Global Ocean Energy Report

Feb 07, 2013, 08:15 ET from Reportlinker

NEW YORK, Feb. 7, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Global Ocean Energy Report

This new report looks at the key market drivers for the global Ocean Energy market, developments and future projections. 2009 was a good year for the ocean energy sector with US $246 million invested in the industry, up from the 2008 figure. Key areas of development were wave energy, and tidal and marine current projects. For both sectors, more devices reached the prototype stage and were tested out at sea. Considerably more funding has been available for projects to take this leap. Portugal and the UK remain as the main countries for wave energy projects due to generous grants and subsidies, targets and in the case of Portugal, a feed-in tariff. Other countries making significant inroads in the sector last year include Australia, the US, New Zealand and other European countries, especially Ireland.

Contents Executive Summary 11

Background .11

Technology development 12

Market Development .13

Tidal Energy 17

Wave Energy .18

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) .20

Tidal or Marine Current Energy 20

Salinity Gradients 21

Manufacturing 22

2. Tidal Energy 23 Advantages .24 Disadvantages 24 Technical concepts for exploiting Tidal Energy - Tidal Barrages 25 Secondary water storage 26 Current Development of Tidal Barrage Schemes 26 Technical status and experience from operating systems .28 France - La Rance 240 MW Tidal Barrage 28 Canada – Annapolis 17.8 MW Tidal Barrage .29 China – 11 MW of small Tidal Barrages .29 Tidal barrage plant under construction 29 Korea .29 China Yalu River Tidal Barrage .29 Experimental and proposed tidal barrages .29 Scotland 29 United Kingdom – Severn Estuary, Mersey Estuary .30 Scottish schemes .32 Russian Federation - Kislogubsk 400 kW .32 Other tidal flow prospects .33 Australia – Derby 33 United States 33 Argentina 33 Canada .33 China .33 India 34 Korea (Republic) 34 Mexico 34 Economic considerations 34 Environmental aspects 35

3. Wave Energy 36

Wave resources 36

Wave energy technology 37

WECS (Wave energy conversion systems) .37

Oscillating water column (OWC) 38

Wave surge or focussing devices - Tapchan (Tapered channel system) .38

Floats or buoys 38

Oscillating Water Column (OWC) 38

Siadar Wave Energy Project (SWEP) 40

Figure 3.6: MK3PC installed at Port Kembla .53

Source; Oceanlinx .53

Sperboy 53

Voith Hydro (Wavegen) 54

Point Absorber 55

Finavera Renewables 55

Ocean Power Technologies .55

McCabe Wave Pump .59

Pelamis Wave Power Ltd 59

AWS Ocean Energy (Archimedes Wave Swing) 63

Tapchan .64

Wave Dragon 64

Other 66

Searaser .66

Wave Hub 67

Wave Propulsion .69

Synergies with the offshore industry .71

The road to commercial wave power 71

Current status for Wave Energy development – Country Developments .73

Australia 73

China .74

Denmark .75

India 78

Indonesia 78

Ireland 78

Japan .82

Maldives .83

Norway .84

Portugal 85

Romania .87

Spain .87

Sweden .88

United Kingdom .88

United States 96

4. Ocean Thermal Energy 100 Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) 100 Additional benefits of OTEC technology - DOWA 101 Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) .104 Status of development and funding support 104 Support organisations 104 The International OTEC/DOWA Association (IOA) .104 EU and Maritime Industries Forum 104 Japan Association of Deep Ocean Water Applications 105 Markets for OTEC 105 Country Developments .109 Côte d'Ivoire 109 Cuba 109 Fiji .109 French Polynesia 109 Guadeloupe 110 India .110 Indonesia .110 Jamaica 110 Japan 110 Kiribati .111 Marshall Islands 111 Nauru 111 Netherlands Antilles .112 New Caledonia 112 Puerto Rico .112 Sri Lanka .112 St. Lucia 112 Taiwan 113 United States 113

5. Tidal or Marine Current Energy .116

Marine Current Turbines (MCT) - The world's first marine current turbine 123

Stingray and the EB Frond, the Engineering Business (EB) 135

The Marine Current resource 137

Status of Marine Current technology 139

Horizontal Axis Turbines (axial flow turbine) 139

Vertical Axis Turbines (cross flow turbine) .139

Synergies with the offshore industry .139

Technical problems for research .140

Experimental marine plant, Korea 141

Future of Tidal and Marine Current Energy .141

6. Salinity Gradients .150 Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO). .150 Vapour compression 151 Reverse dialysis (RED) 151 Demonstration and commercialisation of salinity gradient power 151

7. Ocean Energy Conversion Costs .152

8. National Policies for Renewable Energy .157 Renewable energy targets .157 Feed-in tariffs and RPS 158 EU and feed-in tariffs 194 US and RPS .194 The feed-in tariff in Europe .194 The evolution of RPS Policy in the United States 196 Comparison of feed-in tariffs and RPS .197 Europe – the EU Renewable Energy Directive 197 Investor confidence, price, and policy cost 197 Effectiveness 197 Innovation and technology diversity 197 Ownership structure 197 Conclusion 198 Feed-in tariffs in the United States 198

9. Benefits of Different Forms of Energy .200

10. Acknowledgements .202

Figures Figure 1.1: Status of ocean energy technologies, December 2007

Figure 1.2: Planned and historical development of wave and tidal projects, MW

Figure 1.3: Project status by country, December 2007

Figure 1.4: Level of Research & Development and Demonstration investment by members of the IEA Implementing Agreement on Ocean Energy Systems

Figure 2.1: The Global Tidal Resource

Figure 2.2: La Rance Tidal Barrage

Figure 2.3: Tidal Current Power

Figure 2.4: Base Data for the Severn Barrage

Figure 2.5: Proposed Severn Barrage

Figure 3.1: Wave power resources of the world

Figure 3.2: The Mighty Whale

Figure 3.3: Offshore test centres for wave energy

Figure 3.4: Proposed European Test Centres

Figure 3.5: Development programme for WECs

Figure 3.6: MK3PC installed at Port Kembla

Figure 3.7: SPERBOY Oscillating Water Column device

Figure 3.8: Limpet shoreline energy module

Figure 3.9: Finavera AquabuOY

Figure 3.10:Floating buoy energy converters

Figure 3.11: CETO device

Figure 3.12: Wavebob

Figure 3.13: Wave Star device

Figure 3.14: Pelamis

Figure 3.15: Archimedes Wave Swing III (AWS III)

Figure 3.16: Wave Dragon Floating Tapchan

Figure 3.17: Waveplane

Figure 3.18: Searaser

Figure 3.19:Wave Hub

Figure 3.20: The Orcelle, sustainably powered ship

Figure 3.21: Pelamis wave farm in Portugal

Figure 3.22: The UK wave power resource

Figure 3.23: Humboldt WaveConnect™ Pilot Project

Figure 4.1: OTEC resource map

Figure 4.2: The OTEC device

Figure 4.3: Energy Island systems diagram perspective view

Figure 4.4: Makai Ocean Engineering List Open Cycle OTEC page 8

Figure 5.1: The Seagen Marine Current Turbine

Figure 5.2: SeaGen in Strangford Lough

Figure 5.3: Marine Current Turbine second generation device

Figure 5.4: Third generation SeaGen device

Figure 5.5: Atlantic Resources' AK 1000 turbine

Figure 5.6: BioSTREAM device

Figure 5.7: Fri-El Green Power ship

Figure 5.8: Hammerfest Strøm HS1000 turbine

Figure 5.9: Early rendering of Hydro Green Energy's dual ducted hydrokinetic turbine array (HTA) as viewed from below the surface of the water

Figure 5.10: Lunar Energy's Rotech Tidal Turbine

Figure 5.11: Ocean Renewable Power's RivGen™, TidGen™, and OCGen™ systems

Figure 5.12: Open Hydro seabed mounted open-centre turbine

Figure 5.13: TidEL Tidal Energy Device

Figure 5.14: Stingray and EB Frond Wave Energy Devices

Figure 5.15: Verdant Power's free flow system

Figure 5.16: Marine Current resource in the UK

Figure 5.17: Comparison of offshore wind turbine and marine or tidal current turbine projects

Figure 7.1: Wave power installed cost curve versus other renewables

Figure 7.2: Generation costs from Ocean Energy Conversion estimated experience

Figure 7.3: EU wind and wave deployment and costs

Figure 7.4: Capital cost breakdown for a particular wave energy device

Figure 7.5: Capital cost breakdown for installation of a particular tidal stream energy device in a tidal stream farm of a certain size

Figure 8.1: National renewable energy policies in EU countries

Figure 8.2: US states with RPS regulations, August page 9

Tables Table 1.1: Marine Energy sources and product

Table 1.2: The size of the oceanic energy resource

Table 1.3: Ocean energy projects installed or under construction in IEA Ocean member states, kW, end 2009

Table 1.4: Consent process for ocean energy projects in selected countries

Table 2.1: Prospective Sites for Tidal Energy Projects

Table 2.2: Comparison of World Tidal Schemes in Existence or Proposed

Table 2.3: Identified for Possible Tidal Barrage Plants

Table 3.1: Six types of WEC identified by the EMEC

Table 3.2: List of wave developers

Table 3.3: Status of known wave energy projects in November 2008

Table 3.4: Schedule and budget for the development of a WEC prototype

Table 3.5: Six Pelamis projects at various stages of development

Table 3.6: Comparison of three different wave devices at three sites in Canada

Table 3.7: Required price of electricity for a 10-year simple payback period for three wave devices, C$

Table 3.8: Status of wave energy projects in Denmark at the end of 2009

Table 3.9: Planned development of wave energy devices in Ireland

Table 3.10: Recipients Prototype Development Funds

Table 3.11: Prototype Development Funds for different project phases

Table 3.12: Potential for Marine Energy Converter Technologies in New Zealand

Table 3.13: Recipients of the 'Wave and Tidal Stream Energy Technologies' funding round

Table 3.14: Recipients of Round 1 of the WATERS fund

Table 3.15: Wave project developers awarded licences for Crown Estate marine sites

Table 3.16: ROCs received per technology, April 2010

Table 3.17: Wave device testing sites in the UK

Table 3.18: Wave projects included in the Advanced Water Technologies receiving DOE funding, 2009

Table 3.19: Recipients of SBIR funding

Table 4.1: Seawater air conditioning plants

Table 4.2: Reported advantages and challenges for the Energy Island

Table 4.3: OTEC projects included in the Advanced Water Technologies receiving DOE funding, 2009

Table 5.1: Tidal or marine current energy devices

Table 5.2: Methods to fix turbine energy converters to the seabed

Table 5.3: Tidal or marine current developers

Table 5.4: Status of known marine and hydrokinetic projects in November 2008

Table 5.5: Kilowatt of electricity produced per tonne of turbine

Table 5.6: Biopower projects

Table 5.7: Verdant Power tidal projects

Table 5.8: Distribution of potential tidal sites in Canada

Table 5.9: Recipients of Clean Energy Funds

Table 5.10: Ocean projects awarded ICE funds in British Columbia

Table 5.11: Three tidal technology projects in the Netherlands

Table 5.12: Tidal project developers awarded licences for Crown Estate marine sites

Table 5.13: Tidal projects included in the Advanced Water Technologies receiving DOE funding, 2009

Table 8.1 Renewables targets and support schemes of European countries

Table 8.2 Non-European countries with renewable energy targets and plans

Table 8.3: State RPS resource tiers

Table 9.1: The Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Energy Technologies

To order this report:Renewable_energy Industry: Global Ocean Energy Report

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