In Vitro Toxicity Testing: Technologies and Global Markets

Jan 14, 2014, 07:58 ET from Reportlinker

NEW YORK, Jan. 14, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:



In Vitro Toxicity Testing: Technologies and Global Markets


http://www.reportlinker.com/p01940408/In-Vitro-Toxicity-Testing-Technologies-and-Global-Markets.html#utm_source=prnewswire&utm_medium=pr&utm_campaign=In_Vitro_Diagnostic



STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

BCC Research's goal in conducting this study was to update the status of the global in vitro toxicity testing market and assess its growth potential over the five-year period from 2012 to 2017. We were particularly interested in understanding the current market adoption, and analyzing drivers for increasing this in terms of both scope (more applications) and scale (larger volume applications).


In addition, we were interested in understanding the impact of these methods on different industry sectors, specifically the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and chemical industries. Another key objective was to analyze the adoption of in vitro toxicity testing in developed and emerging markets.



REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

Classical toxicology testing programs have been in place for many decades now. Over the past 20 years, animal welfare and scientific activities have spurred the development of alternative testing methods.


This report details the recent key technical advances in different toxicology categories, and the extent of adoption by commercial customers and regulatory authorities. We also were interested in identifying the impact of new bioinformatics advancements with possible application to toxicology, and examining their growth potential.


There are many groups of suppliers that provide equipment, assays, cells, reagents, and services used in toxicity testing. Previously, there was broad coverage of the services landscape, and this study sought to analyze the others in greater depth.



SCOPE OF REPORT

The scope of the report encompasses the major types of traditional toxicity testing that have been used, and the in vitro techniques that are being developed by industry, government agencies and nonprofits. It analyzes current market status, examines drivers on future markets and presents forecasts of growth over the next five years.


Technology developments, including the latest trends, are discussed. Other influential factors such as validation and testing strategies for pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and chemicals have also been included.


Regulatory drivers play a large role in toxicology, determining the specific parameters of tests that have been explicitly required. They also heavily influence the testing that is performed by companies in earlier stages of research. The report examines the regulatory role and the different federal and international agencies that play an active role in in vitro toxicology research, development and adoption.


The term 'predictive' is often used in conjunction with in vitro toxicology, and historically predictive approaches (also called 'nonmechanistic') have been contrasted with mechanistic approaches. This report does discuss where applicable the relative magnitude of the two. However, our research shows that increasingly the two are used in tandem, and that they are being viewed as complementary parts of an overall toolkit. Thus, our use of the term 'Predictive Toxicology' as a subject/discipline throughout is intended to encompass both predictive and mechanistic, and to connote an evolution of the overall toolkit. In keeping with the 'Tox 21' vision detailed later, the key attribute of this overall evolution is being more and more able to use in vitro methods to predict in vivo outcomes.


Relative to the pharmaceutical industry, this report covers the testing of pharmaceutical or so-called 'small molecule' drugs, synthesized from chemical compounds. Biologics, so-called 'large molecule' drugs, are tested via completely different approaches and technologies. Biologics safety testing is outside the scope of this report.



INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is designed to satisfy the information needs of a wide variety of individuals involved in the toxicology, in vitro and in silico marketplaces, including company senior management executives seeking to base their strategic decisions on the latest insights into toxicology market forces and trends. It is also aimed at managers and executives in product research and development and particularly those responsible for bringing new products to market.



METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this study. Primary research included interviews with leading individuals in relevant companies and associations; primary sources of published data included research studies, company annual reports and government publications. Secondary sources consisted of literature searches, industry journals and other commercial publications. Data for market estimates and forecasts are pooled from a range of sources, critically assessed by BCC Research.



ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS

Robert Hunter has over 20 years of experience in life sciences as an analyst, business development executive, project manager and management consultant for business processes, organizational development and systems implementation. Recent studies have included multiple stem cell lines for true genetic diversity and proteomic biomarkers for cancer via label-free imaging. He is an early investor in a company using stem cells for in vitroscreening of pharmaceutical compounds.



REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

The global in vitro toxicity testing market was valued at $4 billion in 2011 and more than $4.9 billion in 2012. This market is estimated to reach nearly $9.9 billion in 2017, with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 14.7% for the five-year period, 2012 to 2017.


This report provides:


• An overview of the global in vitro toxicity testing market, with assessments of its growth potential over the next five years and the current market scenario for alternative measures to animal testing.


• Analyses of market trends, with data from 2011 and 2012, and projections of CAGRs for the period 2012 and 2017.


• Discussion of the two major technology-based approaches, mechanistic and nonmechanistic.


• A breakdown of influential factors, such as validation of the alternative measures for toxicity and toxicity testing strategies for chemicals, pesticides, and food additives.


• Comprehensive company profiles of major players.




TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2


REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2


SCOPE OF REPORT 2


INTENDED AUDIENCE 3


METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 3


ANALYST'S CREDENTIALS 3


RELATED REPORTS 4


BCC RESEARCH ONLINE SERVICES 4


DISCLAIMER 4



CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6

SUMMARY TABLE TOTAL GLOBAL MARKET FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY,


THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 6


SUMMARY FIGURE TOTAL GLOBAL MARKET FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY,
2011-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 6


CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10

BASICS OF TOXICOLOGY 10


TYPES AND APPLICATIONS 10


REGULATORY RISK ASSESSMENT 11


PRODUCT TOXICITY TESTS 11


DEGREES OF TOXICITY 12


ABOUT DOSES 13


DOSE 13


DOSE RESPONSE 13


THRESHOLD DOSE 13


ABOUT TOXIC SUBSTANCES 13


TOXICANT 13


TOXIN 14


ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY 14


TOXICOKINETICS 14


ABSORPTION 14


Oral 14


Inhalation 15


Dermal and Parenteral Routes 15


DISTRIBUTION 15


METABOLISM 15


EXCRETION 16


TRADITIONAL (IN VIVO) TOXICOLOGY 16


ISSUES WITH IN VIVO APPROACHES 16


Reduction, Refinement and Replacement - the '3Rs' Driver 16


Other Drivers 17


Background: Sheer Volume of Testing Required 17


Conflicting Data 17


Megadosing 18


Time and Cost 18


Mixtures of Chemicals 18


Example of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Bisphenol A 18


NEED FOR MORE EXPOSURE SCIENCE 19


EVOLUTION OF IN VITRO METHODS 20


TOXCAST 20


TOX 21 21


REACH 21


EU RESEARCH FRAMEWORKS 21


CURRENT ADOPTION OF IN VITRO METHODS 22


INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 22


EXAMPLE OF COMMERCIAL ADOPTION: CARDIOVASCULAR TESTING 24



CHAPTER 4 SPECIFIC TOXICITY TESTS AND FOUNDATIONAL SOLUTIONS (SMALLER SCALE) 26

TESTING FOR ADVERSE EFFECTS ON THE SKIN 26


SKIN IRRITATION 26


SKIN CORROSION 27


PHOTOTOXICITY 28


SKIN SENSITIZATION 28


TESTING FOR EYE IRRITATION 29


OVERVIEW OF ACUTE SYSTEMIC TOXICITY 30


TESTING FOR ACUTE TOXICITY 30


TABLE 1 APPROXIMATE RAT ORAL LD50 FOR VARIOUS CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES


(MG/KG) 31


USE OF CYTOTOXICITY ASSAYS FOR ACUTE TOXICITY TESTING 32


EXAMPLE OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE CYTOTOXICITY ASSAY KIT 33


CHRONIC/REPEATED DOSE TOXICITY 33


GOALS OF CHRONIC/REPEATED DOSE TOXICITY STUDIES 34


Effects of Accumulation and Frequency of Exposure 34


Dosage Levels 35


Duration 35


Reversibility 35


Analysis 36


Development of Repeated Dose Toxicity Testing In Vitro 36


CARCINOGENICITY AND GENOTOXICITY 36


INTRODUCTION 36


IN VITRO METHODS: BACKGROUND AND RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 36


REGULATORY VERSUS DRUG DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS 37


THE AMES TEST 37


IN VITRO MICRONUCLEUS TEST (MNT) 38


EFFORTS TO REDUCE FALSE POSITIVES 38


EXAMPLE OF RECENT INNOVATIONS 38


FUTURE CHALLENGE: NONGENOTOXIC CARCINOGENS 39


REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY 40


BACKGROUND 40


FOLLOWING THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE 40


Embryotoxicity 41


FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY 41


MALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY 41


TYPES OF REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENT TESTING 42


Zebrafish Model for Developmental Toxicity Screening 42


Combinations of Zebrafish and Stem Cells 43


BIOMEDICAL FRONTIERS 43


ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING 44


BACKGROUND 44


ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY IMPACTS ON IN VITRO METHODS 44


U.S. EPA ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING PROGRAM 45


TABLE 2 ASSAYS INCLUDED IN THE TIER 1 SCREENING BATTERY, IN VITRO AND IN


VIVO 45


HIGH PRODUCTION VOLUME (HPV) CHEMICALS 46


EDSP 21 Initiative 46


Future Challenge: Thyroid Disruption 46


EXAMPLE OF RECENT DEVELOPMENT: 'BG1' ASSAY 46


CHALLENGE FOR CHEMICAL COMPANIES: DEPTH AND BREADTH 47


Example of a Resource with Full Depth and Breadth 47


TOXICOKINETICS 48


IN VITRO DEVELOPMENTS 49


METABOLISM 49


In Vitro Metabolism Offerings 50


Metabolism Reaction Phenotyping for Genetic Polymorphisms 50


DEVELOPMENTS IN ABSORPTION BARRIER MODELS 51


Gastrointestinal 51


Lung 51


Blood-Brain Barrier 52


REVENUE ESTIMATE 53


SUMMARY 53


TABLE 3 FORECAST FOR FOUNDATIONAL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES USED IN


PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 53


REVENUE ESTIMATE DETAILS AND PARTIAL LISTS OF SUPPLIERS 53


Tissues, Cell Lines, Primary Cells, Stem Cells 53


TABLE 4 EXAMPLES OF TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS USED IN PREDICTIVE


TOXICOLOGY 54


TABLE 5 EXAMPLES OF ORGANIZATIONS OFFERING IMMORTALIZED CELL LINES


USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 54


TABLE 6 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES OFFERING PRIMARY CELLS FOR PREDICTIVE


TOXICOLOGY 55


TABLE 7 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES PROVIDING STEM CELLS FOR PREDICTIVE


TOXICOLOGY 55


REAGENTS AND LABWARE 56


TABLE 8 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES OFFERING REAGENTS AND LABWARE FOR


PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 56


Services 56


TABLE 9 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES OFFERING SERVICES TAILORED FOR


PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 57


Basic Equipment 57


TABLE 10 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES SUPPLYING BASIC EQUIPMENT FOR


FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY 58


INDUSTRY SEGMENTATION 58


COSMETICS INDUSTRY 58


TABLE 11 FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY REVENUES ATTRIBUTED TO COSMETICS


INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 59


PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY 60


TABLE 12 FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY REVENUES ATTRIBUTED TO


PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 60


CHEMICAL INDUSTRY 61


TABLE 13 FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY REVENUES ATTRIBUTED TO CHEMICAL


INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 61



CHAPTER 5 TOOLS USED FOR TRANSCRIPTOMICS, PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS 63

OVERVIEW 63


OVERVIEW OF TRANSCRIPTOMICS 63


TOOLS USED IN TRANSCRIPTOMICS 64


MICROARRAYS 64


NEXT-GENERATION SEQUENCING 65


OVERVIEW OF PROTEOMICS 65


OVERVIEW OF METABOLOMICS 66


OVERVIEW OF METALLOMICS 67


TOOLS USED IN PROTEOMICS 67


TABLE 14 PARTIAL LIST OF MASS SPEC SYSTEMS FOCUSED ON PROTEOMICS


APPLICATIONS 68


TOOLS USED IN METABOLOMICS 69


DETECTION 69


SEPARATION 70


HYPHENATED APPROACHES 70


TABLE 15 COMMON ANALYTICAL PLATFORMS USED IN METABOLOMICS 71


TOOLS USED IN METALLOMICS 72


REVENUE ESTIMATE FOR TRANSCRIPTOMICS TOOLS 72


TABLE 16 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TRANSCRIPTOMICS TOOLS USED IN PREDICTIVE


TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 72


TOOLS USED IN PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS 72


DETECTION - USED IN PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS 73


TABLE 17 GLOBAL MASS SPECTROMETRY MARKET, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 73


SEPARATION - USED IN METABOLOMICS 73


REVENUE ESTIMATE FOR PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS TOOLS 74


TABLE 18 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS TOOLS USED


IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 74


DISCUSSION 74



CHAPTER 6 CELLOMICS 77

BACKGROUND 77


EARLIER APPLICATIONS OF FLUORESCENCE 77


HIGH CONTENT SCREENING (HCS) 78


TABLE 19 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES SUPPLYING HIGH CONTENT SCREENING (HCS)


SOLUTIONS FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 80


LABEL-FREE PLATFORMS 80


TABLE 20 EXAMPLES OF LABEL-FREE TECHNOLOGY AND THE COMPANIES


SUPPLYING THEM 81


ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY 81


TABLE 21 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES PROVIDING SERVICES FOCUSED ON


CELLOMICS (LARGER SCALE STUDIES) FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 82


RECAP OF PREDICTIVE VS. MECHANISTIC 82


SAFETY TESTING OF CARDIOVASCULAR DRUG CANDIDATES 83


MICROELECTRODE ARRAYS (MEA) BASED ON IMPEDANCE 83


MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY USED IN CELLOMICS 84


REVENUE ESTIMATE 85


TABLE 22 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR CELLOMICS TOOLS USED IN PREDICTIVE


TOXICOLOGY BY TYPE OF EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 86



CHAPTER 7 ASSAY KITS, CELL LINES, STEM CELLS, CONSUMABLES AND SERVICES FOR LARGER SCREENING APPLICATIONS 88



OVERVIEW 88


REAGENTS FOR 'HOMEBREW' ASSAY DEVELOPMENT 88


ASSAY KITS FOR HIGH CONTENT SCREENING 88


CELL-BASED ASSAYS: OVERVIEW AND NEWER DEVELOPMENTS 88


COMPONENTS OF CELL-BASED ASSAY SYSTEMS 89


Microplates 90


IMPORTANCE OF 3D VERSUS 2D SYSTEMS 91


Microfluidics and 'Organs on a Chip' 92


3D Models for Skin 92


TYPES OF CELLS USED IN CELL-BASED ASSAYS 92


Immortalized Cell Lines and Primary Cells for Screening 93


Stem Cells at Scale for Screening 93


MODEL FOR ADOPTION: CARDIOVASCULAR SAFETY TESTING 94


APPLICATIONS IN LIVER TOXICITY STUDIES 96


USE OF STEM CELL-DERIVED HEPATOCYTES 97


CURRENT CHALLENGES: APPLICATIONS TO IMMUNE MEDIATED DILI 97


APPLICATIONS IN KIDNEY TOXICITY STUDIES 98


FUTURE CHALLENGE: STEM-CELL DERIVED KIDNEY CELLS 99


REVENUE FORECAST 99


TABLE 23 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR ASSAY KITS, OTHER CONSUMABLES AND


ASSOCIATED SERVICES USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH


2017 ($ MILLIONS)


99



CHAPTER 8 OVERVIEW OF IN SILICO TOOLS USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 101

BACKGROUND 101


GENE EXPRESSION CLASSIFIERS BASED ON STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 101


FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFIERS BASED ON PATHWAYS AND NETWORKS 102


USE OF PATHWAY MAPS 103


QSARS 105


MODEL-BASED DRUG DEVELOPMENT 105


EXAMPLES OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOLUTIONS 106


INGENUITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS (IPA) 106


GENEDATA SCREENER AND EXPRESSIONIST 108


THOMSON REUTERS METADRUG 108


ENTELOS PHYSIOLAB MODELER 109


REVENUE ESTIMATE 109


TABLE 24 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR IN SILICO PRODUCTS AND ASSOCIATED


SERVICES USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($


MILLIONS)


109



CHAPTER 9 BIOMARKERS AND OTHER BREAKOUT BUSINESS MODELS 111

BIOMARKERS 111


OVERVIEW AND SCOPE 111


CHALLENGES AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS 112


DRUG RESCUE 113


PRECISION MEDICINE APPLICATIONS 113


REVENUE ESTIMATE 114


TABLE 25 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR BIOMARKERS AND OTHER BREAKOUT


BUSINESS MODELS BASED ON PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017


($ MILLIONS)


114



CHAPTER 10 APPENDIX 116

PATENT ANALYSIS 116


TABLE 26 EXAMPLES OF SOME IMPORTANT PATENTS RELATIVE TO PREDICTIVE


TOXICOLOGY 116


SAMPLE COMPANY PROFILES 120


ACCELRYS INC. 120


ACEA BIOSCIENCES INC. 121


AGILENT TECHNOLOGIES INC. 122


APTUIT INC. 124


BIOGNOSYS AG 125


BIORELIANCE 127


CEETOX INC. 128


CELLULAR DYNAMICS INTERNATIONAL INC. 129


CENTER FOR ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL TESTING (CAAT) 130


CHANTEST 131


CHARLES RIVER LABORATORIES 132


CYPROTEX PLC 133


ENTELOS 134


ENZO LIFE SCIENCES INC. 135


EUROPEAN UNION REFERENCE LABORATORY FOR ALTERNATIVES TO


ANIMAL TESTING (EURL) 137


GE HEALTHCARE LIFE SCIENCES UK 137


GENEDATA 139


GENTRONIX LIMITED 139


THE HAMNER INSTITUTES FOR HEALTH SCIENCES 140


HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES INSTITUTE (HESI) 141


HUMANE SOCIETY INTERNATIONAL (HSI) 142


HUREL CORPORATION 143


IMSTAR S.A. 144


INGENUITY SYSTEMS 145


INSPHERO AG 146


INSTITUTE FOR IN VITRO SCIENCES INC. (IIVS) 147


INTELLICYT CORPORATION 148


KIYATEC INC. 149


MEDICYTE GMBH 150


METABOLON INC. 151


MOLECULAR DEVICES, LLC 152


NTP INTERAGENCY CENTER FOR THE EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE


TOXICOLOGICAL METHODS (NICEATM) 154


OCIMUM BIOSOLUTIONS LCC 155


PERKINELMER INC. 156


STEMINA BIOMARKER DISCOVERY INC. 157


STRATATECH CORPORATION 158


SYNVIVO INC. 159


THERMO FISHER SCIENTIFIC 160


TNO 161


VALA SCIENCES INC. 162


VISTAGEN THERAPEUTICS INC. 163


ZEN-BIO INC. 164


XRPRO CORPORATION 164





LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE TOTAL GLOBAL MARKET FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH


2017 ($ MILLIONS) 6


TABLE 1 APPROXIMATE RAT ORAL LD50 FOR VARIOUS CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES


(MG/KG) 31


TABLE 2 ASSAYS INCLUDED IN THE TIER 1 SCREENING BATTERY, IN VITRO AND IN


VIVO 45


TABLE 3 FORECAST FOR FOUNDATIONAL PRODUCTS AND SERVICES USED IN


PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 53


TABLE 4 EXAMPLES OF TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 54


TABLE 5 EXAMPLES OF ORGANIZATIONS OFFERING IMMORTALIZED CELL LINES


USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 54


TABLE 6 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES OFFERING PRIMARY CELLS FOR PREDICTIVE


TOXICOLOGY 55


TABLE 7 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES PROVIDING STEM CELLS FOR PREDICTIVE


TOXICOLOGY 55


TABLE 8 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES OFFERING REAGENTS AND LABWARE FOR


PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 56


TABLE 9 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES OFFERING SERVICES TAILORED FOR PREDICTIVE


TOXICOLOGY 57


TABLE 10 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES SUPPLYING BASIC EQUIPMENT FOR


FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY 58


TABLE 11 FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY REVENUES ATTRIBUTED TO COSMETICS


INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 59


TABLE 12 FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY REVENUES ATTRIBUTED TO


PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 60


TABLE 13 FOUNDATIONAL TOXICOLOGY REVENUES ATTRIBUTED TO CHEMICAL


INDUSTRY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 61


TABLE 14 PARTIAL LIST OF MASS SPEC SYSTEMS FOCUSED ON PROTEOMICS


APPLICATIONS 68


TABLE 15 COMMON ANALYTICAL PLATFORMS USED IN METABOLOMICS 71


TABLE 16 GLOBAL MARKET FOR TRANSCRIPTOMICS TOOLS USED IN PREDICTIVE


TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 72


TABLE 17 GLOBAL MASS SPECTROMETRY MARKET, THROUGH 2017 ($ BILLIONS) 73


TABLE 18 GLOBAL MARKET FOR PROTEOMICS AND METABOLOMICS TOOLS USED IN


PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 74


TABLE 19 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES SUPPLYING HIGH CONTENT SCREENING (HCS)


SOLUTIONS FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 80


TABLE 20 EXAMPLES OF LABEL-FREE TECHNOLOGY AND THE COMPANIES


SUPPLYING THEM 81


TABLE 21 EXAMPLES OF COMPANIES PROVIDING SERVICES FOCUSED ON


CELLOMICS (LARGER SCALE STUDIES) FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY 82


TABLE 22 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR CELLOMICS TOOLS USED IN PREDICTIVE


TOXICOLOGY BY TYPE OF EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 86


TABLE 23 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR ASSAY KITS, OTHER CONSUMABLES AND


ASSOCIATED SERVICES USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017


($ MILLIONS)


99


TABLE 24 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR IN SILICO PRODUCTS AND ASSOCIATED


SERVICES USED IN PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY, BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 109


TABLE 25 ESTIMATED REVENUES FOR BIOMARKERS AND OTHER BREAKOUT


BUSINESS MODELS BASED ON PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017


($ MILLIONS)


114


TABLE 26 EXAMPLES OF SOME IMPORTANT PATENTS RELATIVE TO PREDICTIVE


TOXICOLOGY 116





LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE TOTAL GLOBAL MARKET FOR PREDICTIVE TOXICOLOGY,
2011-2017 ($ MILLIONS) 6



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