Reportlinker Adds Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes and Membrane Electrode Assemblies for PEM Fuel Cells

Dec 14, 2010, 13:51 ET from Reportlinker

NEW YORK, Dec. 14, 2010 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Materials for Proton Exchange Membranes and Membrane Electrode Assemblies for PEM Fuel Cells

http://www.reportlinker.com/p0341181/Materials-for-Proton-Exchange-Membranes-and-Membrane-Electrode-Assemblies-for-PEM-Fuel-Cells.html

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This analysis focuses on the three main components of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). These include:

Membranes

Gaseous diffusion layers and bipolar plates

Catalysts and inks

Polymer membranes that are the electrolyte and therefore the heart of the fuel cell, and they receive extra attention. The report also examines the history and advancing technology of these components, the companies involved in these developments, the current and projected incentives, and the projected markets for such technologies.

Identified as a practical solution to many of the technological and environmental problems facing the world today, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is appropriate as a power source for transportation, stationary distributive power, and small-scale applications such as portable electronic products. Applications for all types of fuel cells are still evolving. In the process of this evolution, the different proton exchange membrane materials and MEAs will evolve and be adapted to more specific uses.

Identifying how researchers are solving the search for better membranes that have greater tolerances to poisoning, greater durability, and lower costs is a major objective of the report. The U.S. Japanese, Chinese, and European Union governments are pouring billions of dollars of loans, subsidies, and outright grants into fuel cell research and development — and at the same time there has been a series of brutal confrontations between Congress and the President's administration over continued fuel cell vehicle funding. Meanwhile, European and Far Eastern government subsidies increase.

Commercialization of the fuel cell is not solely influenced by engineers and scientists working on stacks and reformers. (This is also brought about by subsidies by the government, lobbying efforts, venture capitalists, and most of all by some consumers actually finding a need or desire for the product.) A major cost issue addressed is the critical issue of the catalyst component.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

Fuel cells are viewed as potential candidates for auxiliary power, mobile power, stationary distributed or central power, and portable product power. Advances in the technology are made, but sometimes these advances reveal even more challenges to be met. Slowly there is the realization that total dependency on hydrocarbon fuels is not a viable economic option. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells have a part in securing energy security for the country, improving the environment, greatly reducing urban pollution, and creating jobs in manufacturing as the technology advances. They can also provide a cost-effective and performance-driven rival for advanced batteries.

This study analyzes components of the PEM fuel cell, a technology offering the promise of greatly reduced environmental impact and excellent performance, price, and efficiency advantages. Recent historic developments and approaches are described along with recent commercial developments and the state of the art. Hydrogen feed fuel cells are based on the electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. This electrochemical process does not pollute the environment with hydrocarbons, particulates or any sulfur or nitrogen oxides. The study identifies the opportunities and technological requirements of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell and the MEA and the bipolar plates for the PEM fuel cell. When several units of the membrane electrode assembly are capped off with a bipolar plate and properly assembled, the arrangement is referred to as a stack.

Questions to be answered include determining a timetable for PEM fuel cell commercialization, as well as what types of membranes and membrane assemblies are needed to make this possible.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is intended to provide a unique analysis of the broadly defined global proton exchange membrane market and will be of interest to a variety of current and potential fuel cell users as well as fuel cell makers and component and membrane makers. This report also can provide valuable information in terms of assessing investment in particular technologies and, therefore, should benefit investors directly or indirectly. The vital importance of platinum as a catalyst for PEM fuel cells is addressed. Anyone interested in the precious metals market, in nanomaterials, or in alternative catalysts will find the evaluations of the technology of interest. BCC Research wishes to thank those companies, government agencies, and university researchers that contributed information for this report.

This analysis is designed to be as comprehensive as possible. This document is intended to be value to a broad audience of business, technical, investment, and regulatory professionals. It is an information source for an emerging industry as well as a reference on a developing technology. It presents analysis and forward-thinking evaluations that will be of advantage to manufacturers; material suppliers; and to local, state, and federal government entities. Corporate planners will benefit from the report's evaluation of the demands for proton exchange membranes, membrane electrode assemblies, and platinum catalyst and the companies involved in their development and manufacture. Others may find the broad discussions of energy policy, environmental impact, platinum supply, and chemical synthesis of membranes to be of considerable value in understanding the opportunities and problems facing the fuel cell industry in the near- to mid-term.

SCOPE OF REPORT

The fuel cell industry in various forms has been developing for decades. There are notable examples of fuel cell successes. The proton exchange membrane fuel cell is emerging as a winner in many of the primary categories that fuel cells can satisfy. Existing membranes and assemblies still have room for improvement. Proton exchange membrane fuel cell development and commercialization is an ever-changing process. This BCC Research analysis examines the market and technology for the materials and technology of proton exchange membranes and electrode assemblies and for bipolar plates for PEMFCs, including direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). This includes the gas diffusion layer (GDL), the catalyst ink/electrode, the membrane itself, and the bipolar plate. Ancillary stack assembly materials such as bolts, gaskets, tie-outs, and final assembly and packaging costs are excluded.

This report details the actuals for 2006, 2009, and 2010 and compound annual growth rate (CAGR) projections for 2015 for the North American, European, Far Eastern, and rest-of-world markets. Selected 2006 actuals will help as a basis for today's markets and tomorrow's projections. When appropriate, consensus, optimistic, and pessimistic scenarios are presented. A patent analysis and discussion for power sources and vehicle components describes where research is performed and emphasizes intellectual property issues.

METHODOLOGY

An in-depth analysis of technical and business literature and published dissertations, a review of the history of the technologies involved, interviews with industry experts, company representatives, federal government researchers, and university scientists provide an assessment of the outlook for the next generation of PEMFCs and membrane electrode assemblies. Other INFORMATION SOURCES include product literature from suppliers, scientific references, conferences, patent searches.

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report, which is based on interviews with commercial and government sources, literature reviews, and patent examinations. Throughout the report, past market data is expressed in current dollars, and estimates and projections are in constant 2010 dollars. Historic markets (2006 and 2009) and the projected market for 2015 are provided. Most market summaries are based on a consensus scenario that assumes no unanticipated technical advances and no unexpected legislation. When appropriate, pessimistic, consensus, and optimistic market scenarios characterize several developmental markets. Totals are rounded to the nearest million dollars. When appropriate, information from previously published sources is identified to allow a more detailed examination by clients.

INFORMATION SOURCES

Market assumptions used in this report include those based on updates of material from an earlier version of this analysis, as well as from BCC Research studies. This report's author prepared these studies as well. He also edits the twice-monthly BCC Research newsletter, Fuel Cell Industry Report, which is a uniquely valuable source for this market. Although many segments of the industry are well documented, much of this information is based on estimates, not hard facts. The distinction between these estimates and hard facts can be vital, and wherever possible, sources are identified.

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

This report's project analyst, Donald Saxman, is the editor of BCC Research's Fuel Cell Industry Report and Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Progress newsletters, and has founded several other BCC newsletters. Mr. Saxman has more than 28 years of experience in market analysis, technical writing, and newsletter editing. Since 1983, he has operated as a technical market consultant and subcontractor to BCC Research, and, in this capacity, he has prepared more than 80 technology market research reports, including many that covered battery technology and battery markets. His previous experience includes supervision of a quality-control laboratory at a major secondary lead refinery, experience as an analytical chemist at a hazardous waste testing service, product assurance manager for a space station life-support-system project, and an information technology business analyst and project manager.

Highlights

The global market value of components for PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assembly (MEA) as defined by the membrane, the bipolar plates, the gaseous diffusion layers, and the catalyst ink and electrodes, is an estimated $383 million in 2010. This market is expected to grow at a 20.6% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) over the 5-year forecast period to reach $977 million in 2015.

Of the PEMFC MEA components, membranes have the greatest value, estimated at $200 million in 2010. By 2015, this sector will be worth $424 million, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 16.2%.

Inks and catalysts have the second largest share but will experience the highest growth rate of the aforementioned components. This sector is valued at $103 million in 2010 and is forecast to increase at a 28% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) to reach $354 million in 2015.

Chapter- 1: INTRODUCTION -- Complimentary

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 1

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2

INTENDED AUDIENCE 2

SCOPE OF REPORT 3

METHODOLOGY 3

INFORMATION SOURCES 4

ANALYST CREDENTIALS 4

RELATED BCC REPORTS 5

BCC ONLINE SERVICES 5

DISCLAIMER 5

Chapter-2: SUMMARY

SUMMARY 6

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL PEMFC MEA MARKET, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 7

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL PEMFC MEA MARKET, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 7

Chapter-3: PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL OVERVIEW

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY 8

PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL FUNDAMENTALS 9

PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE … (CONTINUED) 10

FIGURE 1 GENERIC PEMFC DIAGRAM SHOWING COMPONENTS 11

FUEL AND FUEL REFORMING FUNDAMENTALS 12

Improved Hydrogen Separation 12

Filtering Hydrogen and Oxygen 13

Georgia Tech Analysis of Fuel Cell Failure Modes 14

Georgia Tech Analysis … (Continued) 15

THE DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL VARIATION 16

The Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Variation (Continued) 17

FIGURE 2 SCHEMATIC DMFC CHEMISTRY 18

PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL COMPANIES 18

TABLE 1 PEMFC AND DMFC MAKERS 19

PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL MARKET DRIVERS 20

MARKET SEGMENTATION AND INDUSTRY CONCENTRATION 21

Market Segmentation and … (Continued) 22

Portable Market Sector Market Drivers and Market Factors 22

TABLE 2 TYPES OF PORTABLE PRODUCTS 23

TABLE 3 IMPORTANT PORTABLE PRODUCT CONCEPTS 24

TABLE 3 (CONTINUED) 25

TABLE 4 PORTABLE FUEL CELL MARKET DRIVERS 26

TABLE 5 PORTABLE FUEL CELL MARKET FACTORS 27

Stationary Market Sector Market Drivers and Market Factors 27

Uninterruptible Power Supplies 27

Combined Heat and Power 28

Utility Load Leveling 28

Utility … (continued) 29

Stationary Market Drivers 30

TABLE 6 STATIONARY FUEL CELL MARKET DRIVERS 30

TABLE 7 STATIONARY FUEL CELL MARKET FACTORS 31

Transportation Market Sector Market Drivers and Market Factors 31

TABLE 8 TRANSPORTATION FUEL CELL MARKET DRIVERS 32

TABLE 9 TRANSPORTATION FUEL CELL MARKET FACTORS 32

"Other" Market Sector Market Drivers and Market Factors 32

Portable Military Products 33

TABLE 10 SELECTED PORTABLE BATTERY-POWERED MILITARY PRODUCT ROLES 33

Recreational Vehicles 33

Anti-Idling Power 34

"Other" Market Drivers 35

TABLE 11 "OTHER" FUEL CELL MARKET DRIVERS 35

TABLE 12 "OTHER" FUEL CELL MARKET FACTORS 35

GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET FORECASTS 36

TABLE 13 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 36

FIGURE 3 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2010 ($ MILLIONS) 36

TABLE 14 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 37

FIGURE 4 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY REGION, 2010 ($ MILLIONS) 37

Optimistic and Pessimistic Scenarios 37

Optimistic and Pessimistic … (Continued) 38

Optimistic and Pessimistic … (Continued) 39

TABLE 15 GLOBAL PEMFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 40

TABLE 15 (CONTINUED) 41

Chapter-4: MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLIES

MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY BACKGROUND 42

FIGURE 5 SCHEMATIC SIMPLE MEA 43

PERFORMANCE GOALS FOR MEAS 44

TABLE 16 FUEL CELL MEA PERFORMANCE GOALS 45

MEA FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY 45

FIGURE 6 SCHEMATIC FOR CONCEPTUAL MEA CREATION 46

MEA FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY (CONTINUED) 47

MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY FUNCTIONAL STACK DESIGNS 48

ELECTROCHEMISTRY 48

WATER MANAGEMENT 49

ANCILLARY FACTORS 50

MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY DEVELOPMENT APPROACHES 51

3M Innovative Properties Co. Approach 51

DuPont Approach 52

GM Approach 53

Hoku Scientific Approach 53

PEMEAS/E-Tek Approach 53

Palcan Power Systems Approach 54

ReliOn/Avista Approach 54

Gore Approach 55

Other Approaches 56

CARBON CORROSION AND GRAPHITES 56

Carbon Corrosion and Graphites (Continued) 57

Asbury Graphite Mills Approach 58

Crystal Graphite Approach 58

Timcal Synthetic Graphite Approach 58

DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL MEA APPROACHES 58

Gillette Co. 58

Sony Corp. 59

Los Alamos National Laboratory 59

California Institute of Technology 60

University Of Connecticut 60

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Corp. 60

Direct Methanol … (Continued) 61

Gore DMFC 62

Maxdem Technologies 63

Russian Academy of Sciences 63

Ube Industries, Ltd. 63

Sumitomo Metal Approach 64

Oorja Approach 64

Oorja Approach (Continued) 65

Oorja Approach (Continued) 66

Panasonic Approach 67

TABLE 17 PANASONIC DMFC SPECIFICATIONS 68

University of Dayton Approach 68

Arizona State University 69

Rice University Approach 70

Drexel University Approach 71

GLOBAL MEA COMPONENT FOR PEMFCS STRUCTURE AND FORECAST 72

MEMBRANE ELECTRODE ASSEMBLY INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 72

TABLE 18 ESTIMATED MEA COMPANY MARKET SHARES, 2010 (%) 73

BIPOLAR PLATE MARKET STRUCTURE 74

GAS DIFFUSION LAYERS AND CARBON STRUCTURE 74

INK AND CATALYST STRUCTURE 74

PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER: MEA MARKET FORECAST 75

TABLE 19 GLOBAL MEA COMPONENT MARKET, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 75

FIGURE 7 GLOBAL MEA MARKET SHARES, 2010 (%) 76

TABLE 20 GLOBAL MEA COMPONENT MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 77

PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR FUEL CELLS 77

MEMBRANE BACKGROUND 77

Types of Membranes 77

Membrane Processes 78

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Membranes 78

WHAT MAKES A GOOD PEM FUEL CELL MEMBRANE? 79

PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUNCTIONAL FACTORS 79

Proton Exchange Membrane Functional … (Continued) 80

TABLE 21 MEMBRANE PARAMETER VARIABLES 81

PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYTE COMPATIBILITY FACTORS 81

TABLE 22 PEM ELECTROLYTE ISSUES 82

MEMBRANE TEMPERATURE TOLERANCE FACTORS 82

High-Temperature Tolerance 82

TABLE 23 ADVANTAGES OF A HIGHER TEMPERATURE MEMBRANE FOR A PEM FUEL CELL 83

Freezing Temperature Tolerance 83

MEMBRANE WATER TOLERANCE FACTORS 84

FIGURE 8  WATER TRANSPORT IN A PEM FUEL CELL 85

Protonated Water Clusters 86

FUEL TOLERANCE FACTORS 86

FUEL CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURE 87

MEMBRANE FABRICATION AND SYNTHESIS 88

TABLE 24 APPROACHES TO FUEL CELL IONOMER SYNTHESIS 89

TABLE 25 MEMBRANE FABRICATION TECHNIQUE 89

PHASE SEPARATION 90

CASTING SOLVENT 91

Ethylene Glycol as Solvent 91

IMPACT OF MEMBRANE THICKNESS 91

MEMBRANE FUNCTIONALIZATION 92

Membrane Pretreatment 93

MEMBRANE MATERIAL COMPOSITIONS 93

PERFLUORINATED POLYMER MEMBRANES 94

Perfluorocarbonsulfonic Acid Ionomers 95

Nafion PFSA Membranes 96

TABLE 26 FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES OF NAFION PFSA MEMBRANES 97

Gore Select 98

TABLE 27 CONDUCTANCE COMPARISONS 99

Aciplex 100

Flemion 101

Polytetrafluoroethylene Durability Enhancement 101

BERKELEY LAB'S MATERIALS SCIENCES DIVISION AND UC BERKELEY'S DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING POLYMER MEMBRANE 102

Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences …(Continued) 103

UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER THIN FILTER 104

POLYFUEL HYDROCARBON MEMBRANE 105

Polyfuel Hydrocarbon Membrane (Continued) 106

Polyfuel Hydrocarbon Membrane (Continued) 107

MIT AND THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA NANOCOMPOSITE MEMBRANE BARRIERS 108

TORAY INDUSTRIES HYDROCARBON MEMBRANE 109

AKRON POLYMER SYSTEMS APPROACH 110

DAYCHEM LABORATORIES APPROACH 110

JSR MULTILAYERED STRUCTURE 111

BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS BAM MEMBRANES 111

MODIFIED POLYSTYRENE SULFONATED MEMBRANES 112

VICTREX POLYETHER ETHER KETONE (PEEK) 113

HOKU SCIENTIFICS SEK MEMBRANE 114

UNIVERSITY OF CALGARY 115

TOSOH'S POLY(ARYLENE ETHER SULFONE) 115

SULFONATED POLY(ARYLENE ETHER) SULFONES 115

Sulfonated Poly(Arylene Ether) Sulfones (Continued) 116

TABLE 28 VIRGINIA TECH BPS MEMBRANE PROPERTIES COMPARED WITH NAFION 117 117

Functionalization and Direct Synthesis of Sulfonated Membranes 117

Reduced Electro-Osmotic Drag 118

Conductivity 119

ARGONNE NATIONAL LAB DENDRITIC SULFONATED POLYARYL ETHER 119

DAIS ANALYTIC SULFONATION OF STYRENE CONTAINING BLOCK COPOLYMERS 120

Ethylene Styrene Interpolymers 121

Polystyrene Sulfonic Acid/Polyvinyl Alcohol Blend 121

Gas Technology Institute Membrane 121

Sulfonated Perfluorocyclobutane 121

HETEROCYCLIC AND POLYBENIMIDIZOLE MEMBRANES 122

PEMEAS and Celtec 122

University of Texas Variations of PBI Membrane 123

Plug Power and DOE and PBI 123

Renssalaer's Chain-Transfer (RAFT) Polymerization 124

Samsung Polyimide Derivative 124

Other Modifications of PBI 125

SULFONATED POLYIMIDES 126

Tailored Imides 126

POLY(BISBENZOXAZOLE) [PBO] 127

UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS CO-POLYMERS 127

COMPOSITE MEMBRANES 128

Aciplex and Titanias 128

Inorganic-Organic Composite 129

Modified Siloxane (ORMOSIL) 130

Organic/Heteropolyacids and Nafion 130

Aniline and Perfluorosulfonic Acid Polymer 131

Random Fibers and Perfluorinated Membranes 131

Ionic Gel Fill 132

Zirconium Phosphonate Fill 132

Oxidation Resistant Carbon Supports 133

NOVEL AND EXPERIMENTAL PEM MATERIALS 133

BASF Polyurethane Elastomer 134

Georgia Tech Triazole Booster 134

Dow XUS 13204.1 134

Altergy Freedom Power 135

3M Acid Functional Fluoropolymers Membrane 135

Glass Membranes 136

Microcell Microfiber 137

Oak Ridge National Lab Metallized Bio-Cellulosics 137

University of Florida Intermediate-Temperature Proton-Conducting Membranes 138

MEMBRANE COMPANIES 139

TABLE 29 COMPANIES PRODUCING ION SELECTIVE MEMBRANES FOR PEM FUEL CELLS 140

TABLE 30 ESTIMATED PEMFC FLUOROPOLYMER MEMBRANE COMPANY MARKET SHARES, 2010 (%) 141

ASAHI GLASS CO., LTD. 141

ASAHI KASEI CHEMICALS CORP. 142

BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS 143

U.S. Headquarters 143

U.S. Headquarters (Continued) 144

DAIS ANALYTIC CORP. 145

DUPONT FUEL CELLS 145

DuPont Fuel Cells (Continued) 146

GINER ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEMS, LLC 147

GOLDEN ENERGY FUEL CELL CO., LTD. 148

GORE FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES 148

HOKU SCIENTIFIC, INC. 149

HYDROGENICS CORP. 150

IDATECH, LLC 151

JSR CORP. 152

MAXDEM, INC. (COMBRIDGE DISPLAY) 152

PLUG POWER 153

Plug Power (Continued) 154

POLYFUEL 155

RELION 155

TORAY INDUSTRIES, INC. 156

UNITED TECHNOLOGY CORP. FUEL CELLS 156

OTHERS 157

GLOBAL PEMFC MEMBRANE MARKET STRUCTURE AND FORECAST 158

PEM MEMBRANE MATERIALS MARKET SHARE 158

TABLE 31 PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE MATERIAL BY TYPE, 2010 VERSUS 2015 (%) 158

PEM MEMBRANE MATERIALS VALUE 158

TABLE 32 GLOBAL PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 159

TABLE 33 GLOBAL PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR PEMFCS MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 159

Chapter-5: MEA, GASEOUS DIFFUSION LAYERS, AND BIPOLAR PLATES

GASEOUS DIFFUSION LAYERS 160

GASEOUS DIFFUSION LAYER BACKGROUND 160

ATTRIBUTES OF GAS DIFFUSION LAYERS 161

TABLE 34 ATTRIBUTES NEEDED FOR GAS DIFFUSION LAYER MATERIALS 162

GAS DIFFUSION LAYER MANUFACTURING 163

TABLE 35 PROS AND CONS OF GDL MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES 163

Developments at GrafTech International 164

Developments at … (Continued) 165

Developments at Umicore AG 166

Developments at Ballard Material Products 167

Developments at Johnson Matthey 168

Developments at Lydall, Inc. 168

Developments at Mitsubishi Rayon 169

Developments at SGL Carbon Group 169

TABLE 36 TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF SIGRACET GAS DIFFUSION LAYER 170

Developments at Toray/Mitsui 170

Developments at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 171

Developments at Zoltek 172

Developments at Cabot and IRD Fuel cell 172

Other Developments 173

BIPOLAR PLATES 174

BIPOLAR PLATE BACKGROUND 174

BIPOLAR PLATE DESIGNS 175

TABLE 37 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR BIPOLAR PLATES 175

TABLE 38 MATERIAL TYPES FOR BIPOLAR PLATES 176

Corrosion Protection of Metallic Plates 176

Ballard Powers' Bipolar Metal Plate 176

Surface Modification 177

Tech-Etch Metal Plates 177

ECPower/Sorapec Approach 177

Entegris Approach 178

Generics Porous Plates Approach 178

T8 Series 179

IdaTech Layered Bipolar Plate Assembly 179

Use of Thermoplastic 180

Intelligent Energy's Proprietary Design 180

Nisshinbo Approach 181

PEM Plates Approach 182

Illinois Urbana-Champaign Fuel Cell Separator Plate Having Controlled Fiber Orientation 182

Plug Power Assembly 183

Porvair Approach 184

SGL Technologies Approach 184

TABLE 39 SGL BIPOLAR PLATE TYPICAL PROPERTIES 185

Bac2 ElectroPhen 185

Improved Gasket Approach 186

ACAL Platinum-free Cathode 187

ACAL Platinum-free … (Continued) 188

Federal-Mogul's Liquid Elastomer Molding 189

AEG Carbon Fiber-Elastomer Composite Bipolar Plates 189

myFC Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell FuelCellSticker 190

DMFC ANODE APPROACHES 191

Toshiba Approach 191

DuPont GEN IV Approach 192

Medis Conductive Polymer Approach 193

Generics CMR Approach 194

Energy Ventures Research Approach 194

PolyFuel Approach 195

Smart Fuel Cell Approach 195

MEA, GDL, AND BIPOLAR PLATE COMPANIES 196

10X MICROSTRUCTURES 196

3M 196

ASBURY GRAPHITE 197

BALLARD POWER SYSTEMS 197

DIXON TICONDEROGA CO. 197

DAIMLER 197

Mitsubishi Fuso 198

Orion Bus Industries (Daimler Buses North America) 198

Smart GmbH 198

Smart GmbH (Continued) 199

Smart GmbH (Continued) 200

DUPONT FUEL CELL 201

ELECTROCHEM, INC. 202

ENTEGRIS, INC. 203

GENERAL ELECTRIC 203

GENERAL MOTORS, CORP. 204

GORE FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES 205

GRAFTECH INTERNATIONAL, LTD. 206

HOKU SCIENTIFIC, INC. 207

Hoku Scientific, Inc. (Continued) 208

HYDROGENICS CORP. 209

HONDA 209

Honda U.S. Headquarters 209

HORIZON FUEL CELLS AND RIVERSIMPLE 210

Horizon Fuel Cells and Riversimple (Continued) 211

ICM PLASTICS 212

JOHNSON MATTHEY FUEL CELLS RESEARCH 212

Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells (USA) 213

LYNNTECH 213

MANHATTAN SCIENTIFICS, INC. 214

Research Headquarters 214

MATERIALS AND ELECTROCHEMICAL RESEARCH CORP. 214

MITSUBISHI RAYON CO., LTD. 215

MORGAN CRUCIBLE CO. 215

MORPHIC TECHNOLOGIES 215

NEDSTACK FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY 216

NISSHINBO INDUSTRIES, INC. 217

NUVERA FUEL CELLS 217

Nuvera Fuel Cells Europe 217

PALCAN FUEL CELLS, LTD. 217

PLUG POWER 218

PORVAIR FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY 218

PROTONEX TECHNOLOGY CORP. 218

RELION/AVISTA LABS 219

SGL CARBON 219

SGL Technik 220

SHARP CORP. 220

SMART FUEL CELL AG (SFC) 221

Smart Fuel Cell AG (SFC) (Continued) 222

SPECTRACORP 223

SUMITOMO METALS 223

SUPERIOR GRAPHITE CO. 224

TIAX 224

TICONA 225

TIMCAL GRAPHITE & CARBON 225

TORAY INDUSTRIES, INC. 226

UNIDYM (ARROWHEAD RESEARCH CORP.) 226

UTC POWER 227

ZOLTEK MATERIALS GROUP 227

GLOBAL BIPOLAR PLATES AND GDLS FOR PEMFCS STRUCTURE FORECAST 227

TABLE 40 GLOBAL PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON MARKET BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 228

FIGURE 9 GLOBAL PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2006-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 228

FIGURE 10 GLOBAL MARKET SHARES OF PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON BY TYPE, 2010 (%) 229

TABLE 41 GLOBAL PEMFC BIPOLAR PLATE AND CARBON MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 229

Chapter-6: CATALYSTS AND INKS

BACKGROUND 230

CATALYST DURABILITY 230

CATALYST PARTICLE SIZE 231

CATALYST COATED MEMBRANES 231

DuPont Approach 232

PolyFuel Approach 233

Aerogel Composite Approach 233

FIGURE 11 PREPARATION OF CARBON AEROGEL SUPPORTED PLATINUM 234

GS Carbon Approach 234

GS Carbon Approach (Continued) 235

Ramot University Approach 236

LOW CATALYST LOADING APPROACHES 236

Ballard Approach 236

COMBINATORIAL CATALYST TECHNIQUES 237

INNOVATIVE MATERIALS AND NANOMATERIALS 237

Platinum Alloys 238

Anode Durability 239

Nanoparticles 240

Kyoto University 240

Hong Kong University of Science and Technology 240

Los Alamos National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory 240

Brown University 241

Brookhaven National Laboratory 242

University of Central Florida 243

Cornell University 244

Georgia Tech and Xiamen University 245

Georgia Tech … (Continued) 246

MIT Researchers Take First Atomic-Scale Compositional Images of Fuel Cell Nanoparticles 247

Nanofibers 248

Nanofibers (Continued) 249

Nanolevel Platinum/Carbon Electrocatalyst for Cathode 250

University of Wisconsin-Madison Nanoparticle Catalyst 250

University of Houston Lattice-Strained Core-Shell Nanoparticle Catalyst 251

Acta Base Metal Cathode Catalyst 252

Lawrence Berkeley and Argonne National Laboratories Alloy 253

Lawrence Berkeley …(Continued) 254

Lawrence Berkeley …(Continued) 255

Lawrence Berkeley …(Continued) 256

Nanowires 257

University of Rochester Sizing Nanowires 257

Jet Propulsion Laboratory Nanophase Nickel-Zirconium Alloy Approach 258

University of Texas at Austin Palladium-Based Alloy Catalysts 259

TIAX, LLC Nanostructured Thin Film Catalysts 260

TIAX, LLC … (Continued) 261

FIGURE 12 PROJECTED COST AT HIGH VOLUME MANUFACTURING (%) 262

TABLE 42 PERFORMANCE AND COST SUMMARY 263

SDK High-Efficiency Catalysts Platinum Substitute for PEFCs 264

Washington University in St. Louis Bimetallic Fuel Cell Catalyst 265

Simple Tech Heterogeneous Catalysis Technology 266

Brown University Platinum Nanocubes 267

Johnson Matthey Fuel Cells, Ltd. and the NECLASS Project 268

University of Rochester "Black Metal" Approach 268

Transition Metal Nanosized Catalysts 269

Texas Tech University Platinum Nanodots 270

CATALYST INK COMPOSITIONS 270

APPLIED RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL FORMULATION 271

OTHER CATALYST INK FORMULATIONS 271

SW Research and Gore Approach 271

UTC Fuel Cells Approach 272

Jet Propulsion Laboratory Approach 272

Angstron Materials Graphene 272

Northwestern University and the McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science Graphene Films 273

Samsung Electronics Approach 274

CARBON COMPOSITE ELECTROCATALYST POWDERS 274

CABOT APPROACH 275

ASYMTEK JET DISPENSING APPROACH 276

CATALYST AND INK COMPANIES 277

ACTA SPA 277

ALFA AESAR-JOHNSON MATTHEY CO. 277

Johnson Matthey Co. 278

ANGLO PLATINUM 279

AQUARIUS PLATINUM PTY, LTD. 280

BASF CORP. 280

BASF Corp. (Continued) 281

BASF Corp. (Continued) 282

IMPALA PLATINUM HOLDING, LTD. (IMPLATS) 283

Impala Platinum Holding (U.K.) 283

LONMIN PLATINUM, PLC 283

Lonmin South Africa 284

NORILSK NICKEL 284

Stillwater Mining 284

OM GROUP, INC. 285

QUANTUMSPHERE, INC. 286

STILLWATER 287

TANAKA PRECIOUS METALS 287

GLOBAL PEMFCS CATALYST AND INK STRUCTURE AND FORECAST 287

PLATINUM MARKETS AND CONSUMPTION 288

TABLE 43 WORLD MINE PRODUCTION AND RESERVES: MINE PRODUCTION PGMS (KG) 289

TABLE 44 WORLD PLATINUM DEMAND (THOUSAND OZS) 289

PALLADIUM MARKETS AND CONSUMPTION 290

Palladium Markets and Consumption (Continued) 291

CATALYST AND INK VALUE 292

TABLE 45 GLOBAL PEMFC CATALYST AND INK MARKET, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 292

FIGURE 13 GLOBAL PEMFC CATALYST AND INK MARKET, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 293

TABLE 46 GLOBAL PEMFC CATALYST AND INK MARKET BY REGION, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 293

Chapter-7: INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ASPECTS

INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT AND TRADE PRACTICES 294

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 295

Environmental Issues (Continued) 296

PEMFC REGULATORY ISSUES AND GOVERNMENT INVOLVEMENT 297

U.S. DOE Direct PEM Fuel Cell Funding 297

Topic 1 Alternative Electrode Deposition Processes 297

Topic 2 Novel MEA Manufacturing 297

Topic 3 Rapid MEA Conditioning 298

Topic 4 Process Modeling for Fuel Cell Stacks 298

Topic 5 Process and Device for Cost Effective Testing of Cell Stacks 299

Topic 6 Manufacturing Technologies for Reducing the Cost of High-Pressure Composite Conformable Tanks 299

U.S. Federal Fuel Cell Vehicle Funding 300

U.S. Federal … (Continued) 301

U.S. Federal … (Continued) 302

U.S. Federal … (Continued) 303

Overall U.S. Federal Fuel Cell Funding 304

TABLE 47 2010 BUDGET HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES FUNDING PROFILE BY SUBPROGRAM ($ THOUSANDS) 304

TABLE 47 (CONTINUED) 305

Overall U.S. Federal … (Continued) 306

U.S. Fuel Cell Council Analysis of Funding Priorities 307

U.S. Fuel Cell … (Continued) 308

Office of Science 309

National Hydrogen Association 310

National Science Foundation 310

Department of Defense 311

Army Research Laboratory 311

USAF Research Laboratory 311

Naval Research Laboratory 312

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 312

Jet Propulsion Laboratory 312

Global Incentives and Research Efforts 313

ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS' INVOLVEMENT IN FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT 314

TABLE 48 MAJOR INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH INTO PEM FUEL CELLS 314

MEA DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 315

INDUSTRY PURCHASING INFLUENCES AND PRICES 315

INDUSTRY PURCHASING INFLUENCES … (CONTINUED) 316

INDUSTRY PURCHASING INFLUENCES … (CONTINUED) 317

TABLE 49 HISTORIC PLATINUM PRICES (DOLLARS PER TR OZ) 318

TABLE 50 HISTORIC PALLADIUM PRICES (DOLLARS PER TR OZ) 318

LIFE-CYCLE COSTS 319

To order this report:

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