Fannie Mae Foundation Report Scores the 1990s as the Best Postwar Decade For Population Change in Older Industrial Cities

Analysis of Census Data From 1950 to 2000 Demonstrates Urban Turnaround



Apr 04, 2001, 01:00 ET from Fannie Mae Foundation

    WASHINGTON, April 4 /PRNewswire/ -- The Fannie Mae Foundation today
 released a study, The Urban Turnaround: A Decade-by-Decade Report Card on
 Postwar Population Change in Older Industrial Cities, which judges the 1990s
 to have been was the best decade since World War II for population change in
 older urban America.  The study also finds the 1970s to have been the worst
 such decade.  These finding are based on a variety of factors, including a
 summary index, which distilled population trends data for 36 older cities (see
 attached for list of cities) into a single grade for each decade.
     The index gave the 1990s a grade of "B," the 1980s a "C+," the 1970s an
 "F," the 1960s a "C," and the 1950s a "C+."
     The study, which compared population data from each Census from 1950
 through 2000, looked at cities that had at least 200,000 people in 1950 and
 experienced two or more decades of population loss since World War II.  The 36
 municipalities studied contained a total 30 million residents and accounted
 for 20 percent of the nation's total population in 1950.  By 2000, these
 cities were home to 25 million residents -- just nine percent of all
 Americans.
     The study finds, however, that the cities as a group have rebounded
 significantly from their traumatic population declines during the 1970s.
 During that decade, all 36 cities in the study lost residents and 29 of them
 experienced their worst decade of population loss in the postwar period.  By
 the 1990s, however, 15 of the cities were growing again and the other 14 were
 losing population at often sharply reduced rates.  Not one of the 36 cities
 experienced its worst postwar losses during the 1990s; and, for the first time
 since World War II, these cities as a group gained population during that
 decade.
     The summary index further reveals that, among the five postwar decades,
 the 1990s received the highest grade based on positive numeric population
 change. The index works like a college grade point average and compares
 average population performance across the decades for the entire set of cities
 studied.
     "Population trends in these cities have improved substantially since the
 dramatic declines of the 1970s," said Patrick Simmons, Director of Housing
 Demography at the Fannie Mae Foundation and a co-author of the study.  "Many
 of these cities have returned to population growth, and the worst days of
 population loss appear to be behind them all."
     Simmons and Robert Lang of the Fannie Mae Foundation conducted the study.
 Simmons is also editor of the book, Housing Statistics of the United States.
 Lang, Director of Urban and Metropolitan Research at the Foundation, is the
 author of the forthcoming book, Edgeless Cities: Exploring the Elusive
 Metropolis.
     The Fannie Mae Foundation's research division conducts and sponsors
 research on housing and community development topics.  It produces two housing
 and community development journals, Housing Policy Debate and Journal of
 Housing.  The Fannie Mae Foundation also publishes a quarterly newsletter,
 Housing Facts & Findings, that covers housing and community development
 research, evaluation, best practices, and innovations.
     Editor's Note:  To obtain a copy of The Urban Turnaround: A Decade-by-
 Decade Report Card on Postwar Population Change in Older Industrial Cities or
 for more information on the Fannie Mae Foundation, please call Tony Tijerino
 at 202.274.8064 or visit www.fanniemaefoundation.org.
 
     The Fannie Mae Foundation creates affordable homeownership and housing
 opportunities through innovative partnerships and initiatives that build
 healthy, vibrant communities across the United States.  The Foundation is
 specially committed to improving the quality of life for the people of its
 hometown, Washington, D.C., and to enhancing the livability of the city's
 neighborhoods.  The Foundation, a private nonprofit organization supported
 solely by Fannie Mae, has regional offices in Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas,
 Pasadena and Philadelphia.
 
     Style Usage:  The Fannie Mae Foundation is a separate legal entity from
 Fannie Mae (a NYSE-listed company).  In order to facilitate clarity and avoid
 confusion, news organizations are asked to refer to the Foundation exclusively
 as "the Fannie Mae Foundation" or "the Foundation," but not as "Fannie Mae."
 
                   - Following is List of 36 Cities Studied -
 
     Cities studied for The Urban Turnaround: A Decade-by-Decade Report Card on
 Postwar Population Change in Older Industrial Cities by the Fannie Mae
 Foundation.
 
                                    Table 2.
    Comparison of Worst Postwar Decade with the 1990s for Individual Cities
 
                         Worst Postwar Decade (a)    1990s Population Change
          City          Decade   Population Change                     Decade
                                  Number  Percent  Numeric   Percent   Rank (b)
 
     Akron, OH          1970s    -38,248   -13.9   -5,945      -2.7       3
     Atlanta, GA        1970s    -71,951   -14.5   22,457       5.7       3
     Baltimore, MD      1970s   -118,984   -13.1  -84,860     -11.5       1
     Birmingham, AL     1960S    -39,977   -11.7  -23,148      -8.7       1
     Boston, MA         1950S   -104,247   -13.0   14,858       2.6       4
     Buffalo, NY        1970s   -104,898   -22.7  -35,475     -10.8       3
     Chicago, IL        1970s   -361,885   -10.7  112,290       4.0       4
     Cincinnati, OH     1970s    -67,067   -14.8  -32,755      -9.0       2
     Cleveland, OH      1970s   -177,081   -23.6  -27,213      -5.4       4
     Dayton, OH         1970S    -40,230   -16.5  -15,865      -8.7       3
     Denver, CO         1980s    -24,755    -5.0   87,026      18.6       4
     Detroit, MI        1970s   -308,143   -20.4  -76,704      -7.5       4
     Jersey City, NJ    1970s    -37,013   -14.2   11,518       5.0       4
     Kansas City, MO    1970s    -58,928   -11.6    6,399       1.5       2
     Louisville, KY     1970S    -63,021   -17.4  -12,832      -4.8       3
     Milwaukee, WI      1970s    -80,887   -11.3  -31,114      -5.0       1
     Minneapolis, MN    1970s    -63,449   -14.6   14,235       3.9       4
     New Orleans, LA    1980S    -60,577   -10.9  -12,264      -2.5       3
     New York, NY       1970s   -823,223   -10.4  685,714       9.4       4
     Newark, NJ         1980s    -54,027   -16.4   -1,675      -0.6       4
     Norfolk, VA        1970s    -40,972   -13.3  -26,826     -10.3       1
     Oakland, CA        1970s    -22,224    -6.1   27,242       7.3       3
     Philadelphia, PA   1970s   -260,399   -13.4  -68,027      -4.3       3
     Pittsburgh, PA     1970s    -96,179   -18.5  -35,316      -9.5       4
     Portland, OR       1970s    -16,236    -4.2   91,802      21.0       4
     Providence, RI     1950s    -41,176   -16.6   12,890       8.0       4
     Richmond, VA       1970S    -30,407   -12.2   -5,266      -2.6       3
     Rochester, NY      1970s    -54,492   -18.4  -11,863      -5.1       3
     San Francisco, CA  1970s    -36,700    -5.1   52,774       7.3       4
     Seattle, WA        1970s    -36,985    -7.0   47,115       9.1       3
     St. Louis, MO      1970s   -169,151   -27.2  -48,496     -12.2       4
     St. Paul, MN       1970s    -39,750   -12.8   14,916       5.5       4
     Syracuse, NY       1970s    -27,103   -13.7  -16,554     -10.1       2
     Toledo, OH         1970s    -29,183    -7.6  -19,324      -5.8       2
     Washington, DC     1970s   -118,177   -15.6  -34,841      -5.7       2
     Worcester, MA      1950s    -16,899    -8.3    2,889       1.7       3
 
     (a) Based on numeric population change. In only one city (Worcester) was
 there a difference in identification of worst decade depending on whether
 numeric or percent change was used. The worst decade for Worcester based on
 percent change was the 1970s, during which it lost 14,773 persons, or 8.4
 percent of its population.
 
     (b) Based on numeric population change. A rank of 4 indicates that the
 1990s was the best postwar decade for the city. No city experienced its worst
 decade of population change (rank of 0) during the 1990s.
 
     Source: Fannie Mae Foundation, Urban and Metropolitan Research Division.
     Tabulations of decennial census data by Patrick A. Simmons and
      Robert E. Lang.
 
 

SOURCE Fannie Mae Foundation
    WASHINGTON, April 4 /PRNewswire/ -- The Fannie Mae Foundation today
 released a study, The Urban Turnaround: A Decade-by-Decade Report Card on
 Postwar Population Change in Older Industrial Cities, which judges the 1990s
 to have been was the best decade since World War II for population change in
 older urban America.  The study also finds the 1970s to have been the worst
 such decade.  These finding are based on a variety of factors, including a
 summary index, which distilled population trends data for 36 older cities (see
 attached for list of cities) into a single grade for each decade.
     The index gave the 1990s a grade of "B," the 1980s a "C+," the 1970s an
 "F," the 1960s a "C," and the 1950s a "C+."
     The study, which compared population data from each Census from 1950
 through 2000, looked at cities that had at least 200,000 people in 1950 and
 experienced two or more decades of population loss since World War II.  The 36
 municipalities studied contained a total 30 million residents and accounted
 for 20 percent of the nation's total population in 1950.  By 2000, these
 cities were home to 25 million residents -- just nine percent of all
 Americans.
     The study finds, however, that the cities as a group have rebounded
 significantly from their traumatic population declines during the 1970s.
 During that decade, all 36 cities in the study lost residents and 29 of them
 experienced their worst decade of population loss in the postwar period.  By
 the 1990s, however, 15 of the cities were growing again and the other 14 were
 losing population at often sharply reduced rates.  Not one of the 36 cities
 experienced its worst postwar losses during the 1990s; and, for the first time
 since World War II, these cities as a group gained population during that
 decade.
     The summary index further reveals that, among the five postwar decades,
 the 1990s received the highest grade based on positive numeric population
 change. The index works like a college grade point average and compares
 average population performance across the decades for the entire set of cities
 studied.
     "Population trends in these cities have improved substantially since the
 dramatic declines of the 1970s," said Patrick Simmons, Director of Housing
 Demography at the Fannie Mae Foundation and a co-author of the study.  "Many
 of these cities have returned to population growth, and the worst days of
 population loss appear to be behind them all."
     Simmons and Robert Lang of the Fannie Mae Foundation conducted the study.
 Simmons is also editor of the book, Housing Statistics of the United States.
 Lang, Director of Urban and Metropolitan Research at the Foundation, is the
 author of the forthcoming book, Edgeless Cities: Exploring the Elusive
 Metropolis.
     The Fannie Mae Foundation's research division conducts and sponsors
 research on housing and community development topics.  It produces two housing
 and community development journals, Housing Policy Debate and Journal of
 Housing.  The Fannie Mae Foundation also publishes a quarterly newsletter,
 Housing Facts & Findings, that covers housing and community development
 research, evaluation, best practices, and innovations.
     Editor's Note:  To obtain a copy of The Urban Turnaround: A Decade-by-
 Decade Report Card on Postwar Population Change in Older Industrial Cities or
 for more information on the Fannie Mae Foundation, please call Tony Tijerino
 at 202.274.8064 or visit www.fanniemaefoundation.org.
 
     The Fannie Mae Foundation creates affordable homeownership and housing
 opportunities through innovative partnerships and initiatives that build
 healthy, vibrant communities across the United States.  The Foundation is
 specially committed to improving the quality of life for the people of its
 hometown, Washington, D.C., and to enhancing the livability of the city's
 neighborhoods.  The Foundation, a private nonprofit organization supported
 solely by Fannie Mae, has regional offices in Atlanta, Chicago, Dallas,
 Pasadena and Philadelphia.
 
     Style Usage:  The Fannie Mae Foundation is a separate legal entity from
 Fannie Mae (a NYSE-listed company).  In order to facilitate clarity and avoid
 confusion, news organizations are asked to refer to the Foundation exclusively
 as "the Fannie Mae Foundation" or "the Foundation," but not as "Fannie Mae."
 
                   - Following is List of 36 Cities Studied -
 
     Cities studied for The Urban Turnaround: A Decade-by-Decade Report Card on
 Postwar Population Change in Older Industrial Cities by the Fannie Mae
 Foundation.
 
                                    Table 2.
    Comparison of Worst Postwar Decade with the 1990s for Individual Cities
 
                         Worst Postwar Decade (a)    1990s Population Change
          City          Decade   Population Change                     Decade
                                  Number  Percent  Numeric   Percent   Rank (b)
 
     Akron, OH          1970s    -38,248   -13.9   -5,945      -2.7       3
     Atlanta, GA        1970s    -71,951   -14.5   22,457       5.7       3
     Baltimore, MD      1970s   -118,984   -13.1  -84,860     -11.5       1
     Birmingham, AL     1960S    -39,977   -11.7  -23,148      -8.7       1
     Boston, MA         1950S   -104,247   -13.0   14,858       2.6       4
     Buffalo, NY        1970s   -104,898   -22.7  -35,475     -10.8       3
     Chicago, IL        1970s   -361,885   -10.7  112,290       4.0       4
     Cincinnati, OH     1970s    -67,067   -14.8  -32,755      -9.0       2
     Cleveland, OH      1970s   -177,081   -23.6  -27,213      -5.4       4
     Dayton, OH         1970S    -40,230   -16.5  -15,865      -8.7       3
     Denver, CO         1980s    -24,755    -5.0   87,026      18.6       4
     Detroit, MI        1970s   -308,143   -20.4  -76,704      -7.5       4
     Jersey City, NJ    1970s    -37,013   -14.2   11,518       5.0       4
     Kansas City, MO    1970s    -58,928   -11.6    6,399       1.5       2
     Louisville, KY     1970S    -63,021   -17.4  -12,832      -4.8       3
     Milwaukee, WI      1970s    -80,887   -11.3  -31,114      -5.0       1
     Minneapolis, MN    1970s    -63,449   -14.6   14,235       3.9       4
     New Orleans, LA    1980S    -60,577   -10.9  -12,264      -2.5       3
     New York, NY       1970s   -823,223   -10.4  685,714       9.4       4
     Newark, NJ         1980s    -54,027   -16.4   -1,675      -0.6       4
     Norfolk, VA        1970s    -40,972   -13.3  -26,826     -10.3       1
     Oakland, CA        1970s    -22,224    -6.1   27,242       7.3       3
     Philadelphia, PA   1970s   -260,399   -13.4  -68,027      -4.3       3
     Pittsburgh, PA     1970s    -96,179   -18.5  -35,316      -9.5       4
     Portland, OR       1970s    -16,236    -4.2   91,802      21.0       4
     Providence, RI     1950s    -41,176   -16.6   12,890       8.0       4
     Richmond, VA       1970S    -30,407   -12.2   -5,266      -2.6       3
     Rochester, NY      1970s    -54,492   -18.4  -11,863      -5.1       3
     San Francisco, CA  1970s    -36,700    -5.1   52,774       7.3       4
     Seattle, WA        1970s    -36,985    -7.0   47,115       9.1       3
     St. Louis, MO      1970s   -169,151   -27.2  -48,496     -12.2       4
     St. Paul, MN       1970s    -39,750   -12.8   14,916       5.5       4
     Syracuse, NY       1970s    -27,103   -13.7  -16,554     -10.1       2
     Toledo, OH         1970s    -29,183    -7.6  -19,324      -5.8       2
     Washington, DC     1970s   -118,177   -15.6  -34,841      -5.7       2
     Worcester, MA      1950s    -16,899    -8.3    2,889       1.7       3
 
     (a) Based on numeric population change. In only one city (Worcester) was
 there a difference in identification of worst decade depending on whether
 numeric or percent change was used. The worst decade for Worcester based on
 percent change was the 1970s, during which it lost 14,773 persons, or 8.4
 percent of its population.
 
     (b) Based on numeric population change. A rank of 4 indicates that the
 1990s was the best postwar decade for the city. No city experienced its worst
 decade of population change (rank of 0) during the 1990s.
 
     Source: Fannie Mae Foundation, Urban and Metropolitan Research Division.
     Tabulations of decennial census data by Patrick A. Simmons and
      Robert E. Lang.
 
 SOURCE  Fannie Mae Foundation