Electric Motors for Electric Vehicles: $400 Billion Confusion
What do golf cars and heavy electric trucks have in common? There is still no agreement on the best type of electric motor to use in either of them. On analysis, the booming, confusing traction motor business will rise to around $400 billion in 2027. Its new report, ""Electric Motors for Electric Vehicles 2017-2027"" navigates the jargon, the design options and, yes, the disagreement. The changing needs and evolving technology are matched to create forecasts and technology timelines based on intensive recent travel and interviews by PhD level analysts.
Rotating electric machines REM propel electric vehicles at least some all of the time by land, water and air. In a hybrid the motor may sometimes have to run hotter due to hot engine systems nearby and tougher duty cycles. This affects motor design as do cost-performance compromises for the very different duty cycles and environments experienced by vehicles land, water and air. Off-road vehicle REMs are very different from on-road. The second most expensive part of an EV after the energy storage is typically the REM system including its intimately related motor controller.
The report reveals how the REM system is taking a larger share of cost over the years as simpler batteries reduce in cost. By contrast, REM systems are variously being asked to grab regenerative energy, eliminate transmission, provide better speed/ torque characteristics and even form part of the structure such as tucked into the wheel with brake and controller. In hybrids add takeoff. Creeping and active cruising with engine off and start and boost the engine. Crucially, in addition to becoming motor-generators, more REMs are being used per vehicle for reasons explained in the report which has in-wheel forecasts for that form of multi-motor.
"Electric Motors for Electric Vehicles 2017-2027" reports that, increasingly, the choice of REM system benefits the unique selling propositions of the vehicle. Where it eliminates the need for a gearbox it can increase range 15%. Extreme power-to-weight ratio REMs are sought for most vehicles.
A pure- electric heavy construction vehicle with several quiet REMs appropriately placed may have vectored traction so it can cross roads without damaging them and be legally used indoors and at night time as needed. It may operate implements with improved precision and response time and create electricity instead of heat when the vehicle or the implements brake. Start-stop is smoother. Emissions, acceleration, ride, fuel consumption and autonomy of navigation and energy are improved with better REMs. Emissions are reduced or eliminated. There are chapters on how this all fits in with all vehicles, the technology being fully explained.
Key Topics Covered:
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
1.1. Focus of this report primary trends, opportunities 1.2. Example of multiple REM per vehicle 1.3. Powertrain focus 1.4. Motor-generator REM duty cycle type, function 1.5. Motor-generator REM improvements needed, number of manufacturers/ developers 1.6. REM technology 1.7. Market forecasts 1.8. Powertrain forecasts by 46 types of electric vehicle 1.9. Motor and powertrain forecasts by 46 types of electric vehicle 1.10. Market size 2017-2027for electric vehicles and 48V mild hybrid cars (non-EV and EV form) - Number (thousand) 1.11. Rapidly increasing market for powertrain REMs for electric vehicles 1.12. Voltage trends alter REM design 1.13. Permanent magnet price and investment trend
2. INTRODUCTION 2.1. Jargon buster 2.2. Traction motor technology choices 2.3. Rotating electrical machines in powertrain 2.4. One business land water, air - hybrid and pure electric 2.5. Trend to two or more REM per vehicle 2.6. Trend to product integration 2.7. Trend to high voltage high speed motors in strong hybrids, pure electric vehicles 2.9. Trend to vertical integration in supply chain 2.10. Motor Controls 2.11. Example: How EVDrive selects and uses traction motors 2.12. Rectangular wire preferred
3. TRACTION MOTORS OFF-ROAD: CONSTRUCTION AGRICULTURE, MINING, MILITARY, MARINE 3.1. Needs are different from on-road 3.2. Progression of electrification 3.3. Trend to electric drive and standardisation 3.4. Sizes of off-road vehicles with many traction motor opportunities 3.5. Wheel loaders with very different traction motor solutions 3.6. Agricultural tractor John Deere 3.7. Oerlikon SR motor in large hybrids 3.8. Planned PM synchronous heavy duty drive UQM Eaton, Pi Innovo 3.9. Dana in-axle motor 3.10. Ship propulsion motors PM synchronous and asynchronous
4. 48V MILD HYBRID BSG ISG: MAINLY CAR, LIGHT COMMERCIAL, TRUCK 4.1. Why 48V? 4.2. Where 48V mild hybrids fit in 4.3. Motivation 4.4. 48V mild hybrid system technology 4.5. Example CPT 4.6. Evolution from stop-start to multifunctional rotating machines 4.7. How to make a 48V mild hybrid in latest form for a car 4.8. Toolkit for 48V mild hybrid powertrains 4.9. The key components of the system options are mostly different 4.10. Not just cars! 4.11. Reversible rotating machine technology choices for 48V mild hybrids 4.12. How Continental sees the asynchronous option 4.13. Example of test beds for 48V REMs ADEPT project 4.14. Different views concerning dual 12V + 48V systems 4.15. Best solutions for market needs 2016-2030: interviews 4.16. Modelling of 48V introduction: Volkswagen SUV data with comment Gen 1&2 4.17. Modelling of 48V introduction using Volkswagen SUV data with comment Gen2&3 4.18. Types of conventional and electric vehicle with those that have or will have many 48V systems shown in grey
5. ELECTRIC MOTORS, MOTOR-GENERATORS FOR STRONG HYBRIDS 5.1. Relative needs 5.2. Plug in option 5.3. Plug in hybrid potential in higher performance/ heavy vehicles 5.4. The Tesla approach to electric traction motors 5.5. Different views on usefulness of parallel hybrids in future: Siemens, Ricardo 5.6. Siemens typical hybrid system components based on automotive standard TS 16949 5.7. Ricardo view of long haul options 5.8. GKN advances in 2016 5.9. Roundup
6. ELECTRIC MOTORS, MOTOR-GENERATORS FOR PURE ELECTRIC VEHICLES 6.1. The end game 6.2. Voltage trends for pure electric vehicles 6.3. Great variety 6.4. Pure electric cars and similar vehicles 6.5. UAVs and multicopters 6.6. Dyson robot vacuum cleaner 6.7. Energy Independent Vehicles EIV
7. EXAMPLES OF INTERVIEWS 2016-2017 7.1. Ongoing interviews USA East Asia, Europe 7.2. Interviews with Professor Pietro Perlo 7.3. Elaphe Slovenia 7.4. Protean Electric UK 7.4.1. Protean in March 2017 7.5. ALABC/ILA London 7.6. MAHLE 7.7. Controlled Power Technologies