WHIPPANY, N.J., Jan. 4, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Bayer today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted priority review status for the supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) for Stivarga® (regorafenib) tablets for the second-line systemic treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the U.S.
HCC is the most common form of liver cancer, a disease that affects nearly 40,000 patients in the United States and is the second deadliest form of cancer worldwide.1,2
"Liver cancer is one of the few cancers still on the rise,1,3 and though Nexavar® (sorafenib) has been approved for the treatment of patients with unresectable HCC since 2007, effective second-line systemic treatment options are urgently needed," said Dario Mirski, M.D., Bayer's senior vice president and head of medical affairs for the Americas. "The priority review for Stivarga paves the way for us to gain regulatory approval as early as possible for the HCC patients who need it most."
The FDA grants priority review to medicines that, if approved, would provide significant improvements in the safety or effectiveness of the treatment for serious conditions. Under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA), the FDA aims to complete its review within six months (compared to 10 months under standard review).
Stivarga is currently approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who have previously been treated with fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin-, and irinotecan-based chemotherapy, an anti-VEGF therapy, and, if RAS wild type, an anti-EGFR therapy, as well as the treatment of patients with locally advanced, unresectable, or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), who were previously treated with imatinib mesylate and sutinib maleate.
The sNDA is based on data from the international, multicenter, placebo-controlled Phase III RESORCE trial which investigated Stivarga in patients with HCC whose disease had progressed during treatment with Nexavar.
Stivarga has also been submitted to regulatory authorities in Japan and the EU for the treatment of second-line HCC.
About the RESORCE trial The Phase III RESORCE [REgorafenib after SORafenib in patients with hepatoCEllular carcinoma] clinical trial enrolled 573 patients whose disease had progressed during treatment with sorafenib. Patients were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive either regorafenib or placebo plus best supportive care (BSC).4
Patients received 160 mg regorafenib once daily or placebo, for 3 weeks on/1 week off, with 28 days constituting one full treatment cycle. The primary endpoint of the study was overall survival, and secondary endpoints were time to progression, progression-free survival, objective tumor response rate and disease control rate. Safety and tolerability were also continuously monitored.4
About Hepatocellular Carcinoma Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents approximately 70-85 percent of liver cancer worldwide.5 Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer among men worldwide and the ninth among women.2 More than 780,000 cases of liver cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year (52,000 in the European Union, 501,000 in the Western Pacific region and 30,000 in the United States) and the incidence rate is increasing.2 In 2012, approximately 746,000 people died of liver cancer including approximately 48,000 in the European Union, 477,000 in the Western Pacific region and 24,000 in the United States.2
About Stivarga®(regorafenib) In the United States, Stivarga is indicated for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) who have been previously treated with fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin- and irinotecan-based chemotherapy, an anti-VEGF therapy, and, if RAS wild type, an anti-EGFR therapy. It is also indicated for the treatment of patients with locally advanced, unresectable or metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) who have been previously treated with imatinib mesylate and sunitinib malate.6
Important Safety Information for Stivarga®(regorafenib) tablets:
Severe and sometimes fatal hepatotoxicity has occurred in clinical trials.
Monitor hepatic function prior to and during treatment.
Interrupt and then reduce or discontinue STIVARGA for hepatotoxicity as manifested by elevated liver function tests or hepatocellular necrosis, depending upon severity and persistence.
Hepatotoxicity: Severe drug-induced liver injury with fatal outcome occurred in STIVARGA-treated patients across all clinical trials. In most cases, liver dysfunction occurred within the first 2 months of therapy and was characterized by a hepatocellular pattern of injury. In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), fatal hepatic failure occurred in 1.6% of patients in the STIVARGA arm and in 0.4% of patients in the placebo arm. In gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), fatal hepatic failure occurred in 0.8% of patients in the STIVARGA arm.
Liver Function Monitoring: Obtain liver function tests (ALT, AST, and bilirubin) before initiation of STIVARGA and monitor at least every 2 weeks during the first 2 months of treatment. Thereafter, monitor monthly or more frequently as clinically indicated. Monitor liver function tests weekly in patients experiencing elevated liver function tests until improvement to less than 3 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) or baseline values. Temporarily hold and then reduce or permanently discontinue STIVARGA, depending on the severity and persistence of hepatotoxicity as manifested by elevated liver function tests or hepatocellular necrosis.
Hemorrhage: STIVARGA caused an increased incidence of hemorrhage. The overall incidence (Grades 1-5) was 21% and 11% with STIVARGA vs 8% and 3% with placebo in mCRC and GIST patients, respectively. Fatal hemorrhage occurred in 4 of 632 (0.6%) STIVARGA-treated patients and involved the respiratory, gastrointestinal, or genitourinary tracts. Permanently discontinue STIVARGA in patients with severe or life-threatening hemorrhage and monitor INR levels more frequently in patients receiving warfarin.
Dermatological Toxicity: STIVARGA caused an increased incidence of hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR) (also known as palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia [PPE]) and severe rash, frequently requiring dose modification. The overall incidence was 45% and 67% with STIVARGA vs 7% and 12% with placebo in mCRC and GIST patients, respectively. Incidence of Grade 3 HFSR (17% vs 0% in mCRC and 22% vs 0% in GIST), Grade 3 rash (6% vs <1% in mCRC and 7% vs 0% in GIST), serious adverse reactions of erythema multiforme (0.2% vs 0% in mCRC), and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (0.2% vs 0% in mCRC) was higher in STIVARGA-treated patients. In both studies, a higher incidence of HFSR was observed in Asian patients treated with STIVARGA (all grades: 78.4% in mCRC and 88.2% in GIST and Grade 3: 28.4% in mCRC and 23.5% in GIST). Toxic epidermal necrolysis occurred in 0.17% of 1200 STIVARGA-treated patients across all clinical trials. Withhold STIVARGA, reduce the dose, or permanently discontinue depending on the severity and persistence of dermatologic toxicity.
Hypertension: STIVARGA caused an increased incidence of hypertension (30% vs 8% in mCRC and 59% vs 27% in GIST with STIVARGA vs placebo, respectively). Hypertensive crisis occurred in 0.25% of 1200 STIVARGA-treated patients across all clinical trials. Do not initiate STIVARGA until blood pressure is adequately controlled. Monitor blood pressure weekly for the first 6 weeks of treatment and then every cycle, or more frequently, as clinically indicated. Temporarily or permanently withhold STIVARGA for severe or uncontrolled hypertension.
Cardiac Ischemia and Infarction: STIVARGA increased the incidence of myocardial ischemia and infarction in mCRC (1.2% with STIVARGA vs 0.4% with placebo). Withhold STIVARGA in patients who develop new or acute cardiac ischemia or infarction, and resume only after resolution of acute cardiac ischemic events if the potential benefits outweigh the risks of further cardiac ischemia.
Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS): RPLS occurred in 1 of 1200 STIVARGA-treated patients across all clinical trials. Perform an evaluation for RPLS in any patient presenting with seizures, severe headache, visual disturbances, confusion, or altered mental function. Confirm the diagnosis of RPLS with MRI and discontinue STIVARGA in patients who develop RPLS.
Gastrointestinal Perforation or Fistula: Gastrointestinal perforation or fistula occurred in 0.6% of 1200 patients treated with STIVARGA across clinical trials. In GIST, 2.1% (4/188) of STIVARGA-treated patients developed gastrointestinal fistula or perforation: of these, 2 cases of gastrointestinal perforation were fatal. Permanently discontinue STIVARGA in patients who develop gastrointestinal perforation or fistula.
Wound Healing Complications: Treatment with STIVARGA should be stopped at least 2 weeks prior to scheduled surgery. Resuming treatment after surgery should be based on clinical judgment of adequate wound healing. STIVARGA should be discontinued in patients with wound dehiscence.
Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: STIVARGA can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. There are no available data on STIVARGA use in pregnant women. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential and males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with STIVARGA and for 2 months after the final dose.
Nursing Mothers: Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants from STIVARGA, do not breastfeed during treatment with STIVARGA and for 2 weeks after the final dose.
Most Frequently Observed Adverse Drug Reactions in mCRC (≥30%): The most frequently observed adverse drug reactions (≥30%) in STIVARGA-treated patients vs placebo-treated patients in mCRC, respectively, were: asthenia/fatigue (64% vs 46%), decreased appetite and food intake (47% vs 28%), HFSR/PPE (45% vs 7%), diarrhea (43% vs 17%), mucositis (33% vs 5%), weight loss (32% vs 10%), infection (31% vs 17%), hypertension (30% vs 8%), and dysphonia (30% vs 6%).
Most Frequently Observed Adverse Drug Reactions in GIST (≥30%): The most frequently observed adverse drug reactions (≥30%) in STIVARGA-treated patients vs placebo-treated patients in GIST, respectively, were: HFSR/PPE (67% vs 12%), hypertension (59% vs 27%), asthenia/fatigue (52% vs 39%), diarrhea (47% vs 9%), mucositis (40% vs 8%), dysphonia (39% vs 9%), infection (32% vs 5%), decreased appetite and food intake (31% vs 21%), and rash (30% vs 3%).
About NEXAVAR®(sorafenib) Tablets NEXAVAR is approved in the U.S. for the treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma, patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma and patients with locally recurrent or metastatic, progressive, differentiated thyroid carcinoma that is refractory to radioactive iodine treatment.7
Important Safety Considerations For NEXAVAR®(sorafenib) Tablets
NEXAVAR is contraindicated in patients with known severe hypersensitivity to sorafenib or any other component of NEXAVAR
NEXAVAR in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel is contraindicated in patients with squamous cell lung cancer
Cardiac ischemia and/or myocardial infarction may occur. The incidence of cardiac ischemia/infarction in NEXAVAR-treated vs placebo-treated patients was 2.7% vs 1.3%, 2.9% vs 0.4%, and 1.9% vs 0% in the HCC, RCC, and DTC studies, respectively. Temporary or permanent discontinuation of NEXAVAR should be considered in patients who develop cardiac ischemia and/or myocardial infarction
An increased risk of bleeding may occur following NEXAVAR administration. The following bleeding adverse reactions were reported in the NEXAVAR-treated vs placebo-treated patients, respectively, in the HCC study: bleeding from esophageal varices (2.4% vs 4%) and bleeding with fatal outcome at any site (2.4% vs 4%); in the RCC study: bleeding regardless of causality (15.3% vs 8.2%), Grade 3 bleeding (2.0% vs 1.3%), Grade 4 bleeding (0% vs 0.2%), and one fatal hemorrhage in each treatment group; in the DTC study: bleeding (17.4% vs 9.6%) and Grade 3 bleeding (1% vs 1.4%).There was no Grade 4 bleeding reported and there was one fatal hemorrhage in a placebo-treated patient. If bleeding necessitates medical intervention, consider permanent discontinuation of NEXAVAR. Due to the potential risk of bleeding, tracheal, bronchial, and esophageal infiltration should be treated with local therapy prior to administering NEXAVAR in patients with DTC
Monitor blood pressure weekly during the first 6 weeks and periodically thereafter, and treat, if required. In the HCC study, hypertension was reported in approximately 9.4% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 4.3% of patients in the placebo-treated group. In the RCC study, hypertension was reported in approximately 16.9% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 1.8% of patients in the placebo-treated group. In the DTC study, hypertension was reported in 40.6% of NEXAVAR-treated patients and 12.4% of the placebo-treated patients. Hypertension was usually mild to moderate, occurred early in the course of treatment, and was managed with standard antihypertensive therapy. In cases of severe or persistent hypertension despite institution of antihypertensive therapy, consider temporary or permanent discontinuation of NEXAVAR
Hand-foot skin reaction and rash are the most common adverse reactions attributed to NEXAVAR. Management may include topical therapies for symptomatic relief. In cases of any severe or persistent adverse reactions, temporary treatment interruption, dose modification, or permanent discontinuation of NEXAVAR should be considered. There have been reports of severe dermatologic toxicities, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). These cases may be life-threatening. Discontinue NEXAVAR if SJS or TEN are suspected
Gastrointestinal perforation was an uncommon adverse reaction and has been reported in less than 1% of patients taking NEXAVAR. Discontinue NEXAVAR in the event of a gastrointestinal perforation
Infrequent bleeding or elevations in the International Normalized Ratio (INR) have been reported in some patients taking warfarin while on NEXAVAR. Monitor patients taking concomitant warfarin regularly for changes in prothrombin time (PT), INR, or clinical bleeding episodes
Temporary interruption of NEXAVAR therapy is recommended in patients undergoing major surgical procedures
In a subset analysis of two randomized controlled trials in chemo-naïve patients with Stage IIIB-IV non-small cell lung cancer, patients with squamous cell carcinoma experienced higher mortality with the addition of NEXAVAR compared to those treated with carboplatin/paclitaxel alone (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.19–2.74) and gemcitabine/cisplatin alone (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.82-1.80). NEXAVAR, in combination with gemcitabine/cisplatin, is not recommended in patients with squamous cell lung cancer. The safety and effectiveness of NEXAVAR has not been established in patients with non-small cell lung cancer
NEXAVAR can prolong the QT/QTc interval and increase the risk for ventricular arrhythmias. Avoid use in patients with congenital long QT syndrome and monitor electrolytes and electrocardiograms in patients with congestive heart failure, bradyarrhythmias, drugs known to prolong the QT interval, including Class Ia and III antiarrhythmics, and electrolyte abnormalities. Correct electrolyte abnormalities (magnesium, potassium, calcium). Interrupt NEXAVAR if QTc interval is greater than 500 milliseconds or for an increase from baseline of 60 milliseconds or greater
Sorafenib-induced hepatitis is characterized by a hepatocellular pattern of liver damage with significant increases of transaminases which may result in hepatic failure and death. Increases in bilirubin and INR may also occur. Liver function tests should be monitored regularly and in cases of increased transaminases without alternative explanation NEXAVAR should be discontinued
NEXAVAR may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Women of child-bearing potential should be advised to avoid becoming pregnant while on NEXAVAR
Female patients should be advised against breastfeeding while receiving NEXAVAR
In DTC, NEXAVAR impairs exogenous thyroid suppression. Elevation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level above 0.5 mU/L was observed in 41% of NEXAVAR-treated patients as compared with 16% of placebo-treated patients in the DTC study. For patients with impaired TSH suppression while receiving NEXAVAR, the median maximal TSH was 1.6 mU/L and 25% had TSH levels greater than 4.4 mU/L. Monitor TSH levels monthly and adjust thyroid replacement medication as needed in patients with DTC
In the HCC study, the most common laboratory abnormalities observed in the NEXAVAR arm versus the placebo arm, respectively, were hypoalbuminemia (59% vs 47%), lymphopenia (47% vs 42%), thrombocytopenia (46% vs 41%), elevation in INR (42% vs 34%), elevated lipase (40% vs 37%), hypophosphatemia (35% vs 11%), elevated amylase (34% vs 29%), hypocalcemia (27% vs 15%), and hypokalemia (9.5% vs 5.9%)
In the RCC study, the most common laboratory abnormalities observed in the NEXAVAR arm versus the placebo arm, respectively, were hypophosphatemia (45% vs 11%), anemia (44% vs 49%), elevated lipase (41% vs 30%), elevated amylase (30% vs 23%), lymphopenia (23% vs 13%), neutropenia (18% vs 10%), thrombocytopenia (12% vs 5%), hypocalcemia (12% vs 8%), and hypokalemia (5.4% vs 0.7%)
In the DTC study, the most common laboratory abnormalities observed in the NEXAVAR arm versus the placebo arm, respectively, were elevated ALT (59% vs 24%), elevated AST (54% vs 15%), and hypocalcemia (36% vs 11%).The relative increase for the following laboratory abnormalities observed in NEXAVAR-treated DTC patients as compared to placebo-treated patients is similar to that observed in the RCC and HCC studies: lipase, amylase, hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, neutropenia, lymphopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia
Avoid concomitant use of strong CYP3A4 inducers, when possible, because inducers can decrease the systemic exposure of sorafenib. NEXAVAR exposure decreases when co-administered with oral neomycin. Effects of other antibiotics on NEXAVAR pharmacokinetics have not been studied
Most common adverse reactions reported for NEXAVAR-treated patients vs placebo-treated patients in unresectable HCC, respectively, were: diarrhea (55% vs 25%), fatigue (46% vs 45%), abdominal pain (31% vs 26%), weight loss (30% vs 10%), anorexia (29% vs 18%), nausea (24% vs 20%), and hand-foot skin reaction (21% vs 3%). Grade 3/4 adverse reactions were 45% vs 32%
Most common adverse reactions reported for NEXAVAR-treated patients vs placebo-treated patients in advanced RCC, respectively, were: diarrhea (43% vs 13%), rash/desquamation (40% vs 16%), fatigue (37% vs 28%), hand-foot skin reaction (30% vs 7%), alopecia (27% vs 3%), and nausea (23% vs 19%). Grade 3/4 adverse reactions were 38% vs 28%
Most common adverse reactions reported for NEXAVAR-treated patients vs placebo-treated patients in DTC, respectively, were: palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome (PPES) (69% vs 8%), diarrhea (68% vs 15%), alopecia (67% vs 8%), weight loss (49% vs 14%), fatigue (41% vs 20%), hypertension (41% vs 12%), rash (35% vs 7%), decreased appetite (30% vs 5%), stomatitis (24% vs 3%), nausea (21% vs 12%), pruritus (20% vs 11%), and abdominal pain (20% vs 7%). Grade 3/4 adverse reactions were 65% vs 30%
About Oncology at Bayer Bayer is committed to delivering science for a better life by advancing a portfolio of innovative treatments. The oncology franchise at Bayer includes three oncology products and several other compounds in various stages of clinical development. Together, these products reflect the company's approach to research, which prioritizes targets and pathways with the potential to impact the way that cancer is treated.
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Bruix J, et al. Regorafenib for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who progressed sorafenib treatment (RESORCE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. The Lancet. December 2016.
Jemal A, Bray F, Center M, et al. Global Cancer Statistics. CA Cancer J Clin. 2011;61:69-90.