Reportlinker Adds Carbon Capture & Storage Technologies

Dec 14, 2010, 13:25 ET from Reportlinker

NEW YORK, Dec. 14, 2010 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Carbon Capture & Storage Technologies

http://www.reportlinker.com/p096613/Carbon-Capture--Storage-Technologies.html

THIS REPORT CONTAINS

The status of competing technologies as well as technological research and development for systems designed to mitigate global warming

Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2009, estimates for 2010, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) throughout 2015

Coverage of technologies that are able to capture carbon dioxide from stationary sources at the point of emission; the report, however, does not evaluate technologies that are used to capture other global warming gases such as methane

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

The goal of this study is to determine what technologies exist to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) and at what price, with a focus on the utility and power generation sector. A further goal is to determine what technologies are emerging that could compete with the existing technologies in use or displace those technologies. An objective of the study is to determine what the costs would be to the purchasers of carbon capture equipment and also what the impact would be on the consumer. Another objective is to determine which companies own the technologies to capture carbon dioxide and to determine how they are positioning their technology to compete against other technologies and if they were acquiring new technologies from start-up companies.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

With global warming receiving extended coverage in the popular media and being recognized as a global problem requiring the participation of most of the world's governments and people to find a solution, this study seeks to define exactly what is being done by who with what expected results, at what cost. There remains a controversy over how much global warming there is and to what extent this is a man-made condition or a natural cycle of climate change. From this perspective, we seek to determine what can be expected during the next 5 years. This study discusses whether certain trends that are starting now can be expected to continue.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

The INTENDED AUDIENCE is all of the corporations or individuals who have an interest in reducing their carbon dioxide emissions and the companies that may wish to invest in, license, install, or acquire promising carbon dioxide capture technologies. This report is an impartial presentation of the best available technologies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from power plants. This technical marketing report should also be of interest to state utility regulators who must make decisions that affect billion-dollar investments by corporations as well as the future cost of electricity (COE) for the rate payers.

This report should also be of interest to subcontractors in the electric power construction industry, pipe manufacturers, and pipe fitters, as new electric power projects that capture carbon dioxide will need to pipe it from the site to a storage facility.

SCOPE OF THE REPORT

The report examines global markets for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology, the status of competing carbon capture technologies as well as global technological research and development (R&D) for carbon capture technologies to prevent global warming. It also covers technologies able to capture carbon dioxide from stationary sources at the point of emission. This report does not cover technologies that are used to capture other global warming gases such as methane, water vapor, or various oxides of sulfur or nitrogen.

Major market and market segments are measured and forecasted for several years, including 2009, and 5-year forecasts are made to 2014 in most cases.

METHODOLOGY

The initial task was to determine the technologies suited to capture carbon dioxide for electric power applications and determine the cost of those technologies based on the cost per megawatt (MW) of capacity. The Appendix lists companies that provide the technologies and which companies were buying and why. An additional analysis was to list projects for each of the key technologies, including the necessary parameters, the expected cost of the project, the size of the project in megawatts, and how much carbon dioxide the project might expect to capture per year. Those projects expected to start in the 2009–2014 time frame form the basis for the forecast of growth for the carbon capture technologies examined in this report with due respect to global economic conditions and demographics.

Taking into account the number of projects, another focus involved enumerating existing projects employing the same technologies to determine historic and current values for these technologies. Some legacy technologies have found uses in other industries and applications not related to the electric utility and not always related to just capturing carbon dioxide. The world's oxygen market is discussed briefly to show the place of oxy-combustion activity in other applications. The baseline for estimates in this technical/marketing report is chosen as 1990.

Another parameter was to determine how much carbon dioxide in millions of metric tons (MTs) is being captured for the world merchant gas market, how much carbon dioxide is being consumed in the manufacture of other chemicals and products, and how much is being consumed by the tertiary method of oil recovery known as enhanced oil recovery (EOR). This step included identifying the sources of carbon dioxide used in these applications by company, and included estimates of production for the U.S. and the rest of the world (ROW).

A search of THOMAS.gov (Library of Congress) and other sources was made to determine the many bills pending before Congress that will affect the regulation of carbon dioxide. A search of state records shows U.S. state legislation in effect or proposed for governing the emission of CO2. Regulation of CO2 on the international and national level is the driving force in CO2 capture, and those regulations were surveyed as well.

U.S. patents are examined, and more than 100 research projects taking place in the U.S., Europe, Canada, and Australia also were studied to determine what new technologies were emerging that offer cheaper CO2 capture. All of these sources were considered and analyzed to determine the overall value of carbon dioxide capture during the next 5 years.

All tons in this report are MTs (2,205 lbs), not U.S. short tons (2,000 lbs), unless otherwise noted. The British spelling "tonne" is not used in this report

INFORMATION SOURCES

Sources of information include United Nation, U.S., European, Canadian, Chinese, Japanese, Australian, Brazilian, and Indian government reports, studies, research abstracts and status reports, press releases, conference presentations, and telephone and E-mail communications, including direct communications with the Secretary of Energy and the Department of Energy (DOE) Senior Advisor for Strategic Planning. Corporate information includes annual reports, quarterly reports, press releases, and information from corporate websites, corporate presentations to analysts, conference presentations, and published speeches by corporate executives as well as telephone and E-mail communications. This report does include some information from television reports and the print media.

An energy calculator of common units and conversions can be found at the National Energy Technology Laboratory's (NETL's) website[1] or at Wolfram Alpha's website.[2]

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

RICHARD HILTON, ANALYST

Mr. Hilton has a broad business background that includes many years as an analyst, project manager, product manager, and director of marketing for a major industrial firm. He has managed business planning, marketing research, and communications and product development.

He has experience as an editor of newsletters exploring emerging technologies and also has taught mathematics. Mr. Hilton has a Bachelor of Science in Business Logistics from Pennsylvania State University and a Master of Business Administration from Southern Illinois University. Of special interest to this study is his work on clean air technologies, catalysts, and ultra-pure materials and alternative energy sources

ANNA CRULL, CONSULTANT

Ms. Crull has more than 30 years of experience as a research scientist in both government and private industry and as a business and technical analyst. She has a Bachelor of Science from the School of Engineering, University of Mississippi, and a Master of Science in chemistry from the University of Missouri. Her industry experience includes working as a rocket/missile systems specialist for the U.S. Army Redstone Arsenal and on the development of recycled water systems for the Gemini spacecraft and materials used in tactile missiles. In addition to her extensive industry experience, she holds patents in the areas of polyurethane and polyester polymer formulation and their uses. She continues to work on special projects related to alternative energy, enhanced energy recovery, and air and water purification as related to clean coal technologies (CCTs).

Key areas of experience as a business and technical consultant have been in advanced technology areas with an emphasis on reliability, market forecasting, and utilization of intelligence and advanced materials technology. Her clients in both industry and government include DuPont, Fluor Corp, Corning, Inc., Coca-Cola, Bethlehem Steel, Chevron Research, Mobil Chemical, Sime Darby Group, Toray Industries America, Asahi Kasei, the U.S. Department of State, the U.S. Army, and the U.S. Navy.

Projects include membrane and separation technologies, flame-retardant chemicals, commercial fluorine compounds, biopesticides, fillers and extenders for plastics, catalysts, and specialty chemicals for enhanced oil recovery, photovoltaic cells, proton exchange membranes, and battery separators. Analyses have also included monitors and sensors for air pollution and utilization of natural and synthetic zeolites.

Ms. Crull's professional memberships have included the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Society of Petroleum Engineers, American Chemical Society, Sigma Xi, European Membrane Society, and the North American Membrane Society.

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DISCLAIMER

The information developed in this report is intended to be as reliable as possible at the time of publication and of a professional nature. This information does not constitute managerial, legal, or accounting advice; nor should it serve as a corporate policy guide, laboratory manual, or an endorsement of any product, as much of the information is speculative in nature. The author assumes no responsibility for any loss or damage that might result from reliance on the reported information or its use.

Chapter- 1: INTRODUCTION -- Complimentary

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 1

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 1

INTENDED AUDIENCE 1

SCOPE OF THE REPORT 2

METHODOLOGY 2

INFORMATION SOURCES 3

ANALYST CREDENTIALS 4

RICHARD HILTON, ANALYST 4

ANNA CRULL, CONSULTANT 4

RELATED BCC REPORTS 5

BCC ONLINE SERVICES 5

DISCLAIMER 6

Chapter-2: SUMMARY

SUMMARY 7

SUMMARY TABLE VALUE CUMULATIVE CAPITAL BASE OF CCS TECHNOLOGIES, THROUGH 2014 ($ BILLIONS) 8

SUMMARY FIGURE VALUE CUMULATIVE CAPITAL BASE OF CCS TECHNOLOGIES, 2005-2014 ($ BILLIONS) 9

                        SUMMARY (CONTINUED) 10

Chapter-3: OVERVIEW

OVERVIEW 11

OVERVIEW (CONTINUED) 12

GLOBAL EFFORTS TO MITIGATE CLIMATE CHANGE 13

KYOTO AGREEMENT 13

Clean Development Mechanism 14

Clean Development … (Continued) 15

LONDON PROTOCOL: SUBSEA CO2 REGULATIONS 16

EUROPEAN CLIMATE EXCHANGE 16

STOCKHOLM CLIMATE CHANGE CONFERENCE 17

TECHNOLOGIES EXAMINED 18

PRE-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES 18

OXY-FUEL COMBUSTION 18

POST-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY 19

Post-Combustion Technology  (Continued) 20

ANOTHER VIEW 21

ELECTRICITY COSTS 21

TABLE 1 REPRESENTATIVE U.S. RESIDENTIAL COST OF A KWH OF ELECTRICITY BY STATE, MAY 2010 (₵/KWH) 21

TABLE 1 (CONTINUED) 22

AIR QUALITY CONTROLS FOR PULVERIZED COAL 23

COAL CONSUMPTION AND POWER PLANTS 24

USERS OF CARBON CAPTURE TECHNOLOGIES 24

USERS OF CARBON CAPTURE … (CONTINUED) 25

ALTERNATIVES 26

OTHER ASPECTS 27

OTHER ASPECTS (CONTINUED) 28

Chapter-4: CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND R&D

CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION RULES AND PROPOSALS 29

                 CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION … (CONTINUED) 30

SEQUESTRATION OPTIONS 31

CARBON SEQUESTRATION 32

LARGE-SCALE REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION RESEARCH PROJECTS 32

TABLE 2 VALUE U.S. CO2 GEOLOGIC STORAGE PROJECTS ($ MILLIONS) 33

TABLE 2 (CONTINUED) 34

Plains CO2 Reduction Partnership 34

Plains CO2 Reduction … (Continued) 35

Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership 36

Southeast Regional Carbon … (Continued) 37

West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership 38

Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium 38

Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership 39

Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership 39

OTHER SIGNIFICANT SEQUESTRATION PROGRAMS 40

Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum 40

Carbon Sequestration … (Continued) 41

R&D PROGRAMS 42

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) 42

Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy 43

Basic Energy Sciences 43

Biomass and Biorefinery System 44

Clean Coal Power Initiative 44

Clean Coal Power Initiative (Continued) 45

Climate Change Research 46

Genomic Science Program 46

NETL or National Energy Technology Laboratory 47

Strategic Center for Coal 48

GLOBAL R&D BY REGION 48

TABLE 3 WORLDWIDE CCS RESEARCH SPENDING FORECAST BY REGION, 2014 ($ MILLIONS) 48

United States 49

FutureGen and Advanced Turbines 49

FutureGen and … (Continued) 50

FIGURE 1 SCHEMATIC FUTUREGEN INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGIES 51

Canada 51

European Union 52

European Union (Continued) 53

Germany 54

Germany (Continued) 55

Norway 56

U.S.-U.K. Collaboration 57

U.S.-U.K. Collaboration (Continued) 58

China-EU/COACH 59

China 59

Japan 60

Australia 61

Rest of World (ROW) 61

India 61

R&D TECHNOLOGY TYPE 62

TABLE 4 CCS MATERIALS RESEARCH MARKET BY TECHNOLOGY ($ MILLIONS) 63

Membranes 63

TABLE 5 VALUE OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE MEMBRANE RESEARCH ($ MILLIONS) 63

TABLE 5 (CONTINUED) 64

TABLE 5 (CONTINUED) 65

Combustors/Turbines 65

TABLE 6  PROJECTED VALUE OF COMBUSTOR/TURBINE RESEARCH PROJECTS, 2007 ($ MILLIONS) 66

Zeolites 67

TABLE 7 VALUE OF ZEOLITE RESEARCH FOR CO2 CAPTURE ($ MILLIONS) 68

FIGURE 2 SCHEMATIC FOR METAL MONOLITHIC AMINE GRAFTED ZEOLITES FOR CO2 CAPTURE 69

Silicates 70

Ionic Liquids 71

TABLE 8 VALUE IONIC LIQUIDS RESEARCH FOR CO2 CAPTURE, 2006 ($ MILLIONS) 72

Other CO2 Absorbent Materials 73

TABLE 9 APPROXIMATE VALUE OF ADDITIONAL CO2 ABSORBENT MATERIALS RESEARCH ($ MILLIONS) 74

TABLE 9 (CONTINUED) 75

INFORMATION SOURCES 76

Chapter-5: PRE-COMBUSTION AND OXY-FUEL COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY

INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE 77

TABLE 10 GLOBAL IGCC PLANT GROWTH PROJECTIONS: SYNGAS PRODUCTION VS. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2014 (MWTH* VS. MWE**) 77

TABLE 11 WORLDWIDE IGCC PLANT GROWTH PROJECTIONS: CUMULATIVE VALUE OF SYNGAS AND ELECTRIC PLANTS, THROUGH 2014 ($ BILLIONS) 78

IGCC ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS 79

TABLE 12 GLOBAL CARBON CAPTURE CAPITAL BASE PROJECTIONS, THROUGH 2014 ($ BILLIONS) 80

TABLE 13 PROJECTED U.S. AND ROW IGCC MW BASE FOR POWER, THROUGH 2014 81

IGCC TECHNOLOGY 81

TABLE 14 COAL PLANT EFFICIENCY BY COAL TYPE (%) 82

Technology Distribution 82

TABLE 15 PROJECTED U.S. AND ROW IGCC MW BASE FOR POWER, THROUGH 2014 (MW/NO. OF PROJECTS) 83

TABLE 16 PLANNED MEGAWATTS OF IGCC POWER PLANTS WORLDWIDE 2014 (MW/%) 84

MAJOR COMPONENTS OF AN IGCC 85

TABLE 17 MAJOR IGCC COMPONENTS: COST AND PLANT FUNCTION (%) 85

Combined Cycle Power Block 85

Gasifier 86

Coal Handling Equipment 86

Moving-Bed Reactors 86

Fluidized-Bed Reactors 87

Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion 87

Entrained-Flow Reactors 87

Syngas Cleanup 88

Other Components and Control Systems 89

FIGURE 3 SCHEMATIC IGCC PROCESS 90

METHODS OF MANUFACTURE 90

Process Economics 91

TABLE 18 POWER PLANT CAPITAL COSTS WITHOUT AND WITH CCS ($/MILLION MW) 91

Process Economics (Continued) 92

Process Comparison 93

TABLE 19 ENVIRONMENTAL ADVANTAGES OF IGCC VS. THE BEST PULVERIZED COAL PLANTS 93

TABLE 20 COMPARISON OF IGCC, SUBCRITICAL PULVERIZED COAL, SUPERCRITICAL PULVERIZED COAL CO2 EMISSIONS (LB/MWH) 94

TABLE 21 COMPARISON OF GE, CONOCOPHILLIPS, AND SHELL TECHNOLOGIES COSTS AND EFFICIENCY 94

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT 95

ENVIRONMENTAL ADVANTAGES 95

Environmental Advantages (Continued) 96

TABLE 22 IGCC VS. pULVERIZED COAL WITH ADVANCED POLLUTION CONTROLS ENVIRONMENTAL COMPARISON 97

INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS 97

TABLE 23 WORLDWIDE PROJECTED MARKET SHARES OF IGCC FOR ELECTRICITY, 2007–2012 (NUMBER OF PROJECTS/%) 98

TABLE 24 PROJECTED IGCC CO2 POTENTIAL FOR EMISSION CREDITS VS. PULVERIZED COAL AND SUPERCRITICAL PULVERIZED POWER PLANTS, THROUGH 2012 98

Industry Drivers 99

TABLE 25 IGCC INDUSTRY DRIVERS VS. INHIBITORS 99

Strategies 100

Shifts 100

IMPORTANCE OF PATENTS 100

Patents by Application 101

TABLE 26 U.S. CO2 CAPTURE PATENTS BY APPLICATION TYPE, 2005–2009 (%) 101

Patent Technology by Region 101

TABLE 27 CARBON DIOXIDE-RELATED PATENTS BY GLOBAL REGION, 2005–2009 (%) 102

IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH 102

Importance of Research (Continued) 103

TABLE 28 WORLDWIDE IGCC PLANT GROWTH PROJECTIONS: SYNGAS PRODUCTION VS. ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION, THROUGH 2014 (MWTH* VS. MWE**) 104

OTHER ASPECTS 105

THE COAL UTILIZATION SCIENCE PROGRAM 105

The Coal Utilization … (Continued) 106

TABLE 29 WORLDWIDE OXYGEN APPLICATION MARKETS, 2009 ($ BILLIONS) 107

TABLE 30 GLOBAL OXYGEN MARKET PROJECTIONS, THROUGH 2014 ($ BILLIONS/BCF/MMTS) 107

TECHNOLOGY MARKET FOR OXY-FUEL COMBUSTION OR CARBON CAPTURE 108

TABLE 31 PROJECTED WORLDWIDE UTILITY MARKET FOR COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS, THROUGH 2014 ($ BILLIONS) 108

OXY-COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY 109

MAJOR OXY-FUEL POWER GENERATION COMPONENTS 109

TABLE 32 MAJOR OXY-COMBUSTION COMPONENT COSTS, 2009 (%) 110

Boiler-Turbine Generator 110

Air Separation Unit 111

Carbon Dioxide Cooler/Condenser/Compressor 112

Air Pollution Controls 112

PROCESS ECONOMICS 113

FIGURE 4 SCHEMATIC OXY-FUEL SYSTEM 113

TABLE 33 COST OF STATE-OF-THE ART 740 MW PULVERIZED COAL OXY-COMBUSTION PLANT WITH CO2 CAPTURE COMPARED WITH A PULVERIZED COAL AIR-FIRED COAL PLANT WITHOUT CO2 CAPTURE, 2009 114

TABLE 34 SUPERCRITICAL OXY-FUEL COSTS COMPARED WITH ULTRA-SUPERCRITICAL OXY-FUEL COSTS, WITH AND WITHOUT CAPTURE, 2009 115

TABLE 35 OXY-FUEL COMPONENT COST OF ENERGY, 2009 (₵/KWH/%) 116

PROCESS COMPARISON 116

TABLE 36 ULTRA-SUPERCRITICAL OXY-FUEL PERFORMANCE COMPARED WITH SUPERCRITICAL OXY-FUEL PERFORMANCE, WITH AND WITHOUT CAPTURE, 2009 117

TABLE 37 AUXILIARY POWER LOSS FOR OXY-FUEL POWER PLANT 117

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT 118

ENVIRONMENTAL ADVANTAGES 118

INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS: COMBUSTION 118

Industry Market Shares 119

TABLE 38 COMPANY MARKET SHARES OF OXY-FUEL FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS, 2009 ($ MILLIONS/%) 120

Industry Drivers 121

Industry Drivers (Continued)

TABLE 39 OXY-FUEL INDUSTRY DRIVERS VS. INHIBITORS 122

Strategies 122

Shifts 122

Industry Impacts 123

Regulatory Environment 124

Importance of Research and Patents 124

Importance of Research … (Continued) 125

Importance of Research … (Continued) 126

Chapter-6: POST-COMBUSTION CCS

TECHNOLOGY MARKET FOR POST-COMBUSTION CCS 127

TABLE 40 PROJECTED WORLDWIDE VALUE OF POST-COMBUSTION STORAGE PROJECTS AND ONGOING EOR, THROUGH 2014 ($ BILLIONS) 127

POST-COMBUSTION RECOVERY APPLICATION MARKET 128

TABLE 41 PROJECTED WORLDWIDE VALUE OF CO2 CAPTURE PROJECTS, CO2 CAPTURE, AND VALUE OF CO2, THROUGH 2014 129

FIGURE 5 PROJECTED WORLDWIDE MARKET SHARE OF CCS TECHNOLOGIES BY COUNTRY AND MTS OF CO2 CAPTURED, 2014 (%) 129

TECHNOLOGY: CHEMICAL STRIPPING 130

TECHNOLOGY: CHEMICAL STRIPPING (CONTINUED) 131

FIGURE 6 SCHEMATIC OF POWER GENERATION AND CO2 SEQUESTRATION 132

MAJOR POST-COMBUSTION CCS CHEMICAL STRIPPING COMPONENTS 132

Flue Gas Supply/SO2 Polishing 133

Carbon Dioxide Absorption 133

Circulating Water System 134

Water Wash Section 134

Rich/Lean Amine Heat Exchange System 135

Solvent Stripper 135

Solvent Stripper Reclaimer 136

Steam Condensate 136

Corrosion Inhibitor System 136

Gas Compression and Drying System 136

FIGURE 7 SCHEMATIC OF AN AMINE TREATMENT SYSTEM 137

PROCESS ECONOMICS 137

TABLE 42 AMINE SCRUBBING COSTS COMPARED WITH SUPERCRITICAL AND ULTRA-SUPERCRITICAL, WITH AND WITHOUT CAPTURE 138

TABLE 42 (CONTINUED) 139

TABLE 43 AMINE CCS COMPONENT COST OF ELECTRICITY PER KWH AND PERCENTAGE OF COST OF ELECTRICITY PER KWH 139

TABLE 44 CAPITAL COSTS FOR A 720 MW COAL POWER PLANT, 6,000 MTS OF CO2 A DAY CCS RETROFIT, 2009 140

PROCESS COMPARISONS 140

TABLE 45 SUPERCRITICAL AMINE PERFORMANCE COMPARED WITH ULTRA-SUPERCRITICAL AMINE PERFORMANCE, WITH AND WITHOUT CAPTURE 141

AMMONIA CCS TECHNOLOGY 141

PROCESS ECONOMICS 142

TABLE 46 COST COMPARISON OF ANHYDROUS AMMONIA AND MEA FOR PULVERIZED COAL AND ULTRA-SUPERCRITICAL PLANTS 142

TABLE 46 (CONTINUED) 143

PROCESS COMPARISON 144

TABLE 47 COMPARISON OF MEA VS. ANHYDROUS AMMONIA PERFORMANCE IN A PULVERIZED COAL PLANT VS. AN ULTRA-SUPERCITCAL PLANT 145

TABLE 48 VALUE-ADDED PRODUCTS FROM AMMONIA POLLUTION CONTROLS FOR NOX, SOX, AND GD (OPERATING AT 80% OF CAPACITY) 146

TABLE 49 MEA VS. AMMONIA BTU REQUIREMENTS 146

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT 147

INDUSTRY DRIVERS 147

TABLE 50 INDUSTRY DRIVERS VS. INHIBITORS 147

TABLE 50 (CONTINUED) 148

Shifts 148

Strategies 148

PATENT FACTORS 148

IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH FOR POST-COMBUSTION 148

CHEMICALS FOR POST-COMBUSTION CARBON CAPTURING PROCESS 149

SORBENTS 149

INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS: POST-COMBUSTION 150

TABLE 51 WORLDWIDE NUMBER OF CHEMICAL-BASED CARBON CAPTURE PLANT INSTALLATIONS BY COMPANY (NUMBER/%) 151

TABLE 52 VALUE SOLVENTS FOR CCS, 2009 ($ BILLIONS) 152

Trends in Ethanolamine Demand 152

TABLE 53 PROJECTED WORLDWIDE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOLAMINE, THROUGH 2014 (MMTS AND $ BILLIONS) 153

TABLE 54 WORLDWIDE ETHANOLAMINE PRODUCTION BY REGION, 2009 (%) 154

FIGURE 8 GLOBAL ETHANOLAMINE MARKET SHARES BY COMPANY, 2009 (%) 155

TABLE 55  WORLDWIDE ETHANOLAMINE CAPACITY ESTIMATED BY COMPANY, 2009 ($ MILLIONS) 156

Ethanolamine Production 156

CHEMICAL SOLVENT/ORGANICS: AMINE BASED 157

Monoethanolamine 158

Monoethanolamine (Continued) 159

Amine Guard 160

Amino-Di-Ethylene-Glycol (ADEG) 160

Activated Methyldiethanolamine (aDMEA) 161

Amisol Mix 161

Diisopropylamine 161

Diethanolamine/SNPA-DEA 162

Econamine FG Process 162

Econamine FG Process (Continued) 163

Estasolvan Process 164

Flexsorb Technology 164

Fluor Solvent 165

Glymine 165

Applications 166

KS-1, KS-2, and KS-3 166

MDEA and Hybrid Solvents 166

Omnisulf 167

Sterically Hindered Amines 168

PHYSICAL SOLVENTS 168

Alkazid 168

Morphysorb 169

Optisol 170

Potassium Carbonate/Benfield 170

PuraTreat R and F 171

Purisol 172

Rectisol 172

Rectisol (Continued) 173

Selefining 174

Selexol 174

Sepasolv MPE 175

Sulfinol 175

Ucarsol 176

Chapter-7: MAJOR MARKETS FOR CARBON CAPTURE STORAGE (CCS) AND TECHNOLOGIES

ELECTRIC POWER: ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION 177

TABLE 56 INTERNATIONAL ENERGY ANNUAL USE, 2004–2008 (BILLION KWHS) 178

TABLE 56 (CONTINUED) 179

TABLE 56 (CONTINUED) 180

TABLE 56 (CONTINUED) 181

TABLE 56 (CONTINUED) 182

TABLE 56 (CONTINUED) 183

TABLE 57 WORLDWIDE APPLICATIONS OF CARBON CAPTURE SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES AND ELECTRIC GROWTH PROJECTIONS, THROUGH 2014 184

TABLE 58 PROJECTED WORLDWIDE POWER CAPACITY WITH OR WITHOUT CARBON CAPTURE SYSTEMS BY TYPE PROJECTED TO 2014 (MW MILLIONS) 185

TABLE 59 PROJECTED MW INCREASE IN CARBON CAPTURE SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES WORLDWIDE, THROUGH 2014 (MW IN MILLIONS) 186

TABLE 60 CUMULATIVE WORLDWIDE UTILITY MARKET VALUE FOR CARBON CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY BY TYPE, THROUGH 2014 ($ BILLIONS) 187

FIGURE 9   WORLD ELECTRIC POWER MARKET SHARES BY REGION, 2009 (%) 188

MARKET TRENDS 188

Market Trends (Continued) 189

TABLE 61 WORLDWIDE POTENTIAL VALUES OF CCS TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC POWER, 2014 (MW/$MILLIONS) 190

COAL PRODUCTION 191

TABLE 62 PROJECTED U.S. MARKET SHARES OF CCS TECHNOLOGIES FOR COAL POWER, 2014 (1,012 W) 192

PROCESS ECONOMICS 192

Process Economics (Continued) 193

REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT 194

Regulatory Environment (Continued) 195

APPLICATION MARKETS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE AND STORAGE 196

FIGURE 10 PROJECTED APPLICATION MARKETS FOR CCS BY INDUSTRY, 2014 197

FIGURE 11 COST PER MT OF CO2 FROM INDUSTRIAL SOURCES, 2008 198

NATURAL GAS PROCESSING 199

TABLE 63 PROJECTED WORLDWIDE APPLICATION MARKETS FOR POST-COMBUSTION SOLVENT SYSTEMS, THROUGH 2014 ($ BILLIONS) 200

NATURAL GAS PROCESSING (CONTINUED) 201

NATURAL GAS PROCESSING (CONTINUED) 202

NATURAL GAS PROCESSING (CONTINUED) 203

NATURAL GAS PROCESSING (CONTINUED) 204

NATURAL GAS PROCESSING (CONTINUED) 205

TABLE 64 PROJECTED WORLDWIDE VALUE OF CO2 ANTI-CORROSION FOR PIPELINE TRANSMISSION, THROUGH 2014 206

NATURAL GAS PROCESSING (CONTINUED) 207

FIGURE 12 MAJOR INDUSTRIAL SOURCES OF 1.3 BCF/D CO2 FOR EOR, 2009 (%)

APPENDIX 271

PRE-COMBUSTION COMPANY WEBSITES 271

PRE-COMBUSTION COMPANY WEBSITES (CONTINUED) 272

PRE-COMBUSTION COMPANY WEBSITES (CONTINUED) 273

PRE-COMBUSTION COMPANY WEBSITES (CONTINUED) 274

PRE-COMBUSTION COMPANY WEBSITES (CONTINUED) 275

OXY-COMBUSTION COMPANY WEBSITES 276

POST-COMBUSTION COMPANY WEBSITES 277

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