As we move to the end game of energy independent electric aircraft, boats and land vehicles, this unique new report tells you how, where, why and when. Even conventional vehicles will benefit from these technologies in the meantime giving a seamless route to major commercial successes.
Researched this year and constantly updated, it explains and forecasts the technologies involved in this newly essential key enabling technology. EH/R will be as important and sometimes more important than motors, batteries and power electronics: fabulous opportunities await vehicle, parts and material manufacturers unplugging into this future.
The report clarifies the complexities and the future of both the technologies and the vehicles using the technologies with frank assessment revealing the promise for the future, the achievement now and the dead ends. Grasp the subject fast: derive your own slides easily.
The format of the report is an executive summary and conclusions sufficiently comprehensive to be read on its own, an introduction explaining terminology and options, chapters on the most promising technologies now and in the future - Electrodynamic, Photovoltaic, Triboelectric, Dielectric Elastomer Generator, Thermoelectric and Piezoelectric. It is shown how some are being proved in applications such as wave power but vehicle applications are in the roadmaps such as tires, sails, boat hulls and airship fabric that generate electricity and how many will combine into structural electronics. Components-in-a-box gives way to more reliable, more compact, lighter weight smart structural materials. It is all here.
Electric vehicles are creating more and more of their own electricity from daylight, wind and other sources including regeneration. Regeneration converts wasted heat and movement in the vehicle into electricity, as with a turbine in the exhaust. More elegantly, regeneration prevents wasted heat and movement in the first place as with regenerative suspension giving a better ride and longer range and flywheels replacing burning brake disks. Shock absorbers can create electricity that controls them to give a smoother ride. Yes, it does make sense. Indeed it is the future.
Existing key enabling technologies will move over within the decade to add the new one - energy harvesting including regeneration. Within 20 years it will become a huge business as tens of millions of vehicles yearly are made as Energy Independent Vehicles EIV that get all their electricity without plugging in. The report explains many new EH technologies coming along including triboelectrics, thermal metamaterials, affordable GaAs photovoltaics, flywheels and dielectric elastomer nanogenerators. With these, energy harvesting will be the most important technology of all and much of it will be a materials play.
Increasingly the energy companies and charging networks will be bypassed completely by the land, water and airborne vehicles starting to appear now. We reveal the significance of breakthroughs by little known vehicle and material companies such as Hanergy, Inergy, Sunnyclist, Sion, Nanowinn and others as we interview them from Greece to China, Australia to Canada and the UK.
Multi-mode energy harvesting is analysed and recommended: it reduces and sometimes eliminates the need for those expensive, bulky, heavy batteries that do not last long enough. Even multi-mode harvesting e-textiles and plastic film are in prospect. Think car seats to bodywork and tires.
The report is supported by a detailed 20 year technological roadmap and ten year forecasts of electric vehicles in 46 categories embracing on-road and off-road, on-water and underwater, manned and unmanned versions. Only the author has that detail. When you look at this big picture, the potential for both technology and vehicle suppliers is far greater than it first seems to be. This is the only report to look at all the technologies and all of the vehicles that will adopt them. It is authoritative: for example we just had extended discussions with the research teams of top vehicle manufacturers on the subject when we accepted invitations to present to them in both the USA and Japan.
Key Topics Covered:
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 1.1. Perfect storm will bring massive shakeout 1.2. Energy harvesting: the new key enabling technology 1.3. Next big thing 1.4. Energy independent vehicles are the end game 1.5. Electric vehicle powertrain evolution: typical figures expected for cars 1.6. Key enabling technologies by powertrain 1.7. Relative importance of powertrain and autonomy hardware markets 2017-2037 1.8. EH choices in action for land, water and airborne vehicles 1.9. Energy harvesting sources for vehicles land water, air: typical location 1.10. Energy harvesting technology choices for vehicles land water, air 1.11. Key enabling technology for EV: useful for conventional vehicles too 1.12. Examples of energy harvesting adoption 1.13. Addressable market 1.14. EV and 48V mild hybrid global forecasts number K 2017-2027 1.15. EV and 48V mild hybrid global forecasts $ billion 2017-2027 1.16. EH vehicle technology roadmap 2017-2037: dates when commonplace 1.17. Toyota view in 2017 with image of the new Prius Prime solar roof 1.18. Electric Car Takeoff 1.19. Combining photovoltaic with optically active windows
2. INTRODUCTION 2.1. Energy harvesting (EH) definition and overview 2.2. Types of EH energy source 2.3. End game is energy independent pure electric not dynamic charging 2.4. Examples of energy harvesting adoption 2.5. Energy harvesting is an immature industry 2.6. Candidates for EH by power 2.7. One business land water, air - hybrid and pure electric 2.8. Gaps in the market: kW level regeneration potential in a car 2.9. Importance of multi-mode energy harvesting
3. TECHNOLOGIES 3.1. EH transducer options compared 3.2. Rated power vs energy stored by technology 3.3. EH system architecture 3.4. Low power vs high power off-grid 3.5. Regional differences are changing 3.6. Relative benefits of EH technologies vs needs 3.7. Comparison of desirable features of EH technologies 3.8. Thermal metamaterial
4. ELECTRODYNAMIC 4.1. Electrodynamic EH W-MW: rotating electrical machines 4.2. REM technology options 4.3. The vehicle opportunity for motor-generators increasingly two or three per vehicle 4.4. Typical powertrain components and regenerative braking 4.5. Trend to integration in vehicles 4.6. Next generation motor generators, turbine EH in vehicles 4.7. 3D and 6D movement 4.8. Electrodynamic regenerative suspension 4.9. Airborne Wind Energy AWE
5. PHOTOVOLTAIC 5.1. Technology: Photovoltaics 5.2. pn junction vs alternatives 5.3. Nantenna-diode 5.4. Important photovoltaic parameters 5.5. Some choices between the popular silicon and the most efficient GaAs (up to 41%) are compared below 5.6. Tightly rollable foldable, stretchable PV will come 5.7. Energy-collecting windows - one step closer to reality
6. THERMOELECTRIC 6.1. Overview: AIST Toyota, Komatsu etc 6.2. Yamaha Japan and DLR Germany in 2017
7. ELECTROSTATIC ENERGY HARVESTING: TRIBOELECTRIC, DEG CAPACITIVE INCLUDING ELECTRET 7.1. Electrostatics in energy harvesting 7.2. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) operating principle and device optimisation 7.3. Capacitive electrostatic including Dielectric Elastomer Generators DEG
8. EIVS AND PRECURSORS 8.1. EV end game: Energy Independent Vehicles EIV 8.2. EIV operational choices
9. EIVS AND PRECURSORS ON LAND, ON-ROAD 9.1. Stella Luxpassenger car Netherlands 9.2. Here comes GaAs PV: University of Cambridge, UK 9.3. Sunswift eVe passenger car Australia 9.4. Immortus passenger car Australia 9.5. POLYMODEL micro EV Italy 9.6. Venturi Eclectic passenger car Italy 9.7. Dalian tourist bus China 9.8. NFH-H microbus China 9.9. Kayoola large bus Uganda 9.10. Cargo Trike micro EV UK 9.11. Sunnyclist Greece 9.12. Hanergy China 9.13. Sion Germany 9.14. Lightyear Netherlands 9.15. Funding for development of lightweight solar modules on vehicles
10. EIVS AND PRECURSORS ON LAND, OFF-ROAD 10.1. These types as Energy Independent Vehicles EIV: microbus power chair, delivery e-bike, agrobot, microcar 10.2. Vinerobot micro EV Europe
11. EIVS AND PRECURSORS ON WATER SEAGOING 11.1. REPSAIL boat Poland, Turkey etc 11.2. MARS boat UK 11.3. RENSEA boat Iceland Norway, Sweden 11.4. Turanor boat Germany 11.5. Vaka Moana boat Netherlands 11.6. Sun21 boat Switzerland
12. EIVS AND PRECURSORS SEAGOING UNDERWATER 12.1. Seaglider AUV boat USA 12.2. Cyro AUV jellyfish USA
13. EIVS AND PRECURSORS INLAND WATER 13.1. Solar racing boats Netherlands 13.2. Loon boat Canada 13.3. EIV or similar - boat Alster Sun Netherlands
14. EIVS AND PRECURSORS AIRBORNE INFLATABLE 14.1. Solar Ship EIV inflatable fixed wing aircraft Canada Autonomous, sun alone 14.2. Solar Ship inflatable fixed wing aircraft Canada 14.3. Northrop Grumman airship USA 14.4. Mitre DARPA airship USA 14.5. HALE-D airship USA
15. EIVS AND PRECURSORS FIXED WING 15.1. Atlantik Solar 2/ SunToucher in 2016 UAV Switzerland 15.2. Zephyr 7 UAV UK, Germany 15.3. Titan Aerospace UAV USA 15.4. Solar Eagle UAV USA 15.5. Aquila UAV USA, UK 15.6. Silent Falcon UAV USA