New Study Examines Texas' Immigrants

Aug 08, 2012, 03:15 ET from Center for Immigration Studies

One of the Fastest Growing, Poorest Immigrant Populations in the Country

WASHINGTON, Aug. 8, 2012 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- A new report from the Center for Immigration Studies provides a detailed picture of immigrants (legal and illegal) in the United States and in Texas.  Using the latest Census Bureau data from 2010 and 2011, the study reveals Texas' immigrant population as one of the largest, fastest growing and poorest of the top immigrant receiving states.


"There is considerable concern in this country about issues like poverty and the large uninsured population.  But what has generally not been acknowledged is the impact of immigration on these problems," notes Steven Camarota, the Center's Director of Research. "Absent a change in policy, 11 to 15 million new immigrants are likely to settle in this country in the next decade and may further exacerbate present problems."

The report is online at

Texas Immigrants:

Texas's immigrant population (legal and illegal) grew 43 percent from 2000 to 2010.  Nationally the immigrant population grew 28 percent over the same period. (Table 2, pg. 15)

The immigrant population in the state stood at 4.1 million, up 1.5 million in the last decade.  Immigrants account for one out of six Texas residents in 2010, the highest level ever recorded by the Census Bureau. (Table 1, pg. 14) 

Immigrants account for 20 percent of workers in the state.  (Table 35, pg. 68)

Of Texas immigrants and their U.S.-born children (under 18), 28 percent live in poverty compared to 15 percent of natives and their children.  (Table 30, pg. 61)

Immigrants and their U.S.-born children (under 18) account for 23 percent of the state's overall population and 36 percent of all persons in poverty. (Table 32, pg. 63)

Of Texas immigrants and their U.S.-born children (under 18) 41 percent lack health insurance, compared to 21 percent of natives and their children.  Immigrants and their children account for 37 percent of those without insurance in the state. (Tables 31 & 32, pgs. 62-63)

While a large share of Texas immigrants have low incomes, their rate of home ownership (58 percent) tends to be relatively high both compared to natives (65 percent) and relative to immigrants in other states. (Table 29, pg. 59)

Of households headed by immigrants in Texas, 45 percent used at least one major welfare program, primarily food assistance and Medicaid, compared to 24 percent of native-headed households.  (Table 33, pg. 65)

The lower socio-economic status of Texas' immigrants is not because most are recent arrivals.  Their average length of residence in the United States is 18 years. (Table 1, pg. 14)

One of the primary reasons so many immigrants in Texas are poor, lack health insurance and access the welfare system is a large share arrive in the U.S. as adults with relatively low levels of education. 

Of the top immigrant receiving states, Texas immigrants are among the least educated— 46 percent of adult immigrants in the state have not completed high school, compared to 10 percent of natives.   (Table 34, pg. 66)

The share of immigrants (25 to 65) in the state that have a bachelor's degree is 21 percent compared to 30 percent of natives.  (Table 34, pg. 66)

In 2010, 31 percent of students in Texas public school were from immigrant households.  Overall 37 percent of public school students speak a language other than English at home. (Tables A3 & A4, pgs. 87-88)

Illegal Immigrants in Texas:

Our best estimate is that slightly less than half of the immigrants in Texas are in the country illegally.  They comprised one in ten workers in the state.  Illegal immigrants and their U.S.-born children (under 18) account for ten percent of the state's overall population and one-fifth of those in poverty, one-fourth of the uninsured and one seventh of the school age population, 5 to 17. (Tables 36, 37, 38 and 40, pgs. 70-74)

National Figures:

The number of immigrants (legal & illegal) in the country hit a new record of 40 million in 2010, a 28 percent increase over the total in 2000. (Table 2, pg. 15)

Immigrants (legal and illegal) account for 16 percent of all workers in the country.  (Table 35, pg. 68)

In 2010, 23 percent of immigrants and their U.S.-born children (under 18) lived in poverty, compared to 13.5 percent of natives and their children.  (Table 10, pg. 27)

Immigrants and their children accounted for one-fourth of all persons in poverty in the United States. (pg. 26)

Immigrants make significant progress the longer they live in the country. However, even immigrants who have lived in the United States for 20 years have not come close to closing the gap with natives. (Figure 5, pg. 46, pgs. 42-49).

The poverty rate of adult immigrants who have lived in the United States for 20 years is 50 percent higher than that of adult natives. (Figure 5, pg. 46).

The share of households headed by an immigrant who has lived in the United States for 20 years using one or more welfare programs is nearly twice that of native-headed households. (Figure 5, pg. 46).

The share of households headed by an immigrant who has lived in the United States for 20 years that are owner occupied is 22 percent lower than that of native households. (Figure 5, pg. 46).

Data Source The data for this backgrounder comes primarily from the public use files of the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS), and the March 2011 Current Population Survey (CPS).  State specific information comes from a combined sample of the March 2010 and 2011 CPS as well as the 2010 ACS.  In this report, the terms foreign born and immigrant are used synonymously.  Immigrants are persons living in the United States who were not American citizens at birth.  This includes naturalized American citizens, legal permanent residents (green card holders), illegal immigrants, and people on long-term temporary visas such as foreign students or guest workers. 

The Center for Immigration Studies is an independent, non-partisan, non-profit, research organization. Since its founding in 1985, the Center has pursued a single mission – providing immigration policymakers, the academic community, news media, and concerned citizens with reliable information about the social, economic, environmental, security, and fiscal consequences of legal and illegal immigration into the United States.

CONTACTS: Marguerite Telford, Steven Camarota (202) 466-8185


SOURCE Center for Immigration Studies