Symptoms of Zika are similar to the flu and include fever, rash, joint and muscle pain, headache and conjunctivitis. While rare, Zika has been associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome, which can cause weakness, and when severe, affects breathing. People with symptoms of Guillain-Barre syndrome or other concerns for medical emergencies should seek emergency care.
"The focus is on Zika this summer, but there are still many other mosquito-borne illnesses, such as Dengue, chikungunya and West Nile, and viruses that can cause encephalitis, a serious infection of the brain that can cause headache and fever," said Dr. Kaplan. "The easiest and most effective way to avoid getting a mosquito-borne is to follow public health authority advice about how to prevent these insects from biting you."
- When you are outside, use insect repellent (bug spray) that contains an EPA-registered active ingredient, such as DEET.
- DEET is safe for pregnant women, but never use DEET on infants under 2 months old; the CDC says most insect repellents can be used on children older than 2 months.
- Young children should not apply DEET on themselves, and adults must not apply it to their hands, eyes or mouth areas or on any wounds. Check with your child's pediatrician if you have any questions.
- Pregnant woman or women planning for pregnancy may consider avoiding areas where Zika has spread locally.
- Zika can be transmitted sexually even if an infecting individual is symptom-free. Use of condoms can reduce the chance of this transmission. This may be especially important if travelling to or returning from an area of active Zika transmission.
More information on this issue is available at http://www.cdc.gov/zika/transmission/sexual-transmission.html.
- Wear long sleeves and pants and cover as much of your body as possible when going outside.
- Sleep under a mosquito net when you are in an "at risk" location, such as outdoors at a campsite.
- Consider purchasing pre-treated clothing for travel.
Prevention Around the House
- Stay inside in air-conditioning as much as possible if you are in an area with active Zika transmission.
- Put screens on any windows or sliding doors to keep mosquitos out. Check that screens are intact.
- Get rid of standing water near your house or in your lawn, such as puddles, flower pots, buckets, barrels and child waiting pools when they are not in use. These are mosquito breeding sites. Keep fountain waters flowing and maintain clean gutters around your property.
- Don't handle dead birds. Mosquitos become infected when they feed on infected birds. Contact your local health department for instructions on reporting and disposing of dead birds.
As always, take precautions and go to your doctor or the nearest emergency department to get checked out if you feel you have the symptoms of a medical emergency. For the latest information on Zika related to emergency conditions, go to: https://www.acep.org/zika/.
ACEP is the national medical specialty society representing emergency medicine. ACEP is committed to advancing emergency care through continuing education, research and public education. Headquartered in Dallas, Texas, ACEP has 53 chapters representing each state, as well as Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia. A Government Services Chapter represents emergency physicians employed by military branches and other government agencies.
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SOURCE American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP)