Geothermal Heat Pumps and Direct Use

Aug 02, 2011, 03:43 ET from Reportlinker

NEW YORK, Aug. 2, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Geothermal Heat Pumps and Direct Use

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Residential, Commercial, Industrial, and Agricultural Applications for Geothermal Direct Use Energy: Market Analysis and ForecastsA

Geothermal heat pumps and the direct utilization of geothermal resources represent a fast-growing alternative in the heating and cooling market. As demand for electricity expands throughout the world and energy prices increase, the direct use of geothermal, led primarily by heat pumps, is on the rise. An efficient and reliable option for residential, commercial, and institutional building owners, geothermal heat pumps exploit the nearly constant temperatures found just beneath the ground. While cost and lack of consumer awareness remain primary obstacles to increased adoption, tax incentives and policies supporting building efficiency improvements are helping to drive dramatic growth in the heat pump market.

While heat pump potential is high, installations currently represent just 1% of the heating and cooling market. Other direct use technology growth is more moderate and in some cases negative, which results in heat pumps occupying a rapidly expanding proportion of direct use deployments throughout the world. Today, at least 78 countries utilize geothermal direct use applications, with geothermal heat pumps representing roughly 50% of the direct use market. Led by the United States, China, and Sweden, direct use capacity reached 51GWt in 2010, representing 438,073 TJ/year in thermal energy used. Through 2017, Pike Research projects that 90% of added direct use capacity will come from heat pump installations, led primarily by select EU markets, China, and the United States.

This Pike Research report analyzes the global market opportunity for direct utilization of geothermal energy with a primary focus on heat pumps. The study includes a comprehensive examination of direct use markets, demand drivers, existing and emerging technologies, the public policy and regulatory environment, and key industry players. Market forecasts, segmented by geography, extend through 2017 and include examinations of market dynamics in all regions worldwide.

Key Questions Addressed:

Which geothermal direct use applications are poised for the greatest growth?

What is the market opportunity for geothermal heat pumps and direct use applications?

What are the relative strengths and weaknesses of geothermal direct use applications?

Where are geothermal heat pumps primarily utilized?

What are the primary barriers to increased use of geothermal heat pumps?

What policies will drive demand for geothermal heat pumps?

Who needs this report?

Geothermal heat pump manufacturers

Heat pump equipment distributors

HVAC system installers

Drilling specialists and ground loop installers

Residential, commercial, and institutional building owners and managers

Architects, engineers, and contractors

Utilities

Government agencies

Industry associations

Investor community

Table of Contents

1.     Executive Summary

1.1   Introduction

1.2   Direct-Use Geothermal Growth Outlook

1.3   Key Findings

2.     Market Issues

2.1   What Is Geothermal Energy?

2.2   How Is Geothermal Energy Used?

2.2.1     Geothermal Direct Use Applications

2.2.2     Geothermal for Power

2.3   Direct Use Market Overview

2.3.1     Space Heating Market Overview

2.3.2     Greenhouse and Covered Ground Heating Market Overview

2.3.3     Aquaculture Pond and Raceway Heating Market Overview

2.3.4     Agricultural Crop Drying Market Overview

2.3.5     Industrial Process Heat Market Overview

2.3.6     Snow Melting & Cooling

2.3.7     Bathing and Swimming

2.3.8     Other Uses

2.4   GHPs

2.4.1     Role of GHPs in Energy Markets

2.4.2     GHP Global Market Snapshot

2.4.2.1     U.S. GHP Market

2.4.2.2     European GHP Market

2.4.2.3     Asia Pacific GHP Market

2.4.3     GHP End-Use Market Segmentation

2.4.3.1     Residential Markets

2.4.3.2     Commercial and Institutional Markets

2.5   Why Geothermal Heat Pumps?

2.5.1     Benefits

2.5.1.1     Abundant Resource

2.5.1.2     Low Operating and Maintenance Costs

2.5.1.3     Efficiency

2.5.1.4     Durability and Reliability

2.5.1.5     Convenience and Safety

2.5.1.6     Flexibility

2.5.2     Drawbacks

2.5.2.1     Upfront Expense

2.5.2.2     Other Concerns

2.5.2.2.1.    Maintenance

2.5.2.2.2.    Water Dependency and Contamination

2.5.2.2.3.    Concerns Associated with Use of Antifreeze

2.5.2.2.4.    Coordination of Various Components

2.6   GHP Market Drivers

2.6.1     Rising Energy Costs

2.6.2     Electricity Demand

2.6.3     Energy Efficiency

2.6.4     Climate Change

2.6.4.1     EU ETS Directive

2.6.5     Job Creation

2.6.6     Alternative Energy Mandates

2.6.6.1     Select National Mandates from International Markets

2.6.6.1.1.    European Union

2.6.6.1.2.    China

2.6.6.2     Renewable Portfolio Standards in the United States

2.6.7     Government Incentives

2.6.7.1     Select International Incentives

2.6.7.2     United States

2.6.7.2.1.    Tax Credits and Subsidies

2.6.7.2.2.    Loans, Grants, and Rebates

2.7   GHP Barriers & Market Constraints

2.7.1.1     High Capital Costs

2.7.1.1.1.    Models for Shifting Installation Cost Burden

2.7.1.1.2.    Policy Improvements

2.7.1.2     Consumer Knowledge

2.7.2     Other Barriers

2.7.2.1     Lack of Standardized Cost and Feasibility Analysis

2.7.2.2     Energy Prices

2.7.2.2.1.    Natural Gas

2.7.2.2.2.    Heating Oil

2.7.2.3     Space Constraints

2.7.2.4     Distribution Issues & Lack of Regional Expert

2.8   GHP Economics

2.8.1     GHP Unit Costs

2.8.2     GHP Installation Costs

2.8.3     Operating & Maintenance Costs

2.8.4     DOD Experience

3.     Technology Issues

3.1   Geothermal Direct Use Technology Overview

3.1.1     Geothermal Terminology

3.1.2     GHP Technology Overview

3.1.2.1     GHP Cooling

3.1.2.2     GHP Heating

3.2   GHP System Components

3.2.1     Heat Pump

3.2.2     Geothermal Loop

3.2.3     Optional Components

3.3   GHP versus Air-Source Heat Pumps

3.4   GHP Loops

3.4.1     Closed-Loop Systems

3.4.1.1     Horizontal

3.4.1.1.1.    SLINKY Spiral System

3.4.1.2     Vertical

3.4.1.3     Pond/Groundwater

3.4.2     Open-Loop Systems

3.4.2.1     Standing Column Well ("Well Water")

3.4.3     Direct Exchange

3.5   Optimizing the Loop System

3.5.1     Evaluating GHP Sites

3.5.1.1     Geology

3.5.1.2     Hydrology

3.5.1.3     Land Availability

3.5.2     Types of Loop Piping

3.5.3     Heat Transfer Fluids

3.5.4     Combining Septic Systems with Loops

3.6   GHP Efficiency

3.6.1     Energy Consumption

3.6.2     Rating GHP Heating and Cooling Efficiency

3.6.2.1     Cooling Ratings in the United States

3.6.2.2     Heating Ratings in the United States

3.6.3     GHP Energy Star Ratings in the United States

3.6.4     ASHP Ratings

3.7   Installing GHPs

3.7.1     Ground-Loop Installation

3.7.2     GHP Unit Installation

3.8   Optimizing GHP Technology

3.8.1     Increasing GHP Efficiency

3.8.1.1     Loop Temperature versus Operating Costs

3.8.1.2     Adding VFDs to the Pumps

3.8.1.3     Energy Recovery of Ventilation Air

3.8.2     Geothermal and Green Building

3.8.2.1     Maximizing LEED Points

3.8.2.2     Net-Zero Energy Buildings

3.8.3     R&D Financing

3.8.3.1     Financing Innovation

3.8.3.2     Sampling of Specific Research Efforts

4.     Key Industry Players

4.1   Geothermal Direct Use Industry Overview

4.2   GHP Industry Overview

4.3   GHP Manufacturers

4.3.1     Carrier

4.3.2     ClimateMaster

4.3.3     Enertech

4.3.4     FHP–Bosch Group

4.3.5     GeoMaster

4.3.6     GeoSystems

4.3.7     NIBE

4.3.8     WaterFurnace

4.3.9     Chinese Manufacturers

4.4   GHP Service Providers

4.4.1     Geothermal International

4.4.2     Hydro-Temp

4.4.3     Laibe Corporation

5.     Market Forecasts

5.1   Global Renewable Energy Trends

5.1.1     Geothermal Direct Use Trends

5.1.2     GHP Trends

5.2   Geothermal Direct Use Forecast Methodological Overview

5.2.1     Global Direct Use Forecast

5.2.2     Regional Direct Use Forecasts

5.2.2.1     North America

5.2.2.2     Latin America

5.2.2.3     Eastern Europe

5.2.2.4     Western Europe

5.2.2.5     Asia Pacific

5.2.2.6     Africa

5.2.2.7     Middle East

5.3   GHP Global Market Outlook

5.3.1     North America

5.3.1.1     United States

5.3.1.2     Canada

5.3.1.3     Latin America

5.3.1.4     Eastern Europe

5.3.1.5     Western Europe

5.3.1.6     Asia Pacific

5.3.1.6.1.    China

5.3.1.7     Africa

5.3.1.8     Middle East

6.     Company Directory

7.     Acronym and Abbreviation List

8.     Table of Contents

9.     Table of Charts and Figures

10.   Scope of Study, Sources and Methodology, Notes

List of Charts and Figures

Direct Use Capacity Growth by Region, World Markets: 2011-2017

Top Ten Countries Utilizing Geothermal Direct Use Resources: 2010

Geothermal Direct Use Market Share by Region, World Markets: 2010

Top Ten Countries Utilizing Geothermal Heat Pump Technology: 2010

GHP Market Share by Region, World Markets: 2010

Top Six Countries Utilizing GHP, Europe: 2010

GHP Market Share by Country, Asia Pacific: 2010

New Housing Starts, United States: 2001-2010

GHP Cost Breakdown

Top Ten Manufacturers of Energy Star Rated GHP Units, United States: 2010

Direct Use Capacity Growth by Application, World Markets: 2011-2017

Direct Use Capacity Growth by Region, World Markets: 2011-2017

Direct Use Capacity Growth by Application, North America: 2011-2017

Direct Use Capacity Growth by Application, Latin America: 2011-2017

Direct Use Capacity Growth by Application, Eastern Europe: 2011-2017

Direct Use Capacity Growth by Application, Western Europe: 2011-2017

Direct Use Capacity Growth by Application, Asia Pacific: 2011-2017

Direct Use Capacity Growth by Application, Africa: 2011-2017

Direct Use Capacity Growth by Application, Middle East: 2011-2017

GHP Capacity Growth by Region, World Markets: 2011-2017

GHP Shipments by Model Type, United States: 2010-2017

GHP Revenue by Model Type, United States: 2011-1017

GHP Capacity Growth, Western Europe: 2011-2017

GHP Capacity Growth, Asia Pacific: 2011-2017

GHP Shipments, United States: 2004-2009

Analysis of Ground-Loop Installation Costs

Geothermal Resource Temperatures and Potential Direct Use Applications

Residential GHP System (Cooling Mode)

Residential GHP System (Heating Mode)

Overview of Closed-Loop GHP Systems

Installation of SLINKY Spiral System

EPA Energy Star 3.0 GHP Specification

List of Tables

Geothermal Direct Use Market Share by Application, World Markets: 2011

Geothermal Heat Pumps & Direct Use Market Share by Region, World Markets: 2011

Geothermal Direct Use by Country, World Markets: 2010

Top Ten Countries Utilizing GHPs by Installed Capacity, World Markets: 2010

GHP Installed Capacity by Country, World Markets: 2010

Estimated Efficiency of High-Efficiency Heating Options

Cost per 1 Million Btu of Heating Output of High-Efficiency Heating Options

Approximate GSP Cost Breakdown by Component

New Home Starts, United States: 2001-2010

GHP Domestic Shipments by Sector and Model Type, United States: 2010

Rated Capacity of GHP Shipments by Model Type, United States: 2000-2009

Number of Energy Star GHP-Qualified Products by Brand Name, United States: 2011

Geothermal Direct Use Capacity and Thermal Use by Region, World Markets: 2010

Projected Geothermal Direct Use Growth by Application, North America: 2010-2017

Projected Geothermal Direct Use Growth by Application, Latin America: 2010-2017

Projected Geothermal Direct Use Growth by Application, Eastern Europe: 2010-2017

Projected Geothermal Direct Use Growth by Application, Western Europe: 2010-2017

Projected Geothermal Direct Use Growth by Application, Asia Pacific: 2010-2017

Projected Geothermal Direct Use Growth by Application, Africa: 2010-2017

Projected Geothermal Direct Use Growth by Application, Middle East: 2010-2017

Growth in Geothermal Direct Use Capacity by Application, World Markets: 1995-2017

Growth in Geothermal Direct Use Utilization by Application, World Markets: 1995-2017

Growth in GHP Market Value by Application, World Markets: 2010-2017

GHP Shipments by Model Type, United States: 2000-2017

Revenue from GHP Shipments by Model Type, United States: 2008-2017

Projected GHP Shipments by Destination, United States: 2008-2017

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