Reportlinker Adds Nano-enabled Batteries

Jan 07, 2010, 11:46 ET from Reportlinker

NEW YORK, Jan. 7 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Nano-enabled Batteries

http://www.reportlinker.com/p0170059/Nano-enabled-Batteries.html

REPORT SUMMARY

Nanotechnology innovations are driving advances in battery technology where nanomaterials are finding use as new battery materials. Enormous leverage can result from advances in cathodes, anodes and electrolytes used in the batteries. The current focus of nano-enabled batteries is on lithium-ion batteries. Lithium-ion cells represent the basic building blocks of batteries proposed for the next generation of advanced hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), electrical vehicles and specialty vehicles.

The calendar life of high-power lithium-ion battery cells is expected to have the same basic dependence on temperature as high-energy cell designs, because several of the high-power cell technologies use the same basic chemistry as larger cells and thus are subject to the same kind of degradation processes.

The next generation of lithium-ion batteries has improved safety characteristics, in part through the use of alternative nano-sized materials, in particular, nano-phosphate materials. Traditional lithium-ion technology uses active materials with particles that range in size between 5 and 20 microns.

The greater density of particles provides more surface area on which the ions can travel and generate additional power. In essence, battery power is derived from the diffusion of lithium ions moving in and out of particles. When particles are smaller but more numerous, that equates to greater diffusion and much faster kinetics than would be generated with one large particle.

The use of phosphates, in lieu of oxides, for the nanomaterials is one reason for these increased power rates and temperature ranges. Both phosphates and oxides are naturally occurring substances that are used in battery cathodes. Traditionally, oxides such as iron and cobalt have been used for battery cathodes. But, in the 1990s, scientists began to experiment with nano-phosphates, which industry experts say are inherently safer than oxides because they are stable in overcharge or short-circuit conditions and withstand high temperatures without decomposing.

The iRAP study identified over a dozen manufacturers and developers of nano-enabled batteries. These companies are driving the technology to meet market needs. There are also over 20 suppliers of nanomaterials used in nano-enabled batteries.

Major findings of this report are:

-- The global nano-enabled battery industry is characterized by over a dozen companies involved in the industry as manufacturers and developers.

-- The 2008 global market was estimated at $169 million and expected to grow, at an impressive annual average growth rate of 46.3%, to reach $1.13 billion by 2013.

-- Among the three types of nano-enabled batteries, customized batteries for power tools had the highest market share of 59.2% in 2008, followed by large format modules with 37.8%, and a small 3% share for fast charging customized nano safe battery for laptops.

-- By 2013, large format modules for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), electric vehicles (Evs) and specialty vehicles will have 84.7% of the global market, with an AAGR of 71.8% from 2008 to 2013.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION I

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES II

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY II

CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE STUDY III

SCOPE AND FORMAT III

METHODOLOGY IV

INFORMATION SOURCES IV

WHOM THE STUDY CATERS TO V

AUTHOR'S CREDENTIALS VI

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY VII

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY (CONTINUED) VIII

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES BY TYPE, 2008 AND 2013 IX

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET SIZE FOR NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES BY TYPE, 2008 AND 2013 ($ MILLIONS) IX

INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 1

BUSINESS STRATEGY 1

COMPETITION 2

JOINT VENTURES AND DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS 3

EMERGENCE OF CHINA IN NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES 3

EMERGENCE OF CHINA IN NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES (CONTINUED) 4

TECHNICAL OVERVIEW 5

TYPES OF BATTERIES 5

PRIMARY BATTERIES 5

SECONDARY CELLS/BATTERIES 6

SECONDARY CELLS/BATTERIES (CONTINUED) 7

KEY TERMINOLOGIES RELATED TO BATTERIES 8

TABLE 1 ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES 8

TABLE 2 DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMINOLOGIES USED IN NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES 9

TABLE 2 DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMINOLOGIES USED IN NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES (CONTINUED) 10

LITHIUM VERSUS NON-LITHIUM TECHNOLOGIES 10

LITHIUM VERSUS NON-LITHIUM TECHNOLOGIES (CONTINUED) 11

LITHIUM VERSUS NON-LITHIUM TECHNOLOGIES (CONTINUED) 12

TABLE 3 COMPARISON OF RECHARGEABLE BATTERY POWER SOURCE OPTIONS 13

DESCRIPTION OF ELECTRODE MATERIAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES 13

TABLE 4 SYNTHESIS PROCESSES USED TO MANUFACTURE NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS USED IN ELECTRODES FOR NANO-ENABLED LITHIUM BATTERIES 14

TABLE 4 SYNTHESIS PROCESSES USED TO MANUFACTURE NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS USED IN ELECTRODES FOR NANO-ENABLED LITHIUM BATTERIES (CONTINUED) 15

TABLE 4 SYNTHESIS PROCESSES USED TO MANUFACTURE NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS USED IN ELECTRODES FOR NANO-ENABLED LITHIUM BATTERIES (CONTINUED) 16

RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERIES TECHNOLOGIES 17

FIGURE 1 SCHEMATIC OF A LITHIUM-ION CELL 18

CONVENTIONAL LITHIUM-ION BATTERY USAGE IN TRANSPORT 18

MATERIALS FOR LI-ION BATTERIES 19

CATHODE MATERIALS 19

TABLE 5 MICRON-SCALE CATHODE ELECTRODE MATERIALS 20

TABLE 6 NANOSCALE CATHODE ELECTRODE LITHIUM IRON PHOSPHATE PROPERTIES WITH DIFFERENT CARBON % DOPING 21

ANODES 22

SEPARATORS 23

ELECTROLYTES 23

TABLE 7 ELECTROLYTES USED IN NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES 24

ORGANIC SOLVENTS 24

TABLE 8 ORGANIC SOLVENTS USED IN NANO-ENABLED BATTERY 25

CELL PACKAGING 25

SAFETY CIRCUITS 26

MODULE AND BATTERY PACK MATERIALS 27

ADVANTAGES OF RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM-BASED BATTERIES 27

LITHIUM-ION BATTERY SAFETY 28

LITHIUM-ION BATTERY SAFETY (CONTINUED) 29

HOW CELL TYPES DIFFER 30

FIGURE 2 SCHEMATIC OF A CYLINDRICAL LITHIUM-ION CELL 31

FROM CELLS TO MODULES TO BATTERY PACKS 31

FIGURE 3 SCHEMETIC OF A CELL.MODULE, PACK 32

NANOMATERIALS IN LI-ION BATTERIES 32

NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS 33

PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE CHALLENGES 33

THE ROLE OF NANOMATERIALS IN RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES 34

THE ROLE OF NANOMATERIALS IN RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES (CONTINUED) 35

FIGURE 4 SCHEMETIC DIAGRAM OF A LITHIUM ION BATTERY SHOWING ION MOVEMENT 37

TABLE 9 MATERIALS USED IN NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES OF RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES AND THEIR ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES 38

TABLE 9 MATERIALS USED IN NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES OF RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES AND THEIR ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES (CONTINUED) 39

TABLE 9 MATERIALS USED IN NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES OF RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES AND THEIR ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES (CONTINUED) 40

TABLE 9 MATERIALS USED IN NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES OF RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES AND THEIR ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES (CONTINUED) 41

TABLE 10 SUMMARY OF OTHER POTENTIAL MATERIALS FOR NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES USED IN BATTERIES 42

TABLE 10 SUMMARY OF OTHER POTENTIAL MATERIALS FOR NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES USED IN BATTERIES (CONTINUED) 43

TABLE 10 SUMMARY OF OTHER POTENTIAL MATERIALS FOR NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES USED IN BATTERIES (CONTINUED) 44

ELECTRODE MATERIAL STRUCTURE 44

TABLE 11 LAYERED, SPINEL AND OLIVINE STRUCTURE OF POSITIVE ELECTRODE MATERIAL FOR NANO-ENABLED LITHIUM BATTERIES 45

KEY POINTS 46

NANOMATERIALS USED FOR NEGATIVE ELECTRON ANODES 46

THE ELECTRODE-ELECTROLYTE INTERFACE 47

CASE STUDY: CONSTRUCTING A NANO-ENABLED BATTERY 48

TABLE 12 NANOSAFETM BATTERY PERFORMANCE DATA 48

CASE STUDY 1: A123 SYSTEMS BATTERY 49

CASE STUDY 1: A123 SYSTEMS BATTERY (CONTINUED) 50

CASE STUDY 2: ALTAIR NANOTECHNOLOGIES BATTERY 51

CASE STUDY 3: MPHASE TECHNOLOGIES MULTI-BATTERIES 52

TABLE 13 NANO-ENABLED CHEMISTRIES AND MANUFACTURERS IN 2008 53

APPLICATIONS 54

POWER TOOLS 54

POWER TOOLS (CONTINUED) 55

NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES VERSUS NORMAL LITHIUM BATTERIES IN POWER TOOLS 56

CASE STUDY 1: MILWAUKEE ELECTRIC TOOL CORP. CORDLESS POWER TOOLS 57

CASE STUDY 2: DEWALT-BLACK & DECKER CORDLESS POWER TOOLS 57

BATTERIES FOR VEHICLES 58

BATTERIES FOR VEHICLES (CONTINUED) 59

HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES (HEVS) 60

ELECTRIC VEHICLES (EVS) 61

PLUG-IN HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLES (PHEVS) 61

LIGHT ELECTRIC VEHICLES (LEVS) 62

HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLES 62

COMPARISON OF NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES VERSUS NORMAL NIMH BATTERIES IN HYBRIDS/EVS 63

CASE STUDY 1: TOYOTA PRIUS CONVERTED TO PHEV 63

CASE STUDY 2: KILLACYCLE, ELECTRIC MOTORCYCLE RUNNING ON NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES 64

NANOSTRUCTURED BATTERIES FOR LAPTOPS 65

NANOSTRUCTURED BATTERIES FOR LAPTOPS (CONTINUED) 66

TABLE 14 USERS OF NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES IN 2008 67

TABLE 15 TYPICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE NANO BATTERIES IN 2008 68

TABLE 16 NANO-ENABLED BATTERY ADVANTAGE IN THE TOYOTA PRIUS HYBRID CAR CONVERTED TO PHEV 69

INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 70

INDUSTRY STRUCTURE (CONTINUED) 71

INDUSTRY STRUCTURE (CONTINUED) 72

INDUSTRY STRUCTURE (CONTINUED) 73

TABLE 17 TOP MANUFACTURERS OF NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES FOR CORDLESS TOOLS, TRANSPORT AND UTILITIES (ELECTRIC FORK LIFT), 2008 74

COMPETITION 74

COMPETITION (CONTINUED) 75

COMPETITION (CONTINUED) 76

R&D IN NANOSTRUCTURED MATERIALS IMPACTING THE NANO-ENABLED BATTERY BUSINESS 77

TABLE 18 ONGOING RESEARCH IN NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODE MATERIALS IMPACTING THE NANO BATTERY BUSINESS BEYOND 2008 78

TABLE 18 ONGOING RESEARCH IN NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODE MATERIALS IMPACTING THE NANO BATTERY BUSINESS BEYOND 2008 (CONTINUED) 79

TABLE 18 ONGOING RESEARCH IN NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODE MATERIALS IMPACTING THE NANO BATTERY BUSINESS BEYOND 2008 (CONTINUED) 80

TABLE 19 COMPANY/PRODUCT REFERENCE FOR NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES 81

PARTNERSHIPS AND CONSOLIDATIONS 81

TABLE 20 RELATIONSHIPS OF TECHNOLOGY PROVIDERS AND MANUFACTURERS IN CHINA DURING 2007-2008 82

TABLE 21 RELATIONSHIPS OF MANUFACTURERS WITH END USERS (OEMS) DURING 2007-2008 83

TABLE 22 RELATIONSHIPS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF COMPONENTS OF NANO-ENABLED LITHIUM BATTERIES FROM 2006-JULY 2008 84

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT FUNDING 85

TABLE 23 FUNDING TO DEVELOP ADVANCED NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES, 2006 THROUGH AUG 15, 2008 86

TABLE 23 FUNDING TO DEVELOP ADVANCED NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES, 2006 THROUGH AUG 15, 2008 (CONTINUED) 87

TABLE 23 FUNDING TO DEVELOP ADVANCED NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES, 2006 THROUGH AUG 15, 2008 (CONTINUED) 88

OVERVIEW OF MATERIAL SUPPLIERS 88

TABLE 24 MAJOR SUPPLIERS OF MATERIALS FOR NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES 89

TABLE 24 MAJOR SUPPLIERS OF MATERIALS FOR NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES (CONTINUED) 90

TABLE 25 NANO-ENABLED BATTERY INDUSTRY PARTICIPANTS 90

TABLE 25 NANO-ENABLED BATTERY INDUSTRY PARTICIPANTS (CONTINUED) 91

TABLE 25 NANO-ENABLED BATTERY INDUSTRY PARTICIPANTS (CONTINUED) 92

GLOBAL AND REGIONAL MARKETS 93

GLOBAL MARKET ACCORDING TO TYPES 93

TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES, BY TYPE 2008 AND 2013 94

FIGURE 5 GLOBAL MARKET FOR NANO ENABLED BATTERIES, BY TYPE 2008 AND 2013 ($ MILLIONS) 94

BASIS OF MARKET ESTIMATIONS 95

NANO-ENABLED VERSUS MICRONIC RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES 96

TABLE 27 PERCENTAGE OF NANO- VERSUS MICRONIC-STRUCTURED BATTERIES BY MARKET DOMAIN IN 2008 96

TABLE 28 PERCENTAGE OF NANO-ENABLED VERSUS MICRONIC STRUCTURED BATTERIES IN 2013 97

NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES FOR TRANSPORT ENERGY STORAGE 97

TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES IN TRANSPORT AND UTILITY ENERGY STORAGE, 2008 AND 2013 98

NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES FOR CORDLESS TOOLS 98

TABLE 30 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR NANO ENABLED BATTERIES IN CORDLESS TOOLS, 2008 AND 2013 99

GLOBAL MARKET ACCORDING TO TECHNOLOGIES 100

TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES BY TECHNOLOGY, 2008 AND 2013 100

FIGURE 6 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE FOR NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES BY TECHNOLOGY, 2008 AND 2013 ($ MILLIONS) 101

GLOBAL MARKET ACCORDING TO REGION 101

GLOBAL MARKET SIZE/PERCENTAGE SHARE FOR NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES BY REGION, 2008 AND 2013 102

FIGURE 7 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE FOR NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES BY REGION, 2008 AND 2013 ($ MILLIONS) 103

COST STRUCTURE OF NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES 103

COST STRUCTURE OF NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES (CONTINUED) 104

COST STRUCTURE OF NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES (CONTINUED) 105

COST STRUCTURE OF NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES (CONTINUED) 106

TABLE 33 COST BASIS FOR NANO LITHIUM-IRON-PHOSPHATE BATTERIES IN SIZE 26650 IN 2008 107

COST STRUCTURE OF NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES (CONTINUED) 108

FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR NANOSTRUCTURED BATTERIES 109

FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR NANOSTRUCTURED BATTERIES (CONTINUED) 110

PATENTS AND PATENT ANALYSIS 111

LIST OF PATENTS 111

METHOD OF MAKING FINE LITHIUM-IRON-PHOSPHATE/CARBON-BASED POWDERS WITH AN OLIVINE-TYPE STRUCTURE 111

SELF-ORGANIZING BATTERY STRUCTURE WITH ELECTRODE PARTICLES THAT EXERT A REPELLING FORCE ON THE OPPOSITE ELECTRODE 112

NANOPARTICLE-BASED POWER COATINGS AND CORRESPONDING STRUCTURES 112

LITHIUM TRANSITION-METAL PHOSPHATE POWDER FOR RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES 112

PREPARATION OF NANOCRYSTALLINE LITHIUM-TITANATE SPINELS 113

LITHIUM SECONDARY CELL WITH HIGH CHARGE AND DISCHARGE RATE CAPABILITY 113

METHODS FOR NANOWIRE GROWTH 114

STRUCTURES, SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR JOINING ARTICLES AND MATERIALS AND USES THEREFOR 114

CONDUCTIVE LITHIUM STORAGE ELECTRODE 114

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR HARVESTING AND INTEGRATING NANOWIRES 115

POLYMER COMPOSITION FOR ENCAPSULATION OF ELECTRODE PARTICLES 115

SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR NANOWIRE GROWTH AND HARVESTING 115

NANOSCALE WIRE-BASED SUBLITHOGRAPHIC PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC ARRAYS 116

POST-DEPOSITION ENCAPSULATION OF NANOSTRUCTURES: COMPOSITIONS, DEVICES AND SYSTEMS INCORPORATING SAME 116

HIGH-ASPECT-RATIO METAL-POLYMER COMPOSITE STRUCTURES FOR NANO INTERCONNECTS 116

LITHIUM SECONDARY CELL WITH HIGH CHARGE AND DISCHARGE RATE CAPABILITY 117

DETERMINISTIC ADDRESSING OF NANOSCALE DEVICES ASSEMBLED AT SUBLITHOGRAPHIC PITCHES 118

NANOCOMPOSITES 118

ELECTROWETTING BATTERY HAVING A NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODE SURFACE 118

METHOD FOR MANUFACTURING SINGLE-WALL CARBON NANOTUBE TIPS 119

NANOSTRUCTURE LITHIUM-TITANATE ELECTRODE FOR HIGH CYCLE RATE RECHARGEABLE ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL 119

METHODS AND APPARATUS FOR DEPOSITION OF THIN FILMS 120

NANOSCALE ION STORAGE MATERIALS 120

METHODS OF POSITIONING AND/OR ORIENTING NANOSTRUCTURES 120

METHODS OF MAKING, POSITIONING AND ORIENTING NANOSTRUCTURES, NANOSTRUCTURE ARRAYS AND NANOSTRUCTURE DEVICES 121

NANOFIBER SURFACE-BASED CAPACITORS 121

SYSTEM AND PROCESS FOR PRODUCING NANOWIRE COMPOSITES AND ELECTRONIC SUBSTRATES THEREFROM 121

COATED ELECTRODE PARTICLES FOR COMPOSITE ELECTRODES AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS 122

METHOD OF PRODUCING REGULAR ARRAYS OF NANOSCALE OBJECTS USING NANOSTRUCTURED BLOCK-COPOLYMERIC MATERIALS 122

ARRAY-BASED ARCHITECTURE FOR MOLECULAR ELECTRONICS 122

ELECTROLYTIC PEROVSKITES 123

PROCESS FOR MAKING NANOSIZED STABILIZED ZIRCONIA 123

METHOD FOR PRODUCING MIXED METAL OXIDES AND METAL OXIDE COMPOUNDS 124

SUBLITHOGRAPHIC NANOSCALE MEMORY ARCHITECTURE 124

METHODS OF MAKING, POSITIONING AND ORIENTING NANOSTRUCTURES, NANOSTRUCTURE ARRAYS AND NANOSTRUCTURE DEVICES 124

TIN OXIDE NANOSTRUCTURES 125

CATHODE MATERIAL FOR LITHIUM BATTERY 125

METHOD OF MANUFACTURING NANOSIZED LITHIUM-COBALT OXIDES BY FLAME-SPRAYING PYROLYSIS 125

PROCESS FOR MAKING LITHIUM TITANATE 126

PROCESS FOR MAKING NANOSIZED AND SUBMICRON-SIZED LITHIUM-TRANSITION METAL OXIDES 126

STOCHASTIC ASSEMBLY OF SUBLITHOGRAPHIC NANOSCALE INTERFACES 126

METHODS OF POSITIONING AND/OR ORIENTING NANOSTRUCTURES 127

SALTS OF ALKALI METALS OF N, N' DISUBSTITUTED AMIDES OF ALKANE SULFINIC ACID AND NONAQUEOUS ELECTROLYTES ON THEIR BASIS 127

NEGATIVE ELECTRODES FOR LITHIUM CELLS AND BATTERIES 128

SECONDARY POWER SOURCE HAVING A LITHIUM TITANATE ELECTROLYTE 128

OXYGEN ION CONDUCTING MATERIALS 128

NONAQUEOUS ELECTROLYTES BASED ON ORGANOSILICON AMMONIUM DERIVATIVES FOR HIGH-ENERGY POWER SOURCES 129

ELECTRODES FOR LITHIUM BATTERIES 129

NONAQUEOUS SECONDARY BATTERY WITH LITHIUM TITANIUM CATHODE 129

LONG-LIFE LITHIUM BATTERIES WITH STABILIZED ELECTRODES 130

INTERMETALLIC NEGATIVE ELECTRODES FOR NON-AQUEOUS LITHIUM CELLS AND BATTERIES 130

METHOD FOR PRODUCING CATALYST STRUCTURES 130

DEVELOPMENT OF A GEL-FREE MOLECULAR SIEVE BASED ON SELF-ASSEMBLED NANO-ARRAYS 131

PATENT ANALYSIS 131

TABLE 34 NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS GRANTED TO COMPANIES DEVELOPING MATERIALS AND PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES FOR NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES FROM 2004 THROUGH JUNE 2008 132

FIGURE 8 TOP COMPANIES IN TERMS OF U.S. PATENTS GRANTED FOR NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES FROM 2004 THROUGH JUNE 2008 133

INTERNATIONAL OVERVIEW OF U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN NANO-ENABLED BATTERIES 134

TABLE 34 NUMBER OF U.S. PATENTS GRANTED BY COUNTRY/REGION FOR NANOSTRUCTURED BATTERIES, (JANUARY 2004 TO JUNE 2008) 134

OTHER INTERNATIONAL PATENTS 135

COMPANY PROFILES 136

3M 136

A123 SYSTEMS 136

A123 SYSTEMS (CONTINUED) 137

ACTACELL, INC. 138

ADVANCED BATTERY TECHNOLOGIES, INC 138

139

139

160

TOSHIBA BATTERY CO., LTD. 163

VALENCE 164

YAZAKI 164

ZHANGJIAGANG GUOTAI-HUARONG NEW CHEMICAL MATERIALS CO 165

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Nanotechnology Industry: Nano-enabled Batteries

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