DUBLIN, Ireland, Oct. 7 /PRNewswire/ -- Nanotechnology is the creation and
utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter
on the nanometer-length scale (a nanometer is one billionth of a meter.
Nanobiotechnology, an integration of physical sciences, molecular engineering,
biology, chemistry and biotechnology holds considerable promise of advances in
pharmaceuticals and healthcare. The report starts with an introduction to
various techniques and materials that are relevant to nanobiotechnology. It
includes some of the physical forms of energy such as nanolasers. Some of the
technologies are scaling down such as microfluidics to nanofluidic biochips
and others are constructions from bottom up. Application in life sciences
research, particularly at the cell level sets the stage for role of
nanobiotechnology in healthcare in subsequent chapters.
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Some of the earliest applications are in molecular diagnostics.
Nanoparticles, particularly quantum dots, are playing important roles. In
vitro diagnostics, does not have any of the safety concerns associated with
the fate of nanoparticles introduced into the human body. Numerous nanodevices
and nanosystems for sequencing single molecules of DNA are feasible. Various
nanodiagnostics that have been reviewed will improve the sensitivity and
extend the present limits of molecular diagnostics.
An increasing use of nanobiotechnology by the pharmaceutical and
biotechnology industries is anticipated. Nanotechnology will be applied at all
stages of drug development -- from formulations for optimal delivery to
diagnostic applications in clinical trials. Many of the assays based on
nanobiotechnology will enable high- throughput screening. Some of
nanostructures such as fullerenes are themselves drug candidates as they allow
precise grafting of active chemical groups in three-dimensional orientations.
The most important pharmaceutical applications are in drug delivery. Apart
from offering a solution to solubility problems, nanobiotechnology provides
and intracellular delivery possibilities. Skin penetration is improved in
transdermal drug delivery. A particularly effective application is as nonviral
gene therapy vectors. Nanotechnology has the potential to provide controlled
release devices with autonomous operation guided by the needs.
Nanomedicine is now within the realm of reality starting with
nanodiagnostics and drug delivery facilitated by nanobiotechnology. Miniature
devices such as nanorobots could carry out integrated diagnosis and therapy by
refined and minimally invasive procedures, nanosurgery, as an alternative to
crude surgery. Nanotechnology will markedly improve the implants and tissue
engineering approaches as well.
There is some concern about the safety of nanoparticles introduced in the
human body and released into the environment. Research is underway to address
these issues. As yet there are no FDA directives to regulate nanobiotechnology
but as products are ready to enter market, these are expected to be in place.
Future nanobiotechnology markets are calculated on the basis of the
background markets in the areas of application and the share of this market by
new technologies and state of development at any given year in the future.
This is based on a comprehensive and thorough review of the current status of
nanobiotechnology, research work in progress and anticipated progress. There
is definite indication of large growth of the market but it will be uneven and
cannot be plotted as a steady growth curve. The largest expansion is expected
between the years 2010 and 2015.
Marketing estimates are given according to areas of application,
technologies and geographical distribution. Profiles of 125 companies, out of
over 500 involved in this area, are included in the last chapter along with
0 Executive Summary 11
1 Basics of Nanobiotechnology 13
2 Technologies 17
3 Applications in Life Sciences 39
4 Nanomolecular Diagnostics 53
5 Nanobiotechnology in Drug Discovery & Development 73
6 Nanobiotechnology in Drug Delivery 79
7 Clinical Applications of Nanobiotechnology 111
8 Regulatory and Safety issues 133
9 Nanobiotechnology Markets 137
10 Nanobiotech Companies 147
11 References 285
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