Reportlinker Adds Animal Biotechnology - Technologies, Markets and Companies

Jun 07, 2010, 13:00 ET from Reportlinker

NEW YORK, June 7 /PRNewswire/ -- announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Animal Biotechnology - Technologies, Markets and Companies


This report describes and evaluates animal biotechnology and its application in veterinary medicine and pharmaceuticals as well as improvement in food production. Knowledge of animal genetics is important in the application of biotechnology to manage genetic disorders and improve animal breeding. Genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics are also being applied to animal biotechnology.

Transgenic technologies are used for improving milk production and the meat in farm animals as well as for creating models of human diseases. Transgenic animals are used for the production of proteins for human medical use. Biotechnology is applied to facilitate xenotransplantation from animals to humans. Genetic engineering is done in farm animals and nuclear transfer technology has become an important and preferred method for cloning animals. There is discussion of in vitro meat production by culture

Biotechnology has potential applications in the management of several animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, avian flu and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The most important biotechnology-based products consist of vaccines, particularly genetically engineered or DNA vaccines. Gene therapy for diseases of pet animals is a fast developing area because many of the technologies used in clinical trials humans were developed in animals and many of the diseases of cats and dogs are similar to those in humans. RNA interference technology is now being applied for research in veterinary medicine

Molecular diagnosis is assuming an important place in veterinary practice. Polymerase chain reaction and its modifications are considered to be important. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are also widely used. Newer biochip-based technologies and biosensors are also finding their way in veterinary diagnostics.

Biotechnology products are approved by the Center for Veterinary Medicine of the FDA. Regulatory issues relevant to animal biotechnology are described.

Approximately 110 companies have been identified to be involved in animal biotechnology and are profiled in the report. These are a mix of animal healthcare companies and biotechnology companies. Information is given about the research activities of 11 veterinary and livestock research institutes. Important 111 collaborations in this area are shown.

Share of biotechnology-based products and services in 2009 is analyzed and the market is projected to 2019.

The text is supplemented with 33 tables and 5 figures. Selected 250 references from the literature are appended.


0. Executive Summary 13

1. Introduction to Animal Biotechnology 15

Introduction 15

Historical evolution of animal biotechnology 15

Basics of biotechnology 16

DNA 16

RNA 16

Genes 17

Single nucleotide polymorphisms 17

Copy number variations in the genome 17

DNA sequences 18

Gene expression 18

Gene regulation 19

Proteins 19

Functions of proteins 19

Monoclonal antibodies 20

Animal genetics 20

Molecular genetics 21

Twinning in cattle 21

Pig genetics 21

Genetic studies in dogs 21

Animal genomics 22

The mouse genome 22

The dog genome 22

Sequencing of the dog genome 23

Comparison of genomes of healthy and diseased dogs 24

Analysis of DNA copy number variation 24

The cat genome 25

Marsupial genomes 25

Genomes of non-human primates 26

Chimpanzee genome 26

Genome of the rhesus macaque 26

Livestock genomics 27

Bovine genome 27

Bovine SNP map 28

Pig genome 28

Horse genome 30

Sheep genome 30

Chicken genome 31

Turkey genome 31

Salmon genome 32

Priority genome list of the National Human Genome Research Institute 33

Applications of animal genomics 33

Genomics of disease resistance 34

Statistical genomics to improve breeding 34

Chicken breeding based on genomics 34

Animal proteomics 35

Applications of proteomics in animals 35

Caseins in goat milk 35

Lactic acid bacteria 36

Applications of proteomics in animal healthcare 36

Bioinformatics 36

Application of nanobiotechnology for animal health 37

Biomarkers and animal health 38

Recombinant protein manufacture 38

Animal biotechnology in relation to other technologies 39

2. Application of Biotechnology in Animals 41

Introduction 41

Genetic engineering 41

Livestock improvement by genetic engineering 41

Disease control by genetic engineering 41

Limitations and precautions for genetic engineering 42

Transgenic animal technology 42

Cloning animals 43

Nuclear transfer technology 43

Nuclear bisection for cloning 45

Zona-free cloning method 45

Abnormalities in cloned animals 46

Cloning from embyonic cells 47

Cloning of rabbits 47

Cloning the rat 48

Cloning the horse 48

Cloning the cow 48

Cloning the dog 49

Cloning in primates 49

Retrovector-mediated production of transgenic animals 49

Episomal vector-mediated gene delivery 50

Sperm-mediated gene transfer 50

Lentiviral transduction of male germ-line stem cells 51

Lentiviral transgenesis 52

Transgenic pharmaceuticals 52

Proteins from the milk of transgenic animals 52

Advantages of milk as source of transgenic proteins 53

Therapeutic proteins from rabbit milk 54

Recombinant human antibodies from cows 55

Therapeutic proteins from goat milk 55

Chicken transgenesis for the production of biopharmaceuticals 56

Concluding remarks about production of recombinant proteins in animals 56

Companies involved in production of transgenic pharmaceuticals 56

Transgenic food products 57

Milking genetically modified cows 57

Transgenic fish 57

Cloned animals as sources of milk and meat 58

Animal feeds from transgenic plants 58

Transgenic modification of plants to increase nutritional value of animal feeds 59

Transgenic disease models 59

Technologies to create transgenic disease models 59

Gene manipulation techniques 59

Embryonic stem cells for gene targeting 60

Homologous recombination 60

Animal models of human diseases 61

Transgenic models for studying human drug metabolism and toxicity 61

The Human Genome Project and the role of transgenics 62

Genomic and proteomic analyses of transgenic animal models 62

Concern about health and welfare of transgenic animals 63

Safety of transgenic technology 63

Concluding remarks about use of transgenic animals 64

RNA interference technology 64

RNAi versus antisense 64

Applications of RNAi in animal biotechnology 64

Xenotransplantation 65

Pigs for xenotransplantation 65

Genetically engineered pigs for transplants 66

Risks of xenotransplantation 66

World Health Organization and xenotransplantation 67

Companies involved in xenotransplantation 67

Ethical aspects of animal biotechnology 68

3. A Biotechnology Perspective of Animals Diseases 69

Introduction 69

Infections in animals 69

Viral infections 70

Avian influenza 70

Animal surveillance of influenza 72

Animal biotechnology implications of H1N1 influenza 73

Animal corona viruses and human SARS 73

Avian coronavirus 74

Bluetongue virus 75

Canine parvovirus 75

Classical swine fever 75

Developing new treatments against FMDV 75

Equine infectious anemia 76

Foot-and-mouth disease 77

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 78

Rabies 79

Rinderpest 79

Bacterial infections 79

Bovine tuberculosis 79

Mycoplasmal pneumonia 80

Protozoal infections 80

Coccidiosis 80

Neosporosis 81

Toxoplasmosis 81

Trypanosomiasis 81

Nematodes 82

Infections that cross the species barrier 82

Complications of bacterial infections and antibiotic use in animals 82

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) 83

Inter-species transfer of prions 83

Scrapie 83

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy 84

Epidemiology of BSE 84

Biomarkers in the urine of BSE infected cattle 85

Human health implications of BSE 85

Breeding animals protected against BSE 86

TSE research 86

Prion gene haplotyping 86

Pharmacological approaches to TSE research. 86

Molecular diagnostic approach to TSE research 87

RNAi for knockdown of the bovine prion gene 87

Chronic wasting disease 88

Chronic wasting disease in wildlife 88

Chronic wasting disease of the cattle in Sudan 89

Chronic wasting in dairy cows in the Netherlands 89

Genetic disorders in farm animals 89

Diseases of pet animals 90

Canine anemia 90

Cardiovascular disease 90

Heart failure 90

Cardiac complications of canine babesiosis 91

Diabetes 91

Role of biotechnology in management of diabetes 92

Arthritis 92

Cancer in cats and dogs 93

Cancer clinical trials in dogs 93

Canine Comparative Oncology Genomics Consortium 94

Preventive veterinary medicine 94

Prevention of introduction of foreign animal diseases 94

Producing transgenic cattle resistant to BSE 95

Zoonotic diseases 95

Collaborative management of animal and human health 95

Vaccines for zoonotic viral diseases 96

4. Molecular Diagnostics in Animals 97

Introduction 97

Nucleic acid technologies 97

The polymerase chain reaction 97

Basic Principles of PCR 97

Target selection 98

Detection of amplified DNA 98

Real-time PCR systems 98

LightCycler PCR system 99

Molecular beacons 99

Applications of PCR in veterinary medicine 99

Fluorescent in situ hybridization 100

Immunodiagnostics 102

Enzyme-linked immunoassays 102

Bovine Gamma Interferon Test 102

Antigen diagnosis of trichinosis 103

Parachek™ for the diagnosis of Johne's disease 103

Antibodies for differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals 104

Biochip/microarray technology 104

Applications of microarrays in animal biotechnology 105

Cattlearray3800 for functional genomics 105

eSensor™ electrochemical biochip 106

Biosensors 106

Immunosensors 107

Biosensor for ovulation prediction in dairy cows 107

Flow cytometry for animal diagnostics 108

Molecular imaging in animals 108

Veterinary cytogenetics 109

Applications of molecular diagnostics in animals 109

Canine DNA testing 109

Diagnostic aids to selective breeding 110

Selection of desirable traits 110

Using genetic markers for improved milk production in dairy cattle 111

Application of bovine genomics for improving milk yield 111

Recognition of hereditary syndromes 111

Genetic markers in animals 112

SNP genotyping in animals 112

SNP genotyping for selective breeding of chicken 112

Animal identity and parentage analysis 113

Animal species identification in food 113

Diagnosis of infections 114

Bacterial infections 114

Diagnosis of viral infections 114

Molecular diagnosis of avian influenza 116

Diagnosis of parasitic infections 117

Detection of natural or bioterror threats to livestock 117

Molecular diagnosis of prion diseases 118

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy 118

Testing for BSE in living animals 120

Prions in urine 120

Diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in wildlife 120

Developing new tests for prion diseases 121

Differentiation among various types of TSEs 121

Protein cyclic amplification 121

Antibody tests for prion diseases 122

Scrapie genotyping 122

A real-time ultrasonic method for prion protein detection 123

Companies involved in developing molecular diagnostics for TSEs 123

Diagnosis of genetic disorders 124

Genetic screening of companion animals 124

Genes associated with exercise-induced collapse 124

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis 124

Diagnosis of cancer in animals 124

Diagnosis of food-borne pathogens 125

Introduction 125

Molecular diagnostic methods used in food-borne infections 125

Limitations of use of molecular probes in food analysis 126

Companies with technologies for food pathogen detection 126

Biotechnology-based novel diagnostics for aquatic animals 127

Detection of chemicals in foods of animal origin 128

5. Biotechnology-based Veterinary Medicine 129

Introduction 129

Biotechnology versus pharmaceutical products 129

Role of biotechnology in drug discovery and development 130

Cost of veterinary vs. human drug discovery and development 130

Advantages and disadvantages of testing biotech products in animal models 131

Biotechnolgoy-based antiparasitic drugs 131

Non-antibiotic strategies for control of infections in animals 131

Probiotics 132

Potential role for probiotics in the human gut 132

Potential role for probiotics in animals 132

Probiotic bacteria for control of pathogens in cattle 132

Nonantibiotic drugs for infections in animals 133

Immunomodulation as an alternative to antibiotics in infections 134

Cathelicidins: effector molecules of mammalian innate immunity 134

Bacteriophage therapy for antibiotic resistance 134

Biotechnology for treating tendon injuries 135

Use of growth factors to facilitate tendon injuries 135

Productivity enhancers 135

Bovine somatotropin for increasing milk production in dairy cows 136

Use of growth factors 137

Transgenic plant products for use in animals 137

Biotechnology-based vaccines 138

Modern vaccines without viral non-structural proteins 138

Plant-derived vaccines for use in animals 138

Nano-bead vaccine adjuvant 139

Genetically engineered vaccines 140

Application of nucleic acid vaccines in veterinary medicine 140

DNA vaccines 140

DNA vaccine for tuberculosis 141

DNA vaccines for West Nile encephalitis 142

Gene-based vaccine for Marek's disease 143

Genetic engineering of live rabies vaccines 143

Genetically engineered vaccines for equine encephalitis 144

Genetically engineered vaccines for Johne's disease 144

Vaccines against avian influenza 144

Vaccines against parasitic infections 145

Recombinant marker vaccines 146

Marker vaccines for foot-and-mouth disease 146

Marker vaccine for Newcastle disease 147

Vaccines for classical swine fever 147

Vaccines for tick control 147

Vaccination to protection swine from H1N1 influenza virus infection 148

Vaccination of cattle to prevent E. coli transmission to consumers in meat 148

Using RNAi to develop vaccines for viral infections in prawns 149

Companies developing biotechnology-based vaccines 149

Biotechnology in treatment of parasitic infections 150

Biotechnology in the treatment of CNS injuries in pet animals 150

Paraplegia due to acute spinal cord injury in dogs 150

RNAi for suppression prions in livestock 151

Cell Therapy 151

Umbilical cord blood stem cells 152

Application of stem cells in veterinary medicine 152

Use of stem cells to repair tendon injuries in horses 152

Stem cells for spinal cord injury in dogs 153

Gene therapy 153

Gene therapy vectors 153

Gene therapy by mitochondrial transfer 154

In utero gene therapy 154

Applications of gene therapy in veterinary medicine 155

Gene therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis VII in dogs 155

Gene therapy to increase disease resistance 155

Gene therapy for infections 156

Gene therapy for hematological disorders 156

Gene therapy for cardiomyopathy in dogs 157

Gene therapy for endocrine disorders 157

Gene therapy for arthritis 157

Gene therapy for renal failure 157

Cancer gene therapy 158

Antiangiogeneic cancer gene therapy in dogs 158

Brain tumors in cats and dogs 159

Breast cancer in dogs 159

Canine hemangiosarcoma 160

Canine melanoma 160

Canine soft tissue sarcoma 161

Melanoma in horses 161

6. Research in Animal Biotechnology 163

Introduction 163

Research institutes 163

Animal and Natural Resources Institute (USDA) 163

Center for Animal Biotechnology at University of Melbourne (Australia) 164

CSIRO Livestock Industries 165

Danish Veterinary Institute 166

Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute 166

Indian Veterinary Research Institute 167

Institute for Animal Health of UK 167

Kimron Veterinary Institute 168

Korean National Livestock Research Institute 168

National Agricultural & Veterinary Biotechnology Center of Ireland 169

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology 169

Veterinary Laboratories Agency of UK 170

Veterinary Medical University of Vienna 171

Ethical issues of research in animal biotechnology 171

Future prospects 171

Strategies for control of twining in cattle 172

Future developments of molecular diagnostics 172

Future of vaccine application in veterinary medicine 172

Promotion of innate immunity in animals 173

Identification of key parasite antigens for eliciting immune response 173

Virus-like particle vaccines for lasting immune response 173

Control of respiratory virus infections 174

Control and prevention of bioterrorism diseases in animals 174

Genetic control of disease resistance 174

Production of cattle lacking prion protein 175

Application of genetics and biotechnology to wildlife management 175

Future of animal genomics 176

Future prospects of in vitro meat production 176

7. Animal Biotechnology Markets 179

Introduction 179

Markets for biotechnology-based products for animal healthcare 180

Markets for vaccines for animals 181

Markets for animal diagnostics 182

Test for bovine spongiform encephalopathy 182

Animal biotechnology markets according to therapeutic areas 182

Markets for biotechnology-based animal products for humans 183

Transgenic proteins 183

Market for xenotransplantation 184

Strategies for promoting use of animal biotechnology 184

Financial losses from death and disease in animals 184

Losses in farm animals 184

Losses in poultry 184

Losses in equine industry 185

The emerging role of pet owners 185

Improvement in cattle through application of biotechnology 185

Pig market 185

Cattle Market 186

Poultry market 186

Milk from genetically modified cows 186

Transgenic fish 186

Role of biotechnology in livestock performance enhancer market 187

Gene transfer technologies 187

In vitro meat production and animal biotechnology markets 187

Cost-benefit aspects of transgenic proteins 187

Lower costs of transgenic production 187

Lower costs of treatment 188

Unmet needs in animal biotechnology 188

Future opportunities for biotechnology in animal healthcare 189

Farm animals 189

Companion animals 190

8. Regulatory issues 191

Introduction 191

Regulatory agencies for veterinary biotechnology in the US 191

FDA regulatory issues in agricultural biotechnology 192

Food safety evaluation of transgenic animals 193

Food from cloned animals 194

FDA investigation of drug transfer into eggs 195

Animal feed safety 196

Medicated feeds 197

Regulatory issues for production of transgenic proteins 197

Risks of animal biotechnology 197

FDA regulation of bovine products 198

Worldwide biotechnology regulatory and trade issues 198

9. Companies Involved in Animal Biotechnology 201

Introduction 201

Biotechnology at top veterinary pharmaceutical companies 201

Profiles of selected companies 201

Collaborations 324

10. References 329


Table 1 1: Landmarks in the evolution of animal biotechnology in the 20th century 15

Table 1 2: Applications of genomics in livestock industry and veterinary medicine 33

Table 1 3: Applications of proteomics in livestock industry and veterinary medicine 35

Table 1 4: Selected animal genomics and proteomics databases (DB) 37

Table 1 5: Expression systems for production of recombinant biopharmaceuticals 39

Table 2 1: Recombinant proteins obtained from milk of transgenic animals 54

Table 2 2: Companies involved in the production of transgenic pharmaceuticals 57

Table 2 3: A comparison of gene knockout and transgenic techniques 60

Table 2 4: Examples of transgenic mouse models of non-neoplastic human diseases 61

Table 2 5: Companies involved in xenotransplantation 68

Table 3 1: Diseases of dairy cattle 69

Table 3 2: Causes of chronic wasting disease in animals 88

Table 4 1: Potential applications of microarrays in animal biotechnology 105

Table 4 2: Biosensor technologies with potential applications in molecular diagnostics 106

Table 4 3: Applications of molecular diagnostics in animals 109

Table 4 4: Viruses that can be detected by molecular diagnostics 114

Table 4 5: Testing for harmful prions in brain tissue from dead cattle 118

Table 4 6: Companies involved in developing molecular diagnostics for TSEs 123

Table 4 7: Pathogenic bacteria in food and targets for molecular diagnostic probes 126

Table 4 8: Companies involved in molecular diagnostics for food-borne infections 126

Table 5 1: Veterinary biotechnology products 129

Table 5 2: Pharmaceutical versus biotechnology products 130

Table 5 3: Nonantibiotic strategies for control of infections 131

Table 5 4: Experimental DNA vaccines tested in animals 141

Table 5 5: Companies developing biotechnology-based vaccines for animals 149

Table 6 1: Areas for future research applications of animal biotechnologies 172

Table 7 1: Worldwide markets for biotechnology-based products for farm animals: 2009-2019 180

Table 7 2: Worldwide markets for biotechnology-based products for pet animals: 2009-2019 180

Table 7 3: Biotechnology-based markets for animal healthcare according to regions: 2009-2019. 181

Table 7 4: Biotechnology markets for farm animals according to therapeutic areas: 2009-2019 182

Table 7 5: Biotechnology markets for pet animals in therapeutic areas: 2009-2019 182

Table 7 6: Worldwide markets for biotechnology-based animal products for humans: 2009-2019 183

Table 9 1: Ranking of top veterinary companies with biotechnology products 201

Table 9 2: Selected collaborations of companies in animal biotechnology 324


Figure 1 1: Relation of animal biotechnology to other technologies and human health 40

Figure 2 1: Nuclear transfer technology 44

Figure 2 2: Generation of transgenic animals by linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer 51

Figure 2 3: Production of therapeutic proteins in the milk of transgenic animals. 53

Figure 7 1: Unmet needs in animal biotechnology 189

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Biotechnology Industry: Animal Biotechnology - Technologies, Markets and Companies

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Nicolas Bombourg



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