Markets for Produced Water Treatment Equipment Outside North America

NEW YORK, Oct. 31, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Markets for Produced Water Treatment Equipment Outside North America

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REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

This report provides:

• An overview of markets outside North America for produced water treatment equipment

• Analyses of market trends, with data from 2011, estimates for 2012, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2017

• Review and comparison of treatment technologies for removing salts and other inorganic compounds, including membrane processes, ion exchange, and thermal distillation; and removing oil, grease, and other organic compounds, including mechanical separation, flotation, and adsorption

• Discussion of regulatory and other market drivers in oil- and gas-producing regions

• Examination of produced water contaminants and waste types most in need of treatment

• Company profiles of leading produced water treatment equipment manufacturers.

REPORT SCOPE

INTRODUCTION

Until renewable, sustainable sources are fully developed, the demand for fossil fuels will continue to grow. According to the International Energy Agency's (IEA) most recent World Energy Outlook, the production of conventional crude oil, the largest single component of the global oil supply, will remain at current levels before declining slightly, to 68 million barrels per day, by 2035. To offset declining production at existing fields, 47 million barrels per day of additional gross capacity are required. This volume is twice the current total oil production of all Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in the Middle East. A growing share of this output (10 million barrels per day) will come from unconventional sources.

The IEA forecasts a bright future, even a golden age, for natural gas, especially for so-called unconventional gas such as shale gas and coal bed methane. Unconventional gas now accounts for 50% of the estimated natural gas resource base. By 2035, unconventional gas is predicted to rise to 20% of total gas production, although the pace of development will vary considerably by region. The growth in output also will depend on the gas industry dealing successfully with the environmental challenges. "A golden age of gas," says the IEA, "will require golden standards for production."

The demand for carbon-based energy is a major market driver for products and services used to treat the water produced during oil and gas exploration and production (E&P). Produced water, the effluent that rises to the surface during E&P, includes naturally occurring water in energy deposits and water injected into formations during drilling processes.

Produced water comprises approximately 98% of the total waste volume generated by the industry. Current global E&P activities generate more than 115 billion barrels per year of produced water. For every barrel of oil, an average of three barrels of water is produced. In the U.S., the water-to-oil ratio (WOR) averages eight barrels of water to one of oil. On average, for every barrel of oil currently recovered, eight barrels of wastewater are also generated. During the next 15 years, the water to oil ratio is forecast to increase from 8:1 to 12:1. In the worst cases, the WOR reaches 50:1. To dispose of produced water, energy companies pay from $3 per barrel to as much as $12 per barrel. With the need to manage such large water volumes, the oil and gas production industry has become as much about water as it is about energy.

In addition to large water volumes and high disposal costs, energy developers using traditional produced water practices are facing increased opposition from environmental activists, local and state governments, and the public. These groups are concerned that the water is leaking from traditional containment pits and entering groundwater and surface water bodies. Historically, produced water has been contained temporarily in pits, and then either transported to treatment plants or evaporated.

During a producing oil well's lifecycle, it initially produces oil along with a small amount of water; but, over time, the percentage of water increases. Throughout the well's service life, the produced water must be separated from the oil it contains. Following treatment, the water may be handled via one of three methods: safely discharged (used mainly in offshore applications), re-injected into the hydrocarbon formation (used in onshore, coastal, or environmentally-sensitive areas) or reused (either to maintain reservoir pressure and enhance heavy oil production or in other beneficial applications). In most world regions and for all of the end uses/disposal options, treated water quality must meet certain standards including low toxicity, high biodegradability, and low potential for bioaccumulation in the food chain.

A number of water treatment technologies and equipment types are commercially available for use at the oil or gas production site. These processes can reduce the cost, inefficiency, and risk associated with treatment pits and the transport of toxic water. The treatment technologies include methods for de-oiling, de-sanding, desalinating, and disinfecting produced water. Numerous systems types are on the market. Among the choices are separators; hydrocyclones; distillation-, ion exchange-, adsorbent- and membrane-based units; as well as proprietary equipment and combinations of equipment.

Some of these products and technologies enable the treatment of produced water to a quality suitable for beneficial reuse. Presently, most of the water reused is employed for reinjection in enhanced oil recovery operations. However, there is also future potential for recycling the water in agriculture or a new source of municipal or industrial water supply, especially where water scarcity is an issue.

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This report is intended to provide an in-depth analysis of the market for produced water treatment equipment. The study examines market value by world region, by equipment type, and by offshore versus onshore use. The world regions discussed are: the Americas, North America (the U.S., Canada, and Mexico), and Central and South America; Europe, the Asia-Pacific region; and the Middle East and Africa.

The market evaluation by equipment type looks at produced water treatment systems within three broad categories: primary and secondary treatment oil separation equipment (minimizes oil in water content to 25 parts per million [ppm] to 30 ppm), tertiary treatment equipment (further reduces oil in water to less than 10 ppm), and advanced treatment (processes for desalinating produced water and enabling zero liquid discharge).

In the market analysis by hydrocarbon resource, value and growth are evaluated for equipment used in treating produced water from conventional oil and gas production and the development of unconventional resources, such as tight oil, oil sands bitumen, shale gas, and coal bed methane. (For the purposes of this report, tight gas, natural gas that is difficult to access because of the nature of the rock and sand surrounding the deposit, is included in conventional resources.)

Because regulations governing offshore versus onshore produced water discharge differ, the equipment market also is evaluated by that parameter. In addition, the two markets are growing at different rates and are propelled by somewhat different drivers.

Technical and market drivers are considered in evaluating the current value of the technologies and in forecasting growth and trends over the next five years. The conclusions are illustrated with a wealth of statistical information on markets, applications, industry structure, and dynamics along with technological developments.

Because of the diverse and somewhat fragmented nature of the produced water treatment industry, it is difficult to find studies that gather such extensive data from such far-flung resources into one comprehensive document. This report contains a unique collection of information, analyses, forecasts and conclusions that are very hard or impossible to find elsewhere.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

Global population growth and economic expansion are driving energy demand, while simultaneously driving significant increases in the demand for water. The challenge of meeting these demands is intensified by the nexus between water and energy. Large volumes of water are consumed to produce and generate energy, while vast amounts of energy are used to treat and distribute clean water. Furthermore, there is growing competition for water from the municipal, agricultural, and industrial sectors, which exacerbates the mounting problem of global water scarcity. These issues pose a significant business risk to oil and gas companies seeking to achieve sustainable growth.

Major water-related challenges facing the oil and gas sector are mature oilfields that increasingly require water-based enhanced oil recovery methods and produce more water over time; growing exploration and production complexity due to emerging unconventional hydrocarbon resources, with their large water needs; and greater environmental and regulatory pressures related to water management and scarcity.

For these reasons, oil and gas companies must view reevaluate water as a strategic element in their value chain. Water no longer is solely an environmental issue, but is increasingly tied to production growth and cost. As a result, it must be handled through a strategy that recognizes its status as a critical component to ongoing viability in the oil and gas sector.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is designed to be of value to a wide array of readers. Those expected to have the greatest interest are players already active in oil and gas production and/or produced water treatment. The study will be of value to startup companies with novel water treatment technology, especially for the hydraulic fracturing sector, since that market is still emerging and has no dominant players. Oilfield services businesses should find the report useful for its overview of treatment technologies, which include performance data, as well as capital and operating cost information.

It should be of interest to venture investors, entrepreneurs, and entrepreneurial companies interested in entering or expanding into the produced water treatment sector. Other public and private sector interest groups, market analysts, and general readers wishing to gain broader knowledge of the dynamics of the produced water treatment equipment market also are expected to find the report worthwhile.

SCOPE OF REPORT

The scope of this report is focused on global produced water treatment equipment for the oil and gas industry. The market is broken down by several different parameters, including world region, equipment type, and produced water source; and offshore/onshore application.

There are a number of expenses related to produced water management, including expenditures for services and equipment for downhole water minimization, for lifting water to the surface, for treatment, for reinjection, and for hauling and offsite disposal. This report will evaluate only oil and gas sector purchases for treatment equipment.

The study covers the industry on a worldwide basis in terms of the manufacture and deployment of treatment systems. BCC examines government roles in support of global markets, including regulatory support, government requirements, and promotional incentives for various technologies as relevant and available.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report. Research for this technical/marketing report began with an analysis of available technical and business literature related to sludge treatment. Conversations with industry experts and company representatives provide the backbone for the analysis.

Capital equipment expenditure estimates are based on anticipated future treatment capacity, existing and expected regulatory standards, and alterna¬tives for disposing of oil and gas field wastewater.

Both primary and secondary research methods were used in this research study. Internet, literature and patent searches were undertaken, and key industry participants were queried. Growth rates for each market were calculated based on expected revenues from sales of process equipment during the forecast period. Values and forecasts are given in current U.S. dollars. Construction, engineering and design costs are excluded from market size calculations.

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

During the past 16 years, Susan Hanft has authored more than 35 market research reports for BCC Research in the fields of membrane technology, water and wastewater treatment, and separations used in food and beverage manufacture, medicine, and biotechnology.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2

INTENDED AUDIENCE 3

SCOPE OF REPORT 3

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 3

ANALYST CREDENTIALS 4

RELATED BCC PUBLICATIONS 4

BCC ONLINE SERVICES 4

DISCLAIMER 4

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6

SUMMARY TABLE THE GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,

BY OIL OR GAS APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 8

SUMMARY FIGURE THE GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT, BY OIL OR GAS APPLICATION, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 8

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10

WATER AND WASTEWATER AT UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS SITES 10

STORMWATER RUNOFF OF DISTURBED LAND 10

FRAC FLUIDS AND FLOWBACK 11

PRODUCED WATER 11

WHAT IS PRODUCED WATER? 11

CONSTITUENTS IN PRODUCED WATER 12

Components in Produced Water from Conventional Oil and Gas Production 12

Oil 12

Chemical Additives 13

Produced Solids 13

Mineral Scales 14

Microorganisms 14

Metals 14

Sulfates 14

NORM 14

TABLE 1 TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF PRODUCED WATER 15

Constituents in Produced Waters from CBM Production 15

TDS 15

Sodium 16

Other Constituents 16

TABLE 2 CBM PRODUCED WATER CHARACTERISTICS (POWDER RIVER BASIN) 16

HOW MUCH PRODUCED WATER IS GENERATED? 16

TABLE 3 GLOBAL ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES, THROUGH

2017 (1,000 BBL/D) 17

FIGURE 1 GLOBAL ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES, 2000-2017

(1,000 BBL/D) 17

TABLE 4 FATE OF PRODUCED WATER, BY END USE/DISPOSAL ROUTE 2012 VS. 2017 (1,000

BBL/D, %) 18

FIGURE 2 FATE OF PRODUCED WATER, 2012 VS. 2017 (1,000 BBL/D) 18

COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT 18

TABLE 5 TYPICAL COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT BY PROCESS

STEP (%) 19

FIGURE 3 TYPICAL COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT BY PROCESS

STEP (%) 19

TABLE 6 PRODUCED WATER DISPOSAL COSTS FOR OFFSITE COMMERCIAL FACILITIES, BY

OPTION ($) 20

Well Life Cycle Costs 20

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS 20

PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 21

Minimization 21

Mechanical Blocking Devices 21

Packers 21

Plugs 22

Cement 22

Water Shut Off Chemicals 22

Downhole Separation 22

Downhole Oil/Water Separation 22

Downhole Gas/Water Separation 23

Bypass Tools 23

Modified Plunger Rod Pumps 23

ESPs 23

Progressive Cavity Pumps 23

Downhole Water Sink 24

Sea Floor Separation 24

Subsea Separation and Injection System (SUBSIS) 24

Recycle/Reuse 25

Injection for Recovering More Oil 25

Treatment Prior to Injection 26

Injection for Future Use 26

Aquifer Storage and Recovery 26

Injection for Hydrological Purposes 26

Subsidence Control 27

Salt Water Intrusion 27

Flow Augmentation 27

Agricultural Use 27

Crop Irrigation 28

Subsurface Irrigation 28

Livestock and Wildlife Watering 28

Aquaculture and Hydroponics 28

Managed Wetlands 29

Industrial Use 29

Use in Drilling Fluids or Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids 29

Cooling Water Makeup 29

Dust Control 30

Other 30

Drinking Water and Other Domestic Uses 30

CHAPTER 4 TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 32

CURRENT PRACTICES 32

REINJECTION 32

TABLE 7 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (%) 33

FIGURE 4 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (%) 33

TABLE 8 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED ONSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (%) 34

FIGURE 5 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED ONSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (%) 34

PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT STAGES 35

TABLE 9 EQUIPMENT SELECTION BASED ON SIZE OF PARTICLES REMOVED (MICRON) 35

TABLE 10 TYPICAL WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY 36

TREATMENT FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGED THROUGH UNDERGROUND

INJECTION 37

TREATMENT FOR PRODUCED WATER REUSED IN HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 37

TREATMENT FOR PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED TO SURFACE WATER OR

REUSED FOR IRRIGATION 38

COST CONSIDERATIONS 38

PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT CHALLENGES 38

TABLE 11 PRODUCED WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL REQUIREMENTS AND SUITABLE

TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 39

DE-OILING 39

TABLE 12 DE-OILING TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 39

PHYSICAL SEPARATION 41

Gravity Separators 41

API Separators 41

Inclined Plate Separator 42

Flat Corrugated Plate Separators 42

Hydrocyclones 42

Centrifuges 43

Voraxial Separators 43

Media Filtration 44

Further Specifications 44

Granular Media 44

Further Specifications 44

Biological Aerated Filtration 45

System Performance 45

Further Specifications 45

COALESCENCE 45

FLOTATION 46

System Performance 46

Further Specifications 46

ADSORPTION 47

Organoclay 47

Activated Carbon 48

Zeolites 48

MyCelyx 48

COMBINED PHYSICAL AND EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY 49

SOLVENT EXTRACTION 49

OIL IN WATER DISCHARGES IN ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE APPLICATIONS 49

TABLE 13 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGES, ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE,

2004-2010 (MG/L) 50

FIGURE 6 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGES, ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE,

2004-2010 (MG/L) 50

TABLE 14 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (MG/L) 50

FIGURE 7 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (MG/L) 51

TABLE 15 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED ONSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (MG/L) 51

FIGURE 8 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED ONSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (MG/L) 51

DESALINATION 52

TABLE 16 DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 53

TABLE 17 PRESSURE DRIVEN MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER

TREATMENT 55

MICROFILTRATION, ULTRAFILTRATION 56

MF 56

UF 56

Ceramic MF, UF 57

Polymeric MF, UF 57

NF 58

Vibratory Shear Enhanced Processing (VSEP) 59

System Performance 59

Costs 59

Further Specifications 60

TABLE 18 VSEP INSTALLATIONS FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 60

RO 60

High Efficiency RO (HERO) 60

System Performance 61

Costs 61

Further Specifications 61

Slurry Precipitation and Recycling RO (SPARRO) 62

Costs 62

Further Specifications 62

Double Pass Preferential Precipitation RO (DP3RO) 63

System Performance 63

Further Specifications 63

Dual-pass RO with Chemical Precipitation 63

System Performance 63

Further Specifications 64

CDM Smith Produced Water Technology 64

Further Specifications 65

Optimized Pretreatment and Separation Technology (OPUS) 65

System Performance 66

Further Specifications 66

GeoPure Advanced Hydro Treatment 66

System Performance 67

Costs 67

Further Specifications 67

Brine Concentrate 67

Concentrate Management 68

FORWARD OSMOSIS (FO) 68

System Performance 69

Further Specifications 69

Hybrid FO/RO 70

Further Specifications 70

ED/EDR 71

High Efficiency ED (HEED) 72

Further Specifications 72

MEMBRANE DISTILLATION (MD) 73

System Performance 73

Costs 74

Further Specifications 74

ION EXCHANGE 74

EMIT Higgins Loop 74

System Performance 75

Further Specifications 75

Drake Continuous Selective IX 75

System Performance 76

Further Specifications 76

Recoflo Compressed-bed IX 76

System Performance 77

Catalyx/RGBL IX 77

CAPACITIVE DEIONIZATION 77

ELECTROCOAGULATION 78

THERMAL DISTILLATION 78

VC 78

System Performance 79

Costs 79

Further Specifications 79

MSF 80

System Performance 80

Costs 80

Further Specifications 80

MED 81

System Performance 81

Costs 81

Further Specifications 82

Other 82

Hybrid MED-VC 82

Freeze-Thaw Evaporation (FTE) 82

System Performance 82

Costs 83

Further Specifications 83

Dewvaporation 83

System Performance 84

Costs 84

Further Specifications 84

Enhanced Distillation/Evaporation 84

GE MVC 84

System Performance 85

Costs 85

Further Specifications 86

Aquatech MVC 86

Aquapure MVR 86

System Performance 87

Further Specifications 87

212 Resources MVR 87

System Performance 88

Further Specifications 88

Intevras EVRAS 88

System Performance 89

Further Specifications 89

AGV Wiped Film Rotating Disk (WFRD) 89

System Performance 90

Costs 90

Further Specifications 90

DISINFECTION 90

TABLE 19 DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 91

Ozonation 91

Ozonix 91

System Performance 92

Ultraviolet Light (UV) Disinfection 92

System Performance 92

Further Specifications 93

CHAPTER 5 WORLD OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 95

TABLE 20 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED BY WORLD REGION, 2011 AND 2012, (NO. OF

WELLS, % SHARE) 95

FIGURE 9 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED BY WORLD REGION, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF

WELLS) 95

MARKET DRIVERS 96

ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS 96

Onshore Regulations 96

Offshore Regulations 97

TABLE 21 OIL-IN-WATER LIMITS BY COUNTRY 97

CONVENTIONAL OIL PRODUCTION 99

Offshore Production 99

Onshore Production 100

EOR 100

TABLE 22 PEAK OIL PRODUCTION AT WORLD'S LARGEST OILFIELDS 100

Global EOR-Based Oil Production 101

TABLE 23 GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY REGION/COUNTRY, 2010 (BBL/D, %) 101

FIGURE 10 TOTAL GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY REGION/COUNTRY, 2010

(BBL/D, %) 102

TABLE 24 GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (BBL/D, %) 103

FIGURE 11 GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (BBL/D, %) 103

TABLE 25 EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION BY REGION AND TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (%

SHARE) 104

FIGURE 12 EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION BY REGION AND TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (%) 104

Steam Flooding 105

'Smart' Waterflooding 105

CONVENTIONAL GAS PRODUCTION 105

UNCONVENTIONAL HYDROCARBONS PRODUCTION 106

Unconventional Oil 106

FIGURE 13 WORLD LIQUIDS SUPPLY BY TYPE IN THE NEW POLICY SCENARIO, 1990-2035

(MILLION BBL/D) 106

Tight Oil 107

Hydraulic Fracturing 107

Environmental Concerns Related to Fracking 108

Oil Sands 108

Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) 109

Unconventional Gas 109

Shale Gas 109

FIGURE 14 GLOBAL SHALE GAS RESERVES 110

Coalbed Methane (CBM) 110

FIGURE 15 GLOBAL CBM RESERVES 111

TABLE 26 CBM RESERVES BY COUNTRY (TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 111

FIGURE 16 CBM RESERVES BY COUNTRY (TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 111

BENEFICIAL REUSE 112

GLOBAL OIL-LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION 113

OPEC PROJECTIONS 113

NON-OPEC PROJECTIONS 114

PROVEN GLOBAL OIL RESERVES 114

TABLE 27 WORLD PROVED OIL RESERVES BY COUNTRY AS OF JANUARY 2011 (BILLION

BARRELS, % OF TOTAL) 115

TABLE 28 WORLD PROVEN OIL RESERVES BY REGION, AS OF JANUARY 2011 (BILLION

BARRELS, %) 115

FIGURE 17 WORLD PROVEN OIL RESERVES BY REGION, AS OF JANUARY 2011 (BILLION

BARRELS) 116

GLOBAL OIL PRODUCTION 116

TABLE 29 GLOBAL OIL PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY 116

TABLE 30 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF OIL WELLS, 2008 119

FIGURE 18 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF OIL WELLS, 2008 120

Oil Production Forecasts 120

TABLE 31 NON-OPEC OIL PRODUCTION IN THE NEW POLICIES SCENARIO, 2010-2035

(MILLION BBL/D) 120

TABLE 32 OPEC OIL PRODUCTION IN THE NEW POLICIES SCENARIO, 2010-2035 (MB/D) 121

GLOBAL NATURAL GAS RESERVES 122

TABLE 33 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY REGION AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011 (TRILLION

CUBIC FEET) 122

FIGURE 19 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY REGION, AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011

(TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 122

TABLE 34 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY COUNTRY AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011

(TRILLION CUBIC FEET,%) 123

FIGURE 20 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY COUNTRY AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011

(TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 124

GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION 124

TABLE 35 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY (CUBIC METERS) 124

NATURAL GAS PROJECTIONS 126

TABLE 36 PRIMARY NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION IN THE NEW POLICIES SCENARIO,

2009-2035 (MB/D) 127

UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PROJECTIONS 128

TABLE 37 WORLD NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY REGION/COUNTRY, CONVENTIONAL

VERSUS UNCONVENTIONAL, THROUGH 2035 (TRILLION CUBIC METERS) 129

GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT 131

BY EQUIPMENT TYPE 132

Primary and Secondary Treatment Equipment 132

Tertiary Treatment 133

Advanced Treatment 133

TABLE 38 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY

EQUIPMENT TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 135

FIGURE 21 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY

EQUIPMENT TYPE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 135

Centralized Treatment 135

ONSHORE VERSUS OFFSHORE 136

TABLE 39 DISTRIBUTION OF ONSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN 2012, BY WORLD

REGION (NO. AND % SHARE) 136

FIGURE 22 DISTRIBUTION OF ONSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN 2012, BY WORLD

REGION (% SHARE) 136

TABLE 40 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN 2012, BY WORLD REGION (NO. AND

% SHARE) 138

FIGURE 23 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN 2012, BY WORLD REGION (%

SHARE) 138

TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 139

FIGURE 24 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, ONSHORE VS.

OFFSHORE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 139

BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE 139

Conventional Oil 140

EOR 140

Tight Oil 141

Oil Sands 141

Conventional Gas 142

Shale Gas 142

Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Development 143

TABLE 42 GLOBAL HYDRAULIC FRACTURING TREATMENTS, BREAKDOWN BY WELL TYPE (%) 144

FIGURE 25 GLOBAL HYDRAULIC FRACTURING TREATMENTS, BREAKDOWN BY WELL TYPE

(%) 144

Frac Water Treatment 145

CBM 146

TABLE 43 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 147

FIGURE 26 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 148

BY WORLD REGION 148

TABLE 44 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY

REGION, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 149

FIGURE 27 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY

REGION, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 149

TABLE 45 WORLD BANK ESTIMATES FOR REAL GDP GROWTH, 2012-2014 (%) 150

CHAPTER 6 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA 152

INTRODUCTION 152

TABLE 46 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA, 2011 AND

2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 152

FIGURE 28 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA, 2011 AND

2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 153

OIL PRODUCTION 153

GAS PRODUCTION 153

CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT 154

BY EQUIPMENT TYPE 154

Primary and Secondary Treatment Equipment 154

Central and South American Regulatory Requirements 154

Tertiary and Advanced Treatment Equipment 155

TABLE 47 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED

WATER TREATMENT, BY EQUIPMENT TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 155

FIGURE 29 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED

WATER TREATMENT, BY EQUIPMENT TYPE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 155

ONSHORE VERSUS OFFSHORE 156

TABLE 48 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA, ONSHORE

VERSUS OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO OF WELLS/%) 156

FIGURE 30 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA, ONSHORE

VERSUS OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 156

TABLE 49 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED

WATER TREATMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 157

FIGURE 31 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED

WATER TREATMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 157

BY HYDROCARBON SOURCE 158

Conventional Oil 158

TABLE 50 NON-OPEC CRUDE OIL AND LIQUID FUELS SUPPLY, 2010-2013 (BBL/D) 159

FIGURE 32 NON-OPEC CRUDE OIL AND LIQUID FUELS SUPPLY, 2010-2013 (BBL/D) 159

EOR 160

Tight Oil 160

Oil Sands 161

Conventional Gas 161

Shale Gas 162

Argentina 162

Brazil 162

Colombia 163

CBM 163

TABLE 51 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED

WATER TREATMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 164

FIGURE 33 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED

WATER TREATMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 164

CHAPTER 7 EUROPE 166

TABLE 52 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN EUROPE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 166

FIGURE 34 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN EUROPE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 167

TABLE 53 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN EUROPE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF

WELLS) 167

FIGURE 35 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN EUROPE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF

WELLS) 167

OECD EUROPE 168

OIL PRODUCTION 168

GAS PRODUCTION 169

FIGURE 36 OECD EUROPE NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, 1990-2035 (TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 169

NON-OECD EUROPE AND EURASIA 170

OIL PRODUCTION 170

GAS PRODUCTION 171

FIGURE 37 NON-OECD EUROPE AND EURASIA NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, 1992-2035

(TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 172

EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT 173

BY EQUIPMENT TYPE 173

Primary and Secondary Treatment Equipment 173

European Regulatory Requirements 174

OSPAR Convention 174

North Sea-Norway 174

HELCOM Convention (Baltic) 175

Barcelona Convention (Mediterranean) 175

Anticipated Frac Water Legislation 176

Tertiary and Advanced Treatment Equipment 176

TABLE 54 EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 176

FIGURE 38 EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT, BY TYPE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 176

ONSHORE VERSUS OFFSHORE 177

TABLE 55 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN EUROPE, ONSHORE VERSUS OFFSHORE, 2011

AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS/%) 177

FIGURE 39 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN EUROPE, ONSHORE VERSUS OFFSHORE, 2011

AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 177

TABLE 56 EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 179

FIGURE 40 EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 179

BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE 179

Conventional Oil 180

Russia 180

Kazakhstan 180

Tight Oil 180

Oil Sands 181

Russian Tax Incentives 181

Conventional Natural Gas 182

Shale Gas 182

OECD Western Europe 183

OECD Central and Eastern Europe 183

Non-OECD Europe 184

CBM 184

TABLE 57 EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 185

FIGURE 41 EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 185

CHAPTER 8 ASIA-PACIFIC 187

OECD ASIA-PACIFIC 187

OIL PRODUCTION 187

TABLE 58 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, 2011 AND 2012 (NO.

OF WELLS) 188

FIGURE 42 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, 2011 AND 2012

(NO. OF WELLS) 188

TABLE 59 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, 2011

AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 189

FIGURE 43 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, 2011

AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 189

GAS PRODUCTION 190

Australia 190

NON-OECD ASIA 191

OIL PRODUCTION 191

GAS PRODUCTION 192

THE ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT 193

BY EQUIPMENT TYPE 193

Primary and Secondary Treatment 193

Regulatory Requirements 193

Australia 194

China 194

India 194

Tertiary and Advanced Treatment 195

TABLE 60 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,

BY TYPE, IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 195

FIGURE 44 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,

BY TYPE, IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 195

ONSHORE VERSUS OFFSHORE 196

TABLE 61 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, ONSHORE VERSUS

OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS/%) 196

FIGURE 45 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, ONSHORE

VERSUS OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 196

TABLE 62 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,

ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 198

FIGURE 46 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,

ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 198

BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE 198

Conventional Oil 198

Tight Oil 199

Oil Sands 200

Conventional Gas 200

Shale Gas 200

China 200

Australia 201

India 201

Indonesia 201

CBM 202

Other Countries 202

TABLE 63 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 203

FIGURE 47 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 203

CHAPTER 9 MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA 206

NON-OECD MIDDLE EAST 206

TABLE 64 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, 2011 AND 2012

(NO. OF WELLS) 206

FIGURE 48 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, 2011 AND

2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 206

TABLE 65 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA,

2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 207

OIL PRODUCTION 208

TABLE 66 MENA SHARE OF GLOBAL OIL PRODUCTION, 2010 (%) 208

FIGURE 49 MENA SHARE OF GLOBAL OIL PRODUCTION, 2010 (%) 208

TABLE 67 NON-OECD MIDDLE EAST OIL PRODUCERS AND OUTPUT, 2010 (1,000 BBL/D) 209

FIGURE 50 NON-OECD MIDDLE EAST OIL PRODUCERS AND OUTPUT, 2010 (1,000 BBL/D) 209

GAS PRODUCTION 211

FIGURE 51 MIDDLE EAST NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, 1990-2035 (MILLION CUBIC FEET) 211

NON-OECD AFRICA 212

OIL PRODUCTION 212

GAS PRODUCTION 213

FIGURE 52 AFRICA NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION, 1990-2035 (MILLION CUBIC FEET) 214

MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT 214

BY EQUIPMENT TYPE 215

Primary and Secondary Treatment Equipment 215

Regulatory Requirements 215

Middle East 215

Africa 216

Tertiary and Advanced Treatment 216

TABLE 68 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,

BY TYPE, IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 217

FIGURE 53 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,

BY TYPE, IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 217

ONSHORE VERSUS OFFSHORE 218

TABLE 69 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, ONSHORE

VERSUS OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 218

FIGURE 54 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, ONSHORE

VERSUS OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 219

TABLE 70 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,

ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 220

FIGURE 55 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,

ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 220

BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE 220

Conventional Oil 221

EOR 221

Oman 222

Tight Oil 222

Oil Sands 222

Conventional Gas 223

Shale Gas 223

CBM 223

TABLE 71 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,

BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, THROUGH 2017 ($

MILLIONS)

224

FIGURE 56 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,

BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 224

CHAPTER 10 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 226

CAPITAL EQUIPMENT SPENDING 227

TABLE 72 GLOBAL CAPITAL SPENDING IN THE UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY,

2000-2012 ($BILLIONS) 228

FIGURE 57 GLOBAL CAPITAL SPENDING IN THE UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY,

2000-2012 ($ BILLIONS) 228

TABLE 73 CAPITAL SPENDING BY THE UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY, BY REGION,

2011 AND 2012 ($ BILLIONS) 228

FIGURE 58 CAPITAL SPENDING BY THE UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY, BY REGION,

2011 AND 2012 ($ BILLIONS) 229

TABLE 74 PERCENTAGE BREAKDOWN OF CAPITAL SPENDING BY THE UPSTREAM OIL AND

GAS INDUSTRY, BY REGION, 2012 (%) 230

TABLE 75 OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY INVESTMENT, BY COMPANY, 2010 AND 2011

($BILLIONS/%) 230

FUTURE INVESTMENT 231

CONSIDERATIONS FOR VENDORS SUPPLYING WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT 232

COMPANY PROFILES 233

212 RESOURCES 233

AVG TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 233

AKER SOLUTIONS 233

ALTELA, INC. 234

AMCOL INTERNATIONAL CORP. 234

AQUA EWP 235

AQUA-PURE VENTURES 235

AQUATECH 236

AUXSOL, INC. 236

CAMERON INTERNATIONAL CORP. 237

DRAKE WATER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 237

ECOSPHERE TECHNOLOGIES 238

ECO-TEC 239

EPROCESS TECHNOLOGIES PTY. LTD. 239

EXTERRAN 240

FLSMIDTH 240

FMC TECHNOLOGIES (CDS) 241

FILTERBOXX PACKAGED WATER SOLUTIONS, INC. 241

GE WATER & PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES 241

GEO-PROCESSORS PTY. LTD. 242

GEOPURE HYDROTECHNOLOGIES 242

GLOBAL PROCESS SYSTEMS (GPS) 243

GRADEK ENERGY, INC. 243

HALLIBURTON 243

HAMWORTHY 244

HYDRATION TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION (HTI) 244

LAYNE CHRISTENSEN 245

MYCELYX TECHNOLOGIES CORP. 246

NOV MISSION PRODUCTS 246

NEW LOGIC RESEARCH 247

OVIVO 247

PROCESS GROUP INTERNATIONAL (PGI) 248

PROSEP INC. 248

DPS GLOBAL 249

SAIPEM 249

SCHLUMBERGER 249

SET CORP. 250

SEVERN TRENT 251

SIEMENS WATER TECHNOLOGIES 251

VEOLIA WATER SOLUTIONS & TECHNOLOGIES 252

VME PROCESS, INC. 253

WASTEWATER RESOURCES, INC. (WRI) 253

WATER STANDARD CO. 253

WATERTECTONICS 254

WATER & POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (WPT) 254

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE THE GLOBAL MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,

BY OIL OR GAS APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 8

TABLE 1 TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF PRODUCED WATER 15

TABLE 2 CBM PRODUCED WATER CHARACTERISTICS (POWDER RIVER BASIN) 16

TABLE 3 GLOBAL ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES, THROUGH 2017

(1,000 BBL/D) 17

TABLE 4 FATE OF PRODUCED WATER, BY END USE/DISPOSAL ROUTE 2012 VS. 2017 (1,000

BBL/D, %) 18

TABLE 5 TYPICAL COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT BY PROCESS

STEP (%) 19

TABLE 6 PRODUCED WATER DISPOSAL COSTS FOR OFFSITE COMMERCIAL FACILITIES, BY

OPTION ($) 20

TABLE 7 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (%) 33

TABLE 8 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED ONSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (%) 34

TABLE 9 EQUIPMENT SELECTION BASED ON SIZE OF PARTICLES REMOVED (MICRON) 35

TABLE 10 TYPICAL WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY 36

TABLE 11 PRODUCED WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL REQUIREMENTS AND SUITABLE

TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 39

TABLE 12 DE-OILING TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 39

TABLE 13 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGES, ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE,

2004-2010 (MG/L) 50

TABLE 14 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (MG/L) 50

TABLE 15 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED ONSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (MG/L) 51

TABLE 16 DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 53

TABLE 17 PRESSURE DRIVEN MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER

TREATMENT 55

TABLE 18 VSEP INSTALLATIONS FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 60

TABLE 19 DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 91

TABLE 20 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED BY WORLD REGION, 2011 AND 2012, (NO. OF WELLS,

% SHARE) 95

TABLE 21 OIL-IN-WATER LIMITS BY COUNTRY 97

TABLE 22 PEAK OIL PRODUCTION AT WORLD'S LARGEST OILFIELDS 100

TABLE 23 GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY REGION/COUNTRY, 2010 (BBL/D, %) 101

TABLE 24 GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (BBL/D, %) 103

TABLE 25 EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION BY REGION AND TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (%

SHARE) 104

TABLE 26 CBM RESERVES BY COUNTRY (TRILLION CUBIC FEET) 111

TABLE 27 WORLD PROVED OIL RESERVES BY COUNTRY AS OF JANUARY 2011 (BILLION

BARRELS, % OF TOTAL) 115

TABLE 28 WORLD PROVEN OIL RESERVES BY REGION, AS OF JANUARY 2011 (BILLION

BARRELS, %) 115

TABLE 29 GLOBAL OIL PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY 116

TABLE 30 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF OIL WELLS, 2008 119

TABLE 31 NON-OPEC OIL PRODUCTION IN THE NEW POLICIES SCENARIO, 2010-2035

(MILLION BBL/D) 120

TABLE 32 OPEC OIL PRODUCTION IN THE NEW POLICIES SCENARIO, 2010-2035 (MB/D) 121

TABLE HEADING PAGE NO.

TABLE 33 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY REGION AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011 (TRILLION

CUBIC FEET) 122

TABLE 34 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY COUNTRY AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011 (TRILLION

CUBIC FEET,%) 123

TABLE 35 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY (CUBIC METERS) 124

TABLE 36 PRIMARY NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION IN THE NEW POLICIES SCENARIO,

2009-2035 (MB/D) 127

TABLE 37 WORLD NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY REGION/COUNTRY, CONVENTIONAL

VERSUS UNCONVENTIONAL, THROUGH 2035 (TRILLION CUBIC METERS) 129

TABLE 38 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY

EQUIPMENT TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 135

TABLE 39 DISTRIBUTION OF ONSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN 2012, BY WORLD

REGION (NO. AND % SHARE) 136

TABLE 40 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN 2012, BY WORLD REGION (NO. AND %

SHARE) 138

TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 139

TABLE 42 GLOBAL HYDRAULIC FRACTURING TREATMENTS, BREAKDOWN BY WELL TYPE (%) 144

TABLE 43 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 147

TABLE 44 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT, BY

REGION, 2007-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 149

TABLE 45 WORLD BANK ESTIMATES FOR REAL GDP GROWTH, 2012-2014 (%) 150

TABLE 46 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA, 2011 AND 2012

(NO. OF WELLS) 152

TABLE 47 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED

WATER TREATMENT, BY EQUIPMENT TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 155

TABLE 48 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA, ONSHORE

VERSUS OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO OF WELLS/%) 156

TABLE 49 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED

WATER TREATMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 157

TABLE 50 NON-OPEC CRUDE OIL AND LIQUID FUELS SUPPLY, 2010-2013 (BBL/D) 159

TABLE 51 CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED

WATER TREATMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 164

TABLE 52 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN EUROPE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 166

TABLE 53 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN EUROPE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF

WELLS) 167

TABLE 54 EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 176

TABLE 55 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN EUROPE, ONSHORE VERSUS OFFSHORE, 2011

AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS/%) 177

TABLE 56 EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 179

TABLE 57 EUROPEAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 185

TABLE 58 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, 2011 AND 2012 (NO.

OF WELLS) 188

TABLE 59 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, 2011 AND

2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 189

TABLE 60 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT, BY

TYPE, IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 195

TABLE HEADING PAGE NO.

TABLE 61 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, ONSHORE VERSUS

OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS/%) 196

TABLE 62 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT,

ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 198

TABLE 63 ASIA-PACIFIC MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT

EQUIPMENT, BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 203

TABLE 64 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, 2011 AND 2012

(NO. OF WELLS) 206

TABLE 65 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA, 2011

AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS) 207

TABLE 66 MENA SHARE OF GLOBAL OIL PRODUCTION, 2010 (%) 208

TABLE 67 NON-OECD MIDDLE EAST OIL PRODUCERS AND OUTPUT, 2010 (1,000 BBL/D) 209

TABLE 68 MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT, BY

TYPE, IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFR

To order this report:

Water_distribution_and_treatment Industry: Markets for Produced Water Treatment Equipment Outside North America

Contact Nicolas: nicolasbombourg@reportlinker.com
US: (805)-652-2626
Intl: +1 805-652-2626

SOURCE Reportlinker



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