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This report provides summaries of current worldwide research, technology developments in low and non caloric sweeteners that are essential part of food systems to offer alternatives to combat obesity issues and diabetes associated with high calorie consumption. We offer this as a tool that can enhance the reading, thought process along with our insights for today's overloaded technical, commercial and support management functions. This is our 3rd report in the Frontiers in Carbohydrates and we plan to issue series of similar reports each year to proactively offer areas of targeted research in selected areas; we may evolve this document as we move forward depending on your feedback and serve the changing needs of carbohydrates. This presents our extensive research with comprehensive experience and insights of our associates and me who have spent many years in the carbohydrates research, processing and marketing. Besides we stay on the cutting edge by our continuous scan of carbohydrates research and developments worldwide.
Individual sweetener characteristics are as numerous as the types of sweeteners available for use. Sucrose is just one type of carbohydrate-derived sweetener. Starch-based sweeteners or dextrose-based types include maltodextrin, corn syrup and dextrose. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is derived from a dextrose syrup with a dextrose equivalence (DE) of 95 or greater (DE measures the extent of starch hydrolysis). As the dextrose hydrolysate reacts with glucose isomerase, the glucose is partially converted to fructose. HFCS 42% contains 42% fructose, 53% glucose and 5% more complex sugars. HFCS 55% and 90% are also available.
Some non-sugar sweeteners are polyols also known as "sugar alcohols" These are, in general, less sweet than sucrose, but have similar bulk properties and can be used in a wide range of food products. Sometimes the sweetness profile is 'fine-tuned' by mixing with high-intensity sweeteners. As with all food products, the development of a formulation to replace sucrose is a complex proprietary process.
Polyols, or sugar alcohols, are derived from carbohydrates whose reducing sugar has been reduced to a hydroxyl group (an alcohol group). Polyols are versatile ingredients, many of which can be used at levels comparable to sugar. Certain polyols are highly hygroscopic, which enables them to function as humectants. Polyols have reduced caloric levels, reduced insulin response and are non-cariogenic. Xylitol, mannitol and sorbitol have a high negative heat of solution and, therefore, deliver a cooling effect. Polyols do not have a reactive carbonyl group and thus do not contribute to Maillard browning.
High-intensity sweeteners (HIS) are used at very low concentrateons due to their sweetening power. The category of HIS includes saccharin, acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, cyclamates, sucralose and alitame. Properties and stability of each sweetener vary according to formulation, process and storage conditions. Natural sweeteners such as Stevia has become very popular in recent years due to as the name "Natural" consumed widely by older cultures and now found its way to the food and beverage industry in global markets worldwide. Research summaries presented in this report are a small portion of many research publications worldwide. There has been a tremendous interests and flurry of activities in reducing calories with low calorie or non-caloric sweeteners. Growth of non-caloric high intensity synthetic sweeteners seems to have slowed down a bit in US and EU, their growth is more in emerging markets. In the US and EU the natural non-caloric sweeteners such as Stevia has generated a lot of excitement and growth opportunities.
In this report we present the most recent activities in research and technologies of critical nutrition and functional carbohydrates of selected areas along with selected patents 2003 to 2010. We also present brief analysis of patent trends, which has most number of patents, what years and segments.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY4
II. LOW CALORIE SWEETENERS AND BLKING AGENTS…6
A. Low Calorie Sweeteners and bulking Agents
Selected Patents 2003 to 2010….16
III. HIGH INTENSITY SWEETENERS…..............................................................21
A. High intensity Sweeteners Selected Patents 2003 to 2010..…28
IV. NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC LOW OR NON CALORIC SWEETENERS..........32
A. Non Caloric Sweeteners Selected Patents 2003 to 2010…….……....40
V. BRIEF PATENT ANALYSIS…….…….42
VI. LOW, NON CALORIC SWEETENERS AND DIABETES……...….46
VII. Addendum 1: USA – Sucralose Patents 1988 to 2007.…..53
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