Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles 2011-2021

Nov 03, 2011, 10:15 ET from Reportlinker

NEW YORK, Nov. 3, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles 2011-2021

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Description

About eight million hybrid cars will be made in 2021, each with a range extender, the additional power source that distinguishes them from pure electric cars. Add to that significant money spent on the same devices in buses, military vehicles, boats and so on and a major new market emerges. This unique report is about range extenders for all these purposes - their evolving technology and market size. Whereas today's range extenders usually consist of little more than off the shelf internal combustion engines, these are rapidly being replaced by second generation range extenders consisting of piston engines designed from scratch for fairly constant load in series hybrids. There are some wild cards like Wankel engines and rotary combustion engines or free piston engines both with integral electricity generation. However a more radical departure is the third generation micro turbines and fuel cells that work at constant load. The report compares all these. It forecasts the lower power needed over the years given assistance from fast charging and energy harvesting innovations ahead. Every aspect of the new range extenders is covered.

This new report profiles all key developers, manufactures and integrators of range extenders for land, water and airborne electric vehicles. It gives ten year forecasts of the different types of electric vehicle and of range extenders by number, unit value and market value. Market drivers and the changing requirements for power output are analysed. Will shaftless range extenders with no separate electricity generator take over and when will that be? What fuels will be used and when? What are the pros and cons of each option and who are the leaders? It is all here.

Led by the Japanese and with Hyundai of Korea, the Europeans and the Americans coming up fast, we are in the decade of the hybrid vehicle, with much more being spent on them than on pure electric vehicles. This is because traction batteries alone cannot affordably provide sufficient range in most of the large applications by land, sea or air. On-road vehicles are the primary focus with the quick win being to add a conventional off-the-shelf piston engine to work in parallel or simply in series to charge the battery as the vehicle goes along. The next stage has been to use the newer lithium-ion batteries with greatly simplified piston engines that supply almost steady power and therefore dispense with the complications of a conventional engine designed for hugely varying power demands it no longer encounters because the battery now copes with those.

Notably in Europe, at Lotus, DLR and elsewhere, the mechanical engineers have designed simplified, piston-engined range extenders that are only required to charge the battery at almost steady load. To produce the electricity, a separate generator is attached. The nearly silent Polaris Industries REX single cylinder design from Switzerland is among the most impressive of these piston range extenders.

Improving the internal combustion range extender

As a next stage, quite radically different internal combustion engines are being attached to generators. Audi in Germany is still working on the previously unsuccessful Wankel rotary combustion engine. There have been problems with sealing and emissions in the past but Austro Engines of Austria demonstrated its Wankel engine at the Paris Air Show in 2011 in what was claimed to be the world's first aircraft with a serial hybrid electric drive system employing an internal combustion engine. Fuel consumption is very low since the combustion engine always runs with a constant low output of 30kW. The two-seater motor glider successfully completed its maiden flight on June 8 at the Wiener Neustadt airfield in Vienna, Austria. It was built by Siemens, EADS (which recently demonstrated a pure electric stunt aircraft with very limited range) and Diamond Aircraft using its DA36 E-Star motor glider.

"A serial hybrid electric drive can be scaled for a wide range of uses, making it highly suitable for aircraft as well," said Dr. Frank Anton, the initiator of electric aircraft development at Siemens Germany which is developing much lighter weight electric motors for such purposes. "The first thing we want to do is test the technology in small aircraft. In the long term, however, the drive system will also be used in large-scale aircraft. We want to cut fuel consumption and emissions by 25%, compared to today's most efficient technologies. This will make air travel more sustainable."

"The serial hybrid electric drive concept makes possible a quiet electric takeoff and a considerable reduction in fuel consumption and emission," said Christian Dries, the owner of Diamond Aircraft. "It also enables aircraft to cover the required long distances."

An equally radical improvement on the piston engine has been provided by the Capstone mini turbines made in the USA and deployed in over 1000 DesignLine hybrid buses. Bladon Jets in the UK is miniaturising and simplifying the turbine as a range extender: it has them designed into the planned Jaguar supercar, though much development remains to be done. Both of these turbines have only one moving part and they can accept a wide variety of fuels without retuning. Altria Controls in the US now offers bus and truck hybrid powertrains based on turbine range extenders and Langford Performance Engineering in the UK has demonstrated a similar powertrain in a Ford S Max. The mechanical engineers are therefore capturing huge gains in range extender performance, reliability, life, emissions and cost as the years go by.

Inherent electricity generation

However, the physicists note that all these devices have an extended shaft or transmission with a separate electricity generator attached to it – legacy thinking. The physicists seek a more elegant solution where the power source is its own generator. For example, in December 2010, the patents of Dr. Herbert Hüttlin of Innomot AG, in Germany and Switzerland, revealed a new range extender that does not have a shaft and separate electrical generator. He seeks to, "combine the special advantages of the three-dimensional kinematics of the Hüttlin-Kugelmotor® (spherical engine) with those of an electrical aggregate as far as possible as a single assembly, with the electrical aggregate functioning as starter, motor or generator. Our aim was: smaller, lighter, simpler, more efficient, more economical and cheaper. To succeed in this it was necessary to move away from the shape and form of conventional aggregates. In principle, the Hüttlin-Kugelmotor® is a 4-stroke engine, which, however, follows a completely new kinematical principle. The mechanical aggregate part of the Hüttlin-Kugemotor® with its innovative three-dimensional kinematics is set inside, while the ring-shaped electrical aggregate is positioned in axial symmetry around it."

It was shown at the 2011 Geneva Motor Show, with a piston cage rotating around the system axis. There are two pistons in the same plane, positioned in the longitudinal center and orthogonal to the system axis. Guided by two hollow spheres, they roll on the bilateral sides of a sinusoidal member fixed to the outer casing, thus executing the 4-stroke ventilation cycle but with integral magnets and coils to generate electricity. The Hüttlin Range-Extender transfers power exclusively as electrical energy through buffer batteries to two to four wheel hub motors.

Integral electricity generation is also being pursued by the German Aerospace Center and others in developing the free piston internal combustion engine which has coils around the unattached piston that generate electricity directly. On the other hand, Clarian Laboratories in the USA has a Wankel-like rotary piston engine with no shaft that inherently generates electricity through its windings.

Even more integral is the fuel cell because it makes electricity directly from a chemical reaction, not through windings, usually by turning hydrogen fuel into water and energy by reacting it with oxygen in the air in the Proton Exchange membrane PEM version. Unfortunately, for many decades, the fuel cell for mainstream vehicles has been ten years away but now the proponents are making it easier for themselves by focussing on range extender versions offering as little as 0.5 to 10 kW of steady power, notably on the smaller vehicles such as motor bikes, cars, taxis, small manned aircraft, Unmanned Air Vehicles UAV and Autonomous Underwater Vehicles AUV. Price is one of the big difficulties remaining but there are advances in eliminating the currently used platinum for example. Intelligent Energy, Mercedes and Proton Power in Europe and Nuvera, Ballard, Protonex Technology and Enerfuel in the USA are among the many fuel cell developers in North America and Europe carrying out trials in vehicles. There is much work in East Asia as well.

Mercedes says it will soon have a fuel cell car in production – claimed to be the world's first - and the German and Korean governments both plan 500,000 on-road vehicles with fuel cell range extenders deployed by the end of the decade.Unfortunately, that does not amount to a promise to put in the necessary hydrogen fuelling infrastructure. No one wants to pay that huge cost in advance, so, short of a breakthrough, the coming decade may see fuel cells in volume produced vehicles confined mainly to fleets where hydrogen distribution is not a problem.

The coming decade

In the new IDTechEx report, "Range Extenders for Electric Vehicles 2011-2021" the situation is fully analysed and forecasted. There will definitely be huge sales of hybrid vehicles in the next decade and most will be series hybrids with range extenders. A high proportion of those range extenders will consist of piston and turbine combustion engines designed to purpose, with a generator attached. The more radical approach of power sources that integrally generate electricity should also see some volume production later in the decade – maybe as much as 10% of hybrid sales by then.

Even in the larger vehicles, few range extenders will need to generate more than 50 kW unlike the conventional engines they replace, not least because of the future availability of top-up fast charging and increasing use of third generation lithium-ion batteries with higher energy density doing more of the work. Indeed, multi-mode on-board energy harvesting from solar panels, active suspension, heat and so on will also ease the load on the range extender. For land, sea and air, the harvesting options and experience are detailed in the new IDTechEx report, "Energy Harvesting for Electric Vehicles 2011-2021". For more on the support from new charging infrastructure see the new IDTechEx report, "Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure 2011-2021".

Table of Contents

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

1.1. Range extender market in 2021

1.2. EV Market 2011 and 2021

1.3. Ten year forecast for electric cars, hybrids and their range extenders

1.4. EV sales by type 2011-2021

1.5. Hybrid and pure electric vehicles compared

1.6. Hybrid market drivers

1.7. What will be required of a range extender 2012-2022

1.8. Three generations of range extender

1.9. Why range extenders need lower power over the years

1.10. Energy harvesting - mostly ally not alternative

1.11. Key trends for range extended vehicles

2. INTRODUCTION

2.1. Types of electric vehicle

2.2. Many fuels

2.3. Born electric

2.4. Pure electric vehicles are improving

2.5. Series vs parallel hybrid

2.6. Modes of operation of hybrids

2.6.1. Plug in hybrids

2.6.2. Charge-depleting mode

2.6.3. Blended mode

2.6.4. Charge-sustaining mode

2.6.5. Mixed mode

2.7. Microhybrid is a misnomer

2.8. Deep hybridisation

2.9. Battery cost and performance are key

2.10. Hybrid price premium

2.11. Progressing the REEV

2.12. What is a range extender?

2.12.1. First generation range extender technology

2.12.2. Second generation range extender technology

2.12.3. Radically new approaches - Hüttlin range extender

2.12.4. Third generation range extender technology

2.13. Market position of fuel cell range extenders

2.14. Energy harvesting on and in electric vehicles

2.15. Tradeoff of energy storage technologies

2.16. Trend to high voltage

2.17. Component choices for energy density/ power density

2.18. PEM fuel cells

2.19. Trend to distributed components

2.20. Trend to flatness then smart skin

3. ELECTRIC VEHICLE MARKET OVERVIEW

3.1. The whole picture

3.1.1. Synergies

3.1.2. What is excluded?

3.2. Largest sectors

3.3. Numbers of manufacturers

3.4. Heavy industrial sector

3.5. Buses

3.6. The light industrial and commercial sector

3.7. Two wheel and allied vehicles

3.8. Cars

3.9. Golf

3.10. Military

3.11. Marine

3.12. Other

3.13. Market for EV components

3.14. Timelines

3.15. Watch Japan, China and Korea

3.16. Vacillation by some governments

3.17. Healthy shakeout of the car industry

3.18. Full circle back to pure EVs

3.19. Winning strategies

4. MARKETS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR REEVS

4.1. Range extenders for land craft

4.2. Range Extenders for electric aircraft

4.2.1. Military aircraft

4.3. Comparisons

4.4. Fuel cells in aviation

4.5. Civil aircraft

4.6. Potential for electric airliners

4.7. Range extenders for marine craft

5. RANGE EXTENDER DEVELOPERS AND MANUFACTURERS

5.1. Advanced Magnet Laboratory USA

5.2. Aerovironment / Protonex Technology USA

5.3. Austro Engine Austria

5.4. Bladon Jets UK

5.5. Capstone Turbine Corporation USA

5.6. Daimler AG inc Mercedes Benz Germany

5.7. DLR German Aerospace Center Germany

5.8. Ener1 USA

5.9. Flight Design Germany

5.10. Getrag Germany

5.11. GSE USA

5.12. Intelligent Energy UK

5.13. Lotus Engineering UK

5.14. MAHLE Powertrain UK

5.15. Polaris Industries Switzerland

5.16. Proton Power Systems plc UK/Germany

5.17. Ricardo UK

5.18. Volkswagen Germany

6. RANGE EXTENDER INTEGRATORS

6.1. Altria Controls USA

6.2. Ashok Leyland India

6.3. Audi Germany

6.4. AVL Austria

6.5. Azure Dynamics USA

6.6. BAE Systems UK

6.7. BMW Germany

6.8. Boeing Dreamworks USA

6.9. Chrysler USA

6.10. DesignLine New Zealand

6.11. EADS Germany

6.12. ENFICA-FC Italy

6.13. Ford USA

6.14. Frazer-Nash UK

6.15. General Motors USA

6.16. Honda Japan

6.17. Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft Germany

6.18. Hyundai Korea

6.19. Igor Chak Russia

6.20. Jaguar Land Rover UK

6.21. Lange Aviation Germany

6.22. Langford Performance Engineering Ltd UK

6.23. Marion HSPD USA

6.24. Pipistrel Slovenia

6.25. SAIC China

6.26. Skyspark Italy

6.27. Suzuki Japan

6.28. Tata Motors India

6.29. Toyota Japan

6.30. Turtle Airships Spain

6.31. University of Bristol UK

6.32. Université de Sherbrooke Canada

6.33. University of Stuttgart Germany

6.34. Vision Motor Corporation USA

6.35. Volvo Sweden/ China

6.36. Yo-Avto Russia

7. MARKET DRIVERS AND FORECASTS

7.1. Market drivers and impediments

7.2. Funding as a market driver

7.3. EV Market 2011 and 2021

7.4. Ten year forecast for electric cars, hybrids and their range extenders

7.5. Three generations of range extender

LIST OF APPENDIX

APPENDIX 1: IDTECHEX PUBLICATIONS AND CONSULTANCY

APPENDIX 2: GLOSSARY

APPENDIX 3: FUEL CELL 2000 SUMMARY OF FUEL CELL BUS TRIALS TO 2010

LIST OF TABLES

1.1. Probable global market for electric vehicle range extenders in 2021 by power, number and market value for small, medium and large range extenders

1.2. Forecasts of global sales of electric vehicles by numbers thousands 2011-2021

1.3. Forecast for car, hybrid car and car range extender sales globally in thousands 2011-2021

1.4. Forecasts of global sales of electric vehicles by value ex factory $ billion 2011-2021

1.5. Some primary hybrid market drivers

1.6. Three generations of range extender with examples of construction, manufacturer and power output

3.1. Main market drivers 2011-2021

3.2. Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2011-2021, by applicational sector

3.3. Ex factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2011-2021, by applicational sector, rounded

3.4. Ex factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2011-2021, by applicational sector, rounded

3.5. Approximate number of manufacturers of electric vehicles worldwide in 2010 by application with numbers for China

3.6. Global sales of heavy industrial EVs by numbers, ex factory unit price and total value 2011-2021, rounded

3.7. Global sales of buses, ex factory unit price and total value 2011-2021, rounded

3.8. Global sales of light industrial and commercial EVs by numbers thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2011-2021, rounded.

3.9. Global sales of EVs used as mobility aids for the disabled by number, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars, 2011-2021, rounded

3.10. Global sales of two wheel and allied EVs number, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2011-2021, rounded.

3.11. Global sales of electric cars number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2011-2021, rounded.

3.12. Value of the hybrid, pure electric and total electric car market in billions of dollars 2010-2020

3.13. Number of hybrid and pure electric cars plugged in and the total number in thousands 2011-2021

3.14. Global sales of electric golf cars in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2011-2021, rounded

3.15. Global sales of electric military vehicles in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2011-2021, rounded.

3.16. Global sales of electric marine craft in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2011-2021, rounded.

3.17. Global sales of other electric vehicles in number thousands, ex factory unit price in thousands of dollars and total value in billions of dollars 2011-2021, rounded

3.18. Components and subsystems fitted in new electric vehicles 2010-2020 in thousands

3.19. Highlights 2010-2020

5.1. Data for RQ-11A version of AeroVironment Raven

7.1. Primary hybrid market drivers

7.2. Probable global market for electric vehicle range extenders in 2021 by power, number and market value for small, medium and large range extenders

7.3. Forecasts of global sales of electric vehicles by numbers thousands 2011-2021

7.4. Forecast for car, hybrid car and car range extender sales globally in thousands 2011-2021

7.5. Three generations of range extender with examples of construction, manufacturer and power output

LIST OF FIGURES

1.1. Forecast for car, hybrid car and car range extender sales globally in thousands 2011-2021

1.2. Forecasts of global sales of electric vehicles by value ex factory $ billion 2011-2021

1.3. Advantages and disadvantages of hybrid vs pure electric vehicles

1.4. Indicative trend of charging and electrical storage for large hybrid vehicles over the next decade.

1.5. Evolution of construction of range extenders over the coming decade

1.6. Examples of range extender technology in the shaft vs no shaft categories

1.7. Illustrations of range extender technologies over the coming decade with "gen" in red for those that have inherent ability to generate electricity

1.8. Evolution of lower power range extenders for large vehicles

1.9. Three generations of lithium-ion battery

1.10. The most powerful energy harvesting in vehicles

2.1. ThunderVolt hybrid bus

2.2. BAE Systems powertrain in a bus

2.3. Hybrid bus powertrain

2.4. Hybrid car powertrain using CNG

2.5. Mitsubishi hybrid outdoor forklift replacing a conventional ICE vehicle

2.6. Hybrid military vehicle that replaces a conventional ICE version

2.7. Hybrid sports boat replacing a conventional ICE version

2.8. CAF-E hybrid motorcycle design based on a Prius type of drivetrain

2.9. Hybrid tugboat replacing a conventional ICE version to meet new pollution laws and provide stronger pull from stationary

2.10. Some hybrid variants

2.11. Evolution of plug in vs mild hybrids

2.12. Trend to deep hybridisation

2.13. Evolution of hybrid structure

2.14. Three generations of lithium-ion traction battery

2.15. Battery price assisting price of hybrid and pure electric vehicles as a function of power stored.

2.16. Probable future improvement in parameters of lithium-ion batteries for pure electric and hybrid EVs

2.17. Cleaner hybrid bus promotion

2.18. Price premium for hybrid buses

2.19. Main modes of rotational energy harvesting in vehicles

2.20. Main forms of photovoltaic energy harvesting on vehicles

2.21. Maximum power from the most powerful forms of energy harvesting on or in vehicles

2.22. Hybrid bus with range improved by a few percent using solar panels

2.23. Comparison of battery technologies

2.24. Possible trend in battery power storage and voltage of power distribution

2.25. Comparison of energy density of power components for hybrid vehicles

2.26. The principle of the Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells

2.27. Mitsubishi view of hybrid vehicle powertrain evolution

2.28. Flat lithium-ion batteries for a car and, bottom, UAVs

2.29. Supercapacitors that facilitate fast charging and discharging of the traction batteries are spread out on a bus roof

2.30. Asola photovoltaic panel on Fisker hybrid sports car.

3.1. Numbers of EVs, in thousands, sold globally, 2011-2021, by applicational sector

3.2. Ex factory unit price of EVs, in thousands of US dollars, sold globally, 2011-2021, by applicational sector, rounded

3.3. Ex factory value of EVs, in billions of US dollars, sold globally, 2011-2021, by applicational sector, rounded

3.4. Approximate number of manufacturers of electric vehicles worldwide by application in 2010

3.5. Number of manufacturers of electric vehicles in China by application in 2010

3.6. Energy per 100 kilometers per person for different on-road travel options.

3.7. The Mission Motors Mission One 150 mph, 150 mile range electric motorcycle

4.1. Northrop Grumman surveillance airship with fuel cell range extender and energy harvesting for virtually unlimited range.

4.2. Light utility aircraft - power-systems weight comparison

4.3. Light primary trainer - power-systems weight comparison

4.4. Battery and jet fuel loading

4.5. Pilot plus payload vs range for fuel cell light aircraft and alternatives

4.6. Total weight vs flight time for PEM fuel cell planes

4.7. Takeoff gross weight breakdowns. Left: Conventional reciprocating-engine-powered airplane. Right: Fuel-cell-powered airplane.

4.8. JAMSTEC Fuel Cell Underwater Vehicle FCUV

4.9. Soliloquy superyacht with multiple energy harvesting including solar sails that fold like a penknife

5.1. AeroVironment Raven

5.2. Raven enhancement

5.3. Aqua Puma

5.4. AeroVironment Helios

5.5. Global Observer first flight August 2010

5.6. Bladon Jets gas turbine range extender for cars and light aircraft and the Jaguar CX75

5.7. Jaguar Land Rover

5.8. Capstone microturbine

5.9. Capstone turbine in a Japanese bus

5.10. Various sizes of Capstone MicroTurbines

5.11. Daimler roadmap for commercial vehicles

5.12. DLR fuel cell and the electric A320 airliner nose wheel it drives when the airliner is on the ground.

5.13. Holstenblitz fuel cell car trial

5.14. GSE mini diesel driving a propeller

5.15. Greg Stevenson (left) and Gene Sheehan, Fueling Team GFC contender, with GSE Engines.

5.16. Block diagram of the Frank/Stevenson parallel hybrid system

5.17. Fuel cell taxi trials

5.18. Fuel cell development

5.19. Lotus hybrid powertrain and second generation range extender ICE

5.20. Lotus monoblock range extender

5.21. Proton EMAS

5.22. Polaris REX range extender left with generator, right with peripherals as well

5.23. Location of technical advances in Polaris range extender

5.24. Ricardo Wolverine engine for hybrid UAVs

5.25. Volkswagen XL1 hybrid concept

6.1. Adura powertrain with microturbine.

6.2. Ashok Leyland CNG hybrid bus

6.3. Azure Dynamics hybrid powertrain

6.4. Bus with BAE Systems hybrid power train

6.5. Boeing fuel cell aircraft

6.6. DesignLine bus with Capstone turbine range extender.

6.7. ENFICA FC two seater fuel cell plane

6.8. Ford Lincoln hybrid car has no price premium over the conventional version

6.9. Frazer-Nash REEV powertrain

6.10. Namir EREV Supercar

6.11. Proton Exora

6.12. Chevrolet Volt powertrain

6.13. Honda IMA

6.14. German fuel cell powered diesel submarine

6.15. Hyundai Blue hybrid car

6.16. Hyundai fuel cell powered car

6.17. Igot Chak hybrid motorcycle

6.18. Hybrid Land Rover trial

6.19. Planned Jaguar supercar

6.20. The LPE REEV concept car

6.21. Marion Hyper-Sub Submersible Powerboat

6.22. Skyspark in flight 2009

6.23. Suzuki Burgman fuel cell scooter

6.24. Suzuki concept fuel cell motorcycle headed for production

6.25. Tata Motors roadmap for hybrid commercial vehicles

6.26. Toyota Prius hybrid car is the world's best selling electric car

6.27. Toyota hybrid forklift

6.28. Turtle Airship landed on water in concept drawing

6.29. Glassock hybrid set up for dynamometer testing

6.30. Hybrid quad bike

6.31. Hydrogenius

6.32. Tyrano hybrid tractor

6.33. Volvo hybrid bus

7.1. Forecast for car, hybrid car and car range extender sales globally in thousands 2011-2021

7.2. Indicative trend of charging and electrical storage for large hybrid vehicles over the next decade.

7.3. Evolution of construction of range extenders over the coming decade

7.4. Examples of range extender technology in the shaft vs no shaft categories

7.5. Illustrations of range extender technologies over the coming decade with "gen" in red for those that have inherent ability to generate electricity

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