasma Gasifier Market for the Pacific Rim 233
TABLE 31 FORECAST FOR PACIFIC RIM CUMULATIVE GASIFIERS BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 234

CHAPTER 14 SOUTHEAST ASIA GASIFIERS MARKETS 236

LAWS AND REGULATIONS IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKETS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 237
THE ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS (ASEAN) 237
ASEAN Position on Climate Change 237
Cook Stoves 238
LAWS AND REGULATIONS IMPACTING GASIFIERS MARKETS IN CAMBODIA 238
Government Policy Impacting WTE Gasifiers in Cambodia 238
LAWS AND REGULATIONS IMPACTING GASIFIERS MARKETS IN INDONESIA 239
Laws and Regulations Impacting CTE Gasifier Market in Indonesia 239
Laws and Regulations Impacting CTL Gasifier Market in Indonesia 239
Laws and Regulations Impacting WTE Gasifier Market in Indonesia 240
LAWS AND REGULATIONS IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKET IN LAOS 241
LAWS AND REGULATIONS IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKET IN MALAYSIA 242
Laws and Regulations Impacting CTE Gasifier Market in Malaysia 242
Laws and Regulations Impacting CTL Gasifier Market in Malaysia 242
Laws and Regulations Impacting BTE Gasifier Market in Malaysia 242
Laws and Regulations Impacting BTL Gasifier Market in Malaysia 242
Laws and Regulations Impacting WTE Gasifier Market in Malaysia 242
LAWS AND REGULATIONS IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKET IN SINGAPORE 243
LAWS AND REGULATIONS IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKET IN THAILAND 243
Giving FITs to Renewable Energy Power Producers 244
LAWS AND REGULATIONS IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKET IN VIETNAM 244
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES AND FACTORS INFLUENCING SOUTHEAST ASIA
GASIFIER MARKET 245
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES AND FACTORS INFLUENCING GASIFIER MARKET IN
CAMBODIA 245
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES AND FACTORS INFLUENCING GASIFIER MARKET IN
INDONESIA 245
Financial Incentives and Factors Influencing CTE Gasifier Markets in
Indonesia 245
Financial Incentives and Factors Influencing CTL Gasifiers Market in
Indonesia 245
Financial Incentives and Factors Influencing BTE Gasifier Market in
Indonesia 246
Financial Incentives and Factors Influencing BTL Gasifier Market in
Indonesia 246
Financial Incentives and Factors Influencing WTE Gasifier Market in
Indonesia 246
Financial Incentives and Factors Influencing Plasma Gasifier Market in
Indonesia 246
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES AND FACTORS INFLUENCING GASIFIER MARKET IN
LAOS 247
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES AND FACTORS INFLUENCING GASIFIER MARKET IN
MALAYSIA 247
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES AND FACTORS INFLUENCING GASIFIER MARKET IN
SINGAPORE 248
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES AND FACTORS INFLUENCING GASIFIER MARKET IN
THAILAND 248
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES AND FACTORS INFLUENCING GASIFIER MARKET IN
VIETNAM 248
GASIFIER MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 248
TABLE 32 SIGNIFICANT BIOMASS CROPS AND MILLS IN SE ASIA (MILLS BY UNIT
AND BIOMASS BY MILLION TONS ANNUALLY) 249
GASIFIER MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN CAMBODIA 250
BTE Gasification Opportunities in Cambodia 250
BTL Gasification Opportunities in Cambodia 251
WTE/Plasma Gasification Opportunities in Cambodia 252
GASIFIER MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN INDONESIA 252
CTE Gasifier Opportunities in Indonesia 252
CTL Gasifiers in Indonesia 252
DRI Gasification Opportunities in Indonesia 253
TABLE 33 INDONESIAN MINING COMPANIES AND EXPECTED YEAR OF STARTUP OF
INDIGENOUS REFINING CAPACITY (YEAR) 253
BTE Gasifier Opportunities in Indonesia 254
BTL Gasifier Opportunities in Indonesia 254
MSW Gasification Opportunities in Indonesia 254
Plasma Gasification Opportunities in Indonesia 255
GASIFIER MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN LAOS 255
GASIFIER MARKETS OPPORTUNITIES IN MALAYSIA 256
CTE Gasifier Market Opportunities in Malaysia 256
CTL Gasifier Market Opportunities in Malaysia 256
BTE Gasifier Market Opportunities in Malaysia 256
BTL Gasifier Market Opportunities in Malaysia 256
WTE Gasifier Market Opportunities in Malaysia 257
Plasma Gasifier Market Opportunities in Malaysia 257
GASIFIER MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN SINGAPORE 257
CTE/CTL Gasifier Market Opportunities in Singapore 257
Petcoke/Residuals Gasification Opportunity in Singapore 258
BTE/BTL Gasifier Market Opportunities in Singapore 258
WTE and Plasma Gasifier Market Opportunities in Singapore 260
GASIFIER MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN THAILAND 260
GASIFIER MARKET OPPORTUNITIES IN VIETNAM 260
Petcoke/Residual Gasifier Opportunities in Vietnam 261
DRI Melt Gasifier Opportunities in Vietnam 261
BTE Gasifier Market Opportunities in Vietnam 262
BTL Gasifier Market Opportunities in Vietnam 262
WTE Gasifier Market Opportunities in Vietnam 263
Plasma Gasifier Market Opportunities in Vietnam 263
SOUTHEAST ASIA GASIFIER MARKET FORECASTS 263
FORECAST FOR NEW GASIFIER MARKET IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 263
Forecast for New CTE Gasifiers in Southeast Asia 263
Forecast for New CTL Gasifiers in Southeast Asia 264
Forecast for New Petcoke/Residual Gasifiers in Southeast Asia 264
Forecast for New DRI Melt Gasifiers in Southeast Asia 264
Forecast for New BTE Gasifiers in Southeast Asia 264
TABLE 34 SOUTHEAST ASIA MARKET FOR NEW BTE GASIFIERS BY COUNTRY,
THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL NEW BTE UNITS) 265
Forecasts for New WTE Gasifiers Markets in Southeast Asia 266
Forecasts for New Plasma Gasifier Markets in Southeast Asia 266
The Forecast for New Gasifiers by Application Segment in Southeast
Asia 266
TABLE 35 FORECAST FOR NEW GASIFIERS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA BY APPLICATION
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 267
FORECAST FOR CUMULATIVE GASIFIERS MARKETS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 268
Forecast for Cumulative CTE Gasifiers in Southeast Asia 268
Forecast for Cumulative CTL Gasifiers in Southeast Asia 268
Forecast for Cumulative Petcoke/residual Gasifiers in Southeast Asia 268
Forecast for Cumulative BTE Gasifiers in Southeast Asia 269
Forecast for Cumulative BTE Gasifiers in Southeast Asian Countries 269
TABLE 36 SOUTHEAST ASIA CUMULATIVE BTE GASIFIERS BY COUNTRY, THROUGH
2017 (CUMULATIVE BTE UNITS) 270
Forecast for Cumulative BTL Gasifiers in Southeast Asia 270
Forecast for Cumulative WTE Gasifiers in Southeast Asia 271
Forecast for Cumulative Plasma Gasifiers in Southeast Asia 271
TABLE 37 FORECAST FOR CUMULATIVE GASIFIERS IN SOUTHEAST ASIA BY
APPLICATION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2017 (ANNUAL NEW UNITS) 272

CHAPTER 15 SOUTHWEST ASIA GASIFIERS MARKETS ANALYSIS AND FORECASTS 274

LAWS AND REGULATIONS INFLUENCING THE SOUTHWEST ASIA GASIFIER
MARKET 274
LAWS AND REGULATIONS IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKET IN BANGLADESH 274
LAWS AND REGULATIONS IMPACTING GASIFIERS MARKETS IN INDIA 274
Environmental Issues vs. the Indian Struggle for Domestic Energy
Sufficiency 275
The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) 276
The Challenge of Indian Forests 276
Laws and Regulations Impacting BTE Gasifier Opportunities in India 277
Laws and Regulations Impacting BTL Gasifier Opportunities in India 278
Laws and Regulations Impacting WTE Gasifier Opportunities in India 279
LAWS AND REGULATIONS IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKET IN MYANMAR 279
The Myanmar Foreign Investment Law 279
LAWS AND REGULATIONS IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKET IN PAKISTAN 280
LAWS AND REGULATIONS IMPACTING GASIFIER MARKET IN SRI LANKA 281
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES AND FACTORS INFLUENCING SOUTHWEST ASIA
GASIFIER MARKET 281
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES AND FACTORS INFLUENCING GASIFIER MARKET IN
BANGLADESH 281
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES AND FACTORS INFLUENCING GASIFIERS MARKETS
IN INDIA 282
Indian Biomass Incentives 282
National Imperatives to Reduce Fuel Use in India 283
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES AND FACTORS INFLUENCING GASIFIER MARKET IN
MYANMAR 284
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES AND FACTORS INFLUENCING GASIFIER MARKET IN
PAKISTAN 284
Guidelines for Independent Power Producers in Pakistan 284
New Renewable Energy Policy to Be Issued for 2014 284
First Biomass-based Renewable Energy Projects by SSJD 285
Medical Waste Treatment Opportunities in Pakistan 285
FINANCIAL INCENTIVES AND FACTORS INFLUENCING GASIFIER MARKET IN
SRI LANKA 286
Lanka Gasifiers Pvt. Ltd. Financing 287
SOUTHWEST ASIA GASIFIERS MARKETS OPPORTUNITIES 287
BANGLADESH GASIFIER MARKET OPPORTUNITIES 287

To order this report:
Renewable_energy Industry:
Global Markets for Gasifiers

Contact Clare: clare@reportlinker.com
US:(339) 368 6001
Intl:+1 339 368 6001

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