HOUSTON, April 18, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- Increased oil production in the US and other non-OPEC countries, which more than offsets increases in global demand, is keeping pressure on OPEC to limit crude output. Increased supply typically creates lower oil prices, but today's new supply is being outweighed by anticipated supply interruption from Iran and other smaller sources including: Syria, Yemen, the Sudans, and the North Sea. These supply worries are further compounded by continuing fairly low levels of OPEC spare capacity, yielding oil prices of around $120/bbl.
After decades of rising demand and declining supply, the US is consuming less and producing more, lowering its reliance on foreign sources of crude. Other areas of significant production growth include South America, Russia and Canada.
"The advent of increased domestic supply is certainly positive for the US economy and energy security," said Marcela Donadio, Americas Oil and Gas Leader, Ernst & Young LLP. "Importing less oil and gas creates a more positive trade balance for the US, and domestic production stimulates job growth, local business revenues and tax receipts, along with other positive economic impacts."
In North America, growth in tight-oil production from the Bakken shale region, coupled with increases in natural gas liquids production and Canadian crude supply, has transformed the regional supply/demand picture. While the US benchmark crude WTI has become disconnected from globally-traded crudes, global crude prices are still high as a result of geopolitical supply uncertainty. Oil demand in the US and other developed economies in 2012 is expected to continue to decline, but on a global basis will rise by a modest 0.9%, led by the emerging economies.
US natural gas production continues to rise, but prices languish. Despite shifts away from dry gas production to oil development and to more liquids-rich gas plays, "associated gas" production continues to be strong. With a very warm winter, surging supplies have kept natural gas storage volumes at market-crushing levels. Power generation is the fuel's brightest prospect. Even as electricity demand has been flat-to-declining, natural gas has gained market share in the sector, as low gas prices have encouraged fuel-switching. In recent months, natural gas has been increasingly displacing coal for power generation.
The North American shale gas "revolution" presents some cause for concern, warned Donadio. "We're at a critical point in the shale gas boom where we may start to see some of the small to mid-size players succumb to sustained depressed prices. How much longer can companies continue to produce and sell such a low-priced commodity and keep the lights on?"
Refining margins have gotten a boost from the relatively large seasonal maintenance turn-around schedules. After a banner year in 2011 due to logistical constraints and significant crude price advantages, US Midcontinent refineries enjoyed yet another surge in margins. But two upcoming capacity developments – the Seaway pipeline reversal and the planned Keystone extension – should narrow some of the margin differentials over the next few years. New capacity from the Shell and Saudi Aramco venture in Port Arthur, TX, will put downward pressure on US Gulf Coast margins, but the biggest downstream issue going forward will be how the East Coast product markets will be affected by the looming refinery closures.
Rig counts are broadly holding steady across all geographies – with Africa and the Middle East showing the strongest growth. The total US rig count is near its last peak, reached in fall 2008, but the structure of the rig market is notably different. At the previous peak, gas-directed drilling accounted for about 80% of all rig activity; more recently, gas-directed drilling was only about 30% of the US total.
Global upstream spending is increasing, but decelerating with forecasted growth of 10 to 15% in 2012. OFS cost pressures have moderated somewhat, but game changers for oilfield services will be the next generation of oilfield technology, particularly those focused on reducing costs.
Oil and gas transaction activity has experienced ten reasonably-strong quarters in a row, but activity slowed in the first quarter of 2012. The quarter saw weakened transaction activity globally, with an unclear North American trend. EMEIA activity was down, but Asia-Pacific activity was up. Activity in the Americas continues however to dominate the global totals.
About Ernst & Young
Ernst & Young is a global leader in assurance, tax, transaction and advisory services. Worldwide, our 152,000 people are united by our shared values and an unwavering commitment to quality. We make a difference by helping our people, our clients and our wider communities achieve their potential.
For more information, please visit www.ey.com.
Ernst & Young refers to the global organization of member firms of Ernst & Young Global Limited, each of which is a separate legal entity. This news release has been issued by Ernst & Young LLP, a client-serving member firm of Ernst & Young Global Limited located in the US.
How Ernst & Young's Global Oil & Gas Center can help your business
The oil and gas industry is constantly changing. Increasingly uncertain energy policies, geopolitical complexities, cost management and climate change all present significant challenges. Ernst & Young's Global Oil & Gas Center supports over 9,000 oil and gas professionals with technical experience in providing assurance, tax, transaction and advisory services across the upstream, midstream, downstream and oilfield service sub-sectors.
The Center works to anticipate market trends, execute the mobility of our global resources and articulate points of view on relevant key industry issues. With our deep industry focus, we can help your organization drive down costs and compete more effectively to achieve its potential. For more information, please visit www.ey.com/oilandgas.
SOURCE Ernst & Young