Reportlinker Adds Nanobiotechnologies- applications, markets and companies

Dec 21, 2010, 12:03 ET from Reportlinker

NEW YORK, Dec. 21, 2010 /PRNewswire/ -- announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Nanobiotechnologies- applications, markets and companies


Nanotechnology is the creation and utilization of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter on the nanometer-length scale (a nanometer is one billionth of a meter. Nanobiotechnology, an integration of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, chemistry and biotechnology holds considerable promise of advances in pharmaceuticals and healthcare. The report starts with an introduction to various techniques and materials that are relevant to nanobiotechnology. It includes some of the physical forms of energy such as nanolasers. Some of the technologies are scaling down such as microfluidics to nanofluidic biochips and others are constructions from bottom up. Application in life sciences research, particularly at the cell level sets the stage for role of nanobiotechnology in healthcare in subsequent chapters.

Some of the earliest applications are in molecular diagnostics. Nanoparticles, particularly quantum dots, are playing important roles. In vitro diagnostics, does not have any of the safety concerns associated with the fate of nanoparticles introduced into the human body. Numerous nanodevices and nanosystems for sequencing single molecules of DNA are feasible. Various nanodiagnostics that have been reviewed will improve the sensitivity and extend the present limits of molecular diagnostics.

An increasing use of nanobiotechnology by the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries is anticipated. Nanotechnology will be applied at all stages of drug development - from formulations for optimal delivery to diagnostic applications in clinical trials. Many of the assays based on nanobiotechnology will enable high-throughput screening. Some of nanostructures such as fullerenes are themselves drug candidates as they allow precise grafting of active chemical groups in three-dimensional orientations. The most important pharmaceutical applications are in drug delivery. Apart from offering a solution to solubility problems, nanobiotechnology provides and intracellular delivery possibilities. Skin penetration is improved in transdermal drug delivery. A particularly effective application is as nonviral gene therapy vectors. Nanotechnology has the potential to provide controlled release devices with autonomous operation guided by the needs.

Nanomedicine is now within the realm of reality starting with nanodiagnostics and drug delivery facilitated by nanobiotechnology. Miniature devices such as nanorobots could carry out integrated diagnosis and therapy by refined and minimally invasive procedures, nanosurgery, as an alternative to crude surgery. Nanotechnology will markedly improve the implants and tissue engineering approaches as well.

There is some concern about the safety of nanoparticles introduced in the human body and released into the environment. Research is underway to address these issues. As yet there are no FDA directives to regulate nanobiotechnology but as products are ready to enter market, these are expected to be in place.

Future nanobiotechnology markets are calculated on the basis of the background markets in the areas of application and the share of this market by new technologies and state of development at any given year in the future. This is based on a comprehensive and thorough review of the current status of nanobiotechnology, research work in progress and anticipated progress. There is definite indication of large growth of the market but it will be uneven and cannot be plotted as a steady growth curve. Marketing estimates are given according to areas of application, technologies and geographical distribution starting with 2009. The largest expansion is expected between the years 2014 and 2019.

Profiles of 244 companies, out of over 500 involved in this area, are included in the last chapter along with their 188 collaborations.The report is supplemented with 39 Tables, 21 figures and 700 references to the literature.

Table of Contents

0. Executive Summary 19

1. Basics of Nanobiotechnology 21

Introduction 21

Classification of nanobiotechnologies 22

Top-down and bottom-up approaches 23

Landmarks in the evolution of nanobiotechnology 23

Relation of nanobiotechnology to healthcare 24

2. Technologies 27

Introduction 27

Micro- and nano-electromechanical systems 27

BioMEMS 27

Microarrays and nanoarrays 28

Dip Pen Nanolithography for nanoarrays 28

Protein nanoarrays 29

Microfluidics and nanofluidics 30

Nanotechnology on a chip 30

Microfluidic chips for nanoliter volumes 31

Nanogen's NanoChip 32

Use of nanotechnology in microfluidics 33

Construction of nanofluidic channels 33

Nanoscale flow visualization 34

Moving (levitation) of nanofluidic drops with physical forces 34

Electrochemical nanofluid injection 34

Nanofluidics on nanopatterned surfaces 35

Nano-interface in a microfluidic chip 35

Nanofluidic channels for study of DNA 35

Visualization and manipulation on nanoscale 36

4Pi microscope 36

Atomic force microscopy 36

Basic AFM operation 36

Advantages of AFM 36

Force sensing Integrated Readout and Active Tip 37

Cantilever technology 37

CytoViva® Microscope System 39

Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer 39

Magnetic resonance force microscopy and nanoscale MRI 39

Multiple single-molecule fluorescence microscopy 40

Near-field scanning optical microscopy 40

Nano-sized light source for single cell endoscopy 40

Nanoparticle characterization by HaloO LM10 technology 41

Nanoscale scanning electron microscopy 42

Use of SEM to reconstruct 3D tissue nanostructure 42

Optical Imaging with a Silver Superlens 42

Photoactivated localization microscopy 43

Scanning probe microscopy 43

Partial wave spectroscopy 44

Ultra-nanocrystalline diamond 44

Visualizing atoms with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy 45

Companies that provide microscopes for nanobiotechnology 45

Surface plasmon resonance 46

Nanoparticles 46

Types of nanoparticles 47

Fluorescent nanoparticles 47

Gold nanoparticles 47

Lipoparticles 47

Paramagnetic and superparamagnetic nanoparticles 48

Quantum dots 48

Silica nanoparticles 50

Assembly of nanoparticles into micelles 50

Biomedical applications of self-assembly of nanoparticles 50

Production techniques for nanoparticles 51

Nanostructures 52

Bacterial structures relevant to nanobiotechnology 52

Bacterial spores 52

Nanostructures based on bacterial cell surface layers 53

Bacterial magnetic particles 53

Cubosomes 54

Dendrimers 54

Properties 55

Applications 55

DNA-nanoparticle conjugates 56

DNA octahedron 56

Potential applications 57

Fullerenes 57

Nanoshells 57

Nanotubes 58

Carbon nanotubes 58

Carbon nanotubes and DNA 59

Applications of nanotubes 59

NanoBuds 60

Nanowires 60

Nanostamping 61

Nanoneedles 61

Nanopores 61

Nanoporous silica aerogel 62

Nanostructured silicon 63

Networks of gold nanoparticles and bacteriophage 63

Polymer nanofibers 63

Protein-nanoparticle combination 64

Nanomaterials for biolabeling 64

DNA Nanotags 66

Fluorescent lanthanide nanorods 66

Magnetic nanotags 66

Molecular computational identification 67

Nanophosphor labels 67

Organic nanoparticles as biolabels 68

Quantum dots as labels 68

SERS nanotags 69

Silica nanoparticles for labeling antibodies 69

Silver nanoparticle labels 69

Companies providing services and products for nanobiotechnology 70

3. Applications in Life Sciences 71

Introduction 71

Nanotechnology and biology 71

NanoSystems Biology 71

Nanobiology and the cell 72

Biosensing of cellular responses 73

Control of T cell signaling activity 73

Measuring mass of single cells 74

Nanostructures involved in endocytosis 74

Nanotechnology-based live-cell single molecule assays 74

Quantum dots for cell labeling 75

Quantum dots for study of apoptosis 75

Single cell injection by nanolasers 75

Study of complex biological systems 76

Molecular motors 76

Nanomotor made of nucleic acids 78

phi29 DNA packaging nanomotor 78

Light-activated ion channel molecular machines 79

Application of AFM for biomolecular imaging 79

Future insights into biomolecular processes by AFM 80

4Pi microscopy to study DNA double-strand breaks 80

Multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry 81

Applications of biomolecular computing in life sciences 81

Molecular electronics 82

Microbial nanomaterials 82

Use of bacteria to construct nanomachines 82

Bacteriophage nanoshells 83

Natural nanocomposites 83

Nanotechnology in biological research 83

Nanoparticles for biological research 84

Disguising quantum dots as proteins for cell entry 84

Molecular biology and nanotechnology 85

Structural DNA nanotechnology 85

Reversibly binding of gold nanospheres to DNA strands 86

RNA nanotechnology 87

Genetically engineered proteins for nanobiotechnology 87

Single molecule studies 88

Optical trapping and single-molecule fluorescence 88

3D single-molecular imaging by coherent X-ray diffraction imaging 88

Studying the molecular mechanisms of enzymes 88

Nanochemistry 89

Nanoscale pH Meter 89

Application of nanolasers in life sciences 89

Nanomanipulation 90

Nanomanipulation by combination of AFM and other devices 90

Surgery on living cells using AFM with nanoneedles 91

Optoelectronic tweezers 91

Optical manipulation of nanoparticles 92

Manipulation of DNA sequence by use of nanoparticles as laser light antennas 92

Nanomanipulation of single molecule 92

Fluorescence-force spectroscopy 93

Nanomanipulation for study of mechanism of anticancer drugs 93

Nanotechnology in genomic research 93

Nanotechnology for separation of DNA fragments 93

Nanostructured devices for controlled gene expression 94

Nanotechnology-based DNA sequencing 94

Single-molecule detection of DNA hybridization 94

Role of nanobiotechnology in identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms 95

Nanobiotechnology for study of mitochondria 95

Nanomaterials for the study of mitochondria 95

Study of mitochondria with nanolaser spectroscopy 96

Role of nanotechnology in proteomics research 96

Study of proteins by atomic force microscopy 96

Single cell nanoprobe for studying gene expression of individual cells 97

Nanoproteomics 97

Dynamic reassembly of peptides 97

High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility mass spectrometry 98

Multi Photon Detection 98

Nanoflow liquid chromatography 98

Nanoproteomics for study of misfolded proteins 99

Nanotube electronic biosensor for proteomics 99

Nanometer photomasks from bacterial protein 99

Protein nanocrystallography 100

QD-protein bioconjugate nanoassembly 100

Proteomics at single molecule level 101

Study of protein synthesis and single-molecule processes 101

Protein expression in individual cells at the single molecule level 102

Single-molecule mass spectrometry using nanotechnology 102

Biochips for nanoscale proteomics 103

Protein biochips based on fluorescence planar wave guide technology 103

Nanofilter array chip 103

Role of nanotechnology in study of membrane proteins 104

Nanoparticles for study of membrane proteins 104

Study of single protein interaction with cell membrane 104

Quantum dots to label cell surface proteins 104

Study of single membrane proteins at subnanometer resolution 105

Nanoparticle-protein interactions 105

Protein engineering on nanoscale 105

Nanowires for protein engineering 105

A nanoscale mechanism for protein engineering 106

Role of nanoparticles in self-assembly of proteins 106

Role of nanotechnology in peptide engineering 106

Manipulating redox systems for nanotechnology. 107

Self-assembling peptide scaffold technology for 3-D cell culture 107

Nanobiotechnology and ion channels 108

AFM for characterization of ion channels 108

Aquaporin water channels 108

Remote control of ion channels through magnetic-field heating of nanoparticles 109

Role of nanobiotechnology in engineering ion channels 109

Application of nanobiotechnology in molecular electronics 110

Nanotechnology and bioinformatics 110

3D nano-map of synapse 111

Companies providing nanotechnology for life sciences research 111

4. Nanomolecular Diagnostics 113

Introduction 113

Nanodiagnostics 113

Rationale of nanotechnology for molecular diagnostics 114

Nanoarrays for molecular diagnostics 115

NanoPro™ System 115

Nanofluidic/nanoarray devices to detect a single molecule of DNA 115

Self-assembling protein nanoarrays 116

Fullerene photodetectors for chemiluminescence detection on microfluidic chip 116

Nanofountain AFM probe 116

AFM for immobilization of biomolecules in high-density microarrays 117

Protein microarray for detection of molecules with nanoparticles 117

Protein nanobiochip 117

Nanoparticles for molecular diagnostics 118

Gold nanoparticles 118

Quantum dots for molecular diagnostics 118

Quantum dots for detection of pathogenic microorganisms 119

Bioconjugated QDs for multiplexed profiling of biomarkers 119

Imaging of living tissue with QDs 120

Use of nanocrystals in immunohistochemistry 120

Magnetic nanoparticles 121

Ferrofluids 121

Magnetic nanoparticles for bioscreening 121

Monitoring of implanted NSCs labeled with nanoparticles 121

Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles to track therapeutic cells in vivo 121

Superparamagnetic nanoparticles for cell tracking 122

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for calcium sensing 122

Magnetic nanoparticles for labeling molecules 122

Super conducting quantum interference device 123

Study of living cells by superparamagnetic nanoparticles 123

Imaging applications of nanoparticles 123

Dendritic nanoprobes for imaging of angiogenesis 124

Gadolinium-loaded dendrimer nanoparticles for tumor-specific MRI 124

Gadonanotubes for MRI 125

Gold nanorods and nanoparticles as imaging agents 125

In vivo imaging using nanoparticles 125

Manganese oxide nanoparticles as contrast agent for brain MRI 126

Nanoparticles vs microparticles for cellular imaging 126

Nanoparticles as contrast agent for MRI 126

Optical molecular imaging using targeted magnetic nanoprobes 127

QDs for biological imaging 127

Superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles combined with MRI 128

Concluding remarks and future prospects of nanoparticles for imaging 128

Study of chromosomes by atomic force microscopy 128

Applications of nanopore technology for molecular diagnostics 129

Nanopore technology for detection of single DNA molecules 129

Nanocytometry 130

Simultaneous detection of DNA and proteins 130

DNA-protein and -nanoparticle conjugates 130

Resonance Light Scattering technology 131

DNA nanomachines for molecular diagnostics 132

Nanobarcodes technology 132

Nanobarcode particle technology for SNP genotyping 132

Qdot nanobarcode for multiplexed gene expression profiling 133

Biobarcode assay for proteins 133

Single-molecule barcoding system for DNA analysis 135

Nanoparticle-based colorimetric DNA detection method 135

SNP genotyping with gold nanoparticle probes 136

Nanoparticle-based Up-converting Phosphor Technology 136

Surface-Enhanced Resonant Raman Spectroscopy 136

Near-infrared (NIR)-emissive polymersomes 137

Nanobiotechnology for detection of proteins 138

Captamers with proximity extension assay for proteins 138

Nanobiosensors 138

Cantilevers as biosensors for molecular diagnostics 138

Advantages of cantilever technology for molecular recognition 139

Antibody-coated nanocantilevers for detection of microorganisms 140

Cantilevers for direct detection of active genes 140

Portable nanocantilever system for diagnosis 141

Carbon nanotube biosensors 141

Carbon nanotube sensors coated with ssDNA and electronic readout 141

Carbon nanotubes sensors wrapped with DNA and optical detection 142

FRET-based DNA nanosensor 142

Ion Channel Switch biosensor technology 143

Electronic nanobiosensors 143

Electrochemical nanobiosensor 144

Metallic nanobiosensors 144

Quartz nanobalance biosensor 144

Viral nanosensor 145

PEBBLE nanosensors 145

Detection of cocaine molecules by nanoparticle-labeled aptasensors 145

Nanosensors for glucose monitoring 145

Microneedle-mounted biosensor 146

Optical biosensors 146

Laser nanosensors 146

Nanoshell biosensors 147

Plasmonics and SERS nanoprobes 147

Novel optical mRNA biosensor 148

Optonanogen biosensor 148

Surface plasmon resonance technology 149

Surface Enhanced Micro-optical Fluidic Systems 150

Nanoparticle-enhanced sensitivity of fluorescence-based biosensors 150

Nanowire biosensors 150

Nanowire biosensors for detection of single viruses 151

Nanowires for detection of genetic disorders 151

Nanowires biosensor for detecting biowarfare agents 152

Concluding remarks and future prospects of nanowire biosensors 152

Nanoscale erasable biodetectors 152

Future issues in the development of nanobiosensors 153

Applications of nanodiagnostics 154

Nanotechnology for detection of biomarkers 154

Nanotechnology for genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms 155

Nanoparticles for detecting SNPs 155

Nanopores for detecting SNPs 155

Nanobiotechnologies for single molecule detection 156

Protease-activated quantum dot probes 157

Labeling of MSCs with QDs 157

Nanotechnology for detection of cancer 157

Dendrimers for sensing cancer cell apoptosis 158

Detection of circulating cancer cells 158

Differentiation between normal and cancer cells by nanosensors 158

Gold nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis 158

Gold nanorods for detection of metastatic tumor cells 159

Implanted magnetic sensing for cancer 159

Nanoatomic tubes for detection of cancer proteins 160

Nanobiochip sensor technique for analysis of oral cancer biomarkers 160

Nanodots for tracking apoptosis in cancer 161

Nanolaser spectroscopy for detection of cancer in single cells 161

Nanoparticles designed for dual-mode imaging of cancer 161

Nanotechnology-based single molecule assays for cancer 162

QDs for detection of tumors 162

QD-based test for DNA methylation 163

Nanotechnology for point-of-care diagnostics 163

Nanotechnology-based biochips for POC diagnosis 164

Nanoprobes for POC diagnosis 164

Carbon nanotube transistors for genetic screening 164

POC monitoring of vital signs with nanobiosensors 165

Detection of viruses 165

Cantilever beams for detection of single virus particles 165

Carbon nanotubes as biosensors for viruses 166

Electric fields for accelerating detection of viruses 166

QD fluorescent probes for detection of respiratory viral infections 166

Verigene SP Respiratory Virus Assay 167

Surface enhanced Raman scattering for detection of viruses 168

Detection of bacteria 168

QDs for detection of bacterial infections 169

SEnsing of Phage-Triggered Ion Cascade for detection of bacteria 169

Nanodiagnostics for the battle field and biodefense 169

An integrated nanobiosensor 170

Nanodiagnostics for integrating diagnostics with therapeutics 170

Companies involved in nanomolecular diagnostics 171

Concluding remarks about nanodiagnostics 173

Future prospects of nanodiagnostics 174

5. Nanobiotechnology in Drug Discovery & Development 177

Introduction 177

Nanobiotechnology for drug discovery 177

Nanofluidic devices for drug discovery 178

Gold nanoparticles for drug discovery 179

Tracking drug molecules in cells 179

SPR with colloidal gold particles 179

Use of quantum dots for drug discovery 179

Advantages of the use of QDs for drug discovery 179

Drawbacks of the use of QDs for drug discovery 180

Quantum dots for imaging drug receptors in the brain 181

Lipoparticles for drug discovery 181

Biosensor for drug discovery with Lipoparticles 181

Magnetic nanoparticles assays 182

Micelles for drug discovery 182

Nanolasers for drug discovery 182

Analysis of small molecule-protein interactions by nanowire biosensors 183

Cells targeting by nanoparticles with attached small molecules 183

Role of AFM for study of biomolecular interactions for drug discovery 183

Nanoscale devices for drug discovery 184

Nanotechnology enables drug design at cellular level 185

Nanobiotechnology-based drug development 185

Dendrimers as drugs 185

Fullerenes as drug candidates 186

Nanobodies 187

Role of nanobiotechnology in the future of drug discovery 188

Companies using nanobiotechnology for drug discovery 188

6. Nanobiotechnology in Drug Delivery 191

Introduction 191

Micronization versus nanonization for drug delivery 191

Nanoscale devices delivery of therapeutics 191

Nanobiotechnology solutions to the problems of drug delivery 191

Nanosuspension formulations 192

Nanotechnology for solubilization of water-insoluble drugs 193

Improved absorption of drugs in nanoparticulate form 193

Interaction of nanoparticles with human blood 193

Ideal properties of material for drug delivery 193

Nanomaterials and nanobiotechnologies used for drug delivery 194

Viruses as nanomaterials for drug delivery 195

Bacteria-mediated delivery of nanoparticles and drugs into cells 195

Nanoparticle-based drug delivery 196

Calcium phosphate nanoparticles 196

Cationic nanoparticles 197

Ceramic nanoparticles 197

Cyclodextrin nanoparticles for drug delivery 197

Dendrimers for drug delivery 198

DNA-assembled dendrimers for drug delivery 198

Fulleres for drug delivery 199

Amphiphilic fullerene derivatives 199

Fullerene conjugate for intracellular delivery of peptides 199

Gold nanoparticles as drug carriers 199

Layered double hydroxide nanoparticles 199

Nanocomposite membranes for magnetically triggered drug delivery 200

Nanocrystals 200

Nanocrystalline silver 200

Elan's NanoCrystal technology 201

Eurand's Biorise system 201

Nanodiamonds 202

Polymer nanoparticles 203

Biodegradable PEG nanoparticles for penetrating the mucus barrier 203

PLGA-based nanodelivery technologies 203

Polymeric micelles 204

Chitosan nanoparticles 204

QDs for drug delivery 205

Special procedures in nanoparticle-based drug delivery 206

Coated nanoparticles for penetrating cell membranes without damage 206

Drug delivery using "Particle Replication in Nonwetting Templates" 206

Encapsulating water-insoluble drugs in nanoparticles 206

Filomicelles vs spherical nanoparticles for drug delivery 207

Flash NanoPrecipitation 207

Magnetic nanoparticles for drug delivery 208

Nanoparticles bound together in spherical shapes 208

Perfluorocarbon nanoparticles for imaging and targeted drug-delivery 209

Prolonging circulation of nanoparticles by attachment to RBCs 209

Self-assembling nanoparticles for intracellular drug delivery 210

Trojan nanoparticles 210

Therapeutic protein delivery from nanoparticle-protein complexes 211

Liposomes 211

Basics of liposomes 211

Stabilization of phospholipid liposomes using nanoparticles 212

Lipid nanoparticles 212

Polymerized Liposomal Nanoparticle 213

Applications of lipid nanoparticles 213

Limitations of liposomes for drug delivery 213

Lipid nanocapsules 213

Lipid emulsions with nanoparticles 214

Nanostructured organogels 215

Liposomes incorporating fullerenes 215

Arsonoliposomes 215

Liposome-nanoparticle hybrids 216

Nanogels 216

Nanogel-liposome combination 216

Nanospheres 217

Nanosphere protein cages 217

Nanovesicle technology for delivery of peptides 217

Nanotubes 217

Carbon nanotubes for drug delivery 218

Lipid-protein nanotubes for drug delivery 218

Halloysite nanotubes for drug delivery 219

Nanocochleates 220

Nanobiotechnology and drug delivery devices 221

Coating of implants by ultrafine layers of polymers 221

Nano-encapsulation 221

Polymer nanocontainers 222

Nanotechnology-based device for insulin delivery 222

Mirocontainer delivery systems for cell therapy 223

Nanoporous materials for drug delivery devices 223

Nanopore membrane in implantable titanium drug delivery device 223

Measuring the permeability of nanomembranes 224

Nanovalves for drug delivery 224

Nanochips for drug delivery 224

Nanobiotechnology for vaccine delivery 225

Bacterial spores for delivery of vaccines 225

Nanoparticles for DNA vaccines 225

Nanospheres for controlled release of viral antigens 225

Proteosomes™ as vaccine delivery vehicles 226

Targeted Synthetic Vaccine Particle (tSVP™) technology 226

Nanobiotechnology for gene therapy 226

Nanoparticle-mediated gene therapy 226

Calcium phosphate nanoparticles as nonviral vectors 228

Carbonate apatite nanoparticles for gene delivery 228

Gelatin nanoparticles for gene delivery 228

Immunolipoplex for delivery of p53 gene 229

Lipid nanoparticles for targeted delivery of nucleic acids 229

Nanoparticles for imaging and intracellular delivery of nucleic acids 229

Nanoparticles linked to viral vectors for photothermal therapy 230

Nanoparticles for p53 gene therapy of cancer 230

Nanoparticles with virus-like function as gene therapy vectors 230

Silica nanoparticles for gene delivery 231

Targeted nanoparticle-DNA delivery to the cardiovascular system 231

Dendrimers for gene transfer 232

DNA-PEG complexes as nanoparticles 232

Compacted DNA nanoparticles 233

Cochleate-mediated DNA delivery 233

Nanorod gene therapy 234

NanodelO gene vector 234

Nanomagnets for targeted cell-based cancer gene therapy 234

NanoNeedles for delivery of genetic material into cells 234

Nanomachines for gene delivery 235

Application of pulsed magnetic field and superparamagnetic nanoparticles 235

Nanocomposites for gene therapy 235

Nonionic polymeric micelles for oral gene delivery 236

Nanocarriers for simultaneous delivery of anticancer drugs and DNA 236

Nanobiotechnology for antisense drug delivery 236

Antisense nanoparticles 237

Dendrimers for antisense drug delivery 237

Polymer nanoparticles for antisense delivery system 237

Nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery 238

Chitosan-coated nanoparticles for siRNA delivery 238

Delivery of gold nanorod-siRNA nanoplex to dopaminergic neurons 238

Polymer-based nanoparticles for siRNA delivery 239

Polyethylenimine nanoparticles for siRNA delivery 239

siRNA-PEG nanoparticle-based delivery 239

Polycation-based nanoparticles for siRNA delivery 240

Calando's technology for targeted delivery of anticancer siRNA 240

Delivery of siRNA by nanosize liposomes 240

Quantum dots to monitor RNAi delivery 241

Nanobiotechnology-based drug delivery in cancer 241

Nanoparticle formulations for drug delivery in cancer 243

Anticancer drug particles incorporated in liposomes 243

Encapsulating drugs in hydrogel nanoparticles 244

Exosomes 245

Folate-linked nanoparticles 246

Iron oxide nanoparticles 246

Lipid based nanocarriers 246

Micelles for drug delivery in cancer 246

Minicells for targeted delivery of nanoscale anticancer therapeutics 248

Nanomaterials for delivery of poorly soluble anticancer drugs 249

Nanoparticle formulation for enhancing anticancer efficacy of cisplatin 249

Nanoparticle formulations of paclitaxel 249

Nanoparticles containing albumin and antisense oligonucleotides 250

Non-aggregating nanoparticles 250

Pegylated nanoliposomal formulation 251

Poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate nanoparticles 251

Polypeptide-doxorubicin conjugated nanoparticles 251

Protosphere nanoparticle technology 252

Zinc oxide nanoparticles for drug delivery in cancer 252

Nanoparticles for targeted delivery of anticancer therapeutics 253

Antiangiogenic therapy using nanoparticles 253

Canine parvovirus as a nanocontainer for targeted drug delivery 254

Carbon magnetic nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer 254

Carbon nanotubes for targeted drug delivery to cancer cells 254

Cyclosert system for targeted delivery of anticancer therapeutics 255

DNA aptamer-micelle for targeted drug delivery in cancer 256

DNA aptamer-micelle for targeted drug delivery in cancer 256

Fullerenes for enhancing tumor targeting by antibodies 256

Gold nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer 257

Lipoprotein nanoparticles targeted to cancer-associated receptors 258

Magnetic nanoparticles for remote-controlled drug delivery to tumors 258

Nanobees for targeted delivery of cytolytic peptide melittin 259

Nanocell for targeted drug delivery to tumor 259

Nanodiamonds for local delivery of chemotherapy at site of cancer 260

Nanoimmunoliposome-based system for targeted delivery of siRNA 261

Nanoparticle-mediated targeting of MAPK signaling pathway 261

Nanoparticles for targeted antisense therapy of cancer 261

Nanoparticles for delivery of suicide DNA to prostate tumors 262

Nanoparticles for targeted delivery of concurrent chemoradiation 262

Nanostructured hyaluronic acid for targeted drug delivery in cancer 262

Polymer nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in cancer 262

Polymersomes for targeted cancer drug delivery 263

Quantum dots and quantum rods for targeted drug delivery in cancer 264

Remote controlled drug delivery from magnetic nanocrystals 264

Targeted delivery of nanoparticulate drugs into lymphatic system 265

Targeted drug delivery with nanoparticle-aptamer bioconjugates 265

Dendrimers for anticancer drug delivery 266

Application of dendrimers in boron neutron capture therapy 266

Application of dendrimers in photodynamic therapy 267

Dendrimer-based synthetic vector for targeted cancer gene therapy 268

Poly-L-lysine dendrimer as antiangiogenetic agent 268

Devices for nanotechnology-based cancer therapy 268

Convection-enhanced delivery with nanoliposomal CPT-11 268

Nanocomposite devices 269

Nanoengineered silicon for brachytherapy 269

Nanoparticles combined with physical agents for tumor ablation 269

Boron neutron capture therapy using nanoparticles 270

Laser-induced cancer destruction using nanoparticles 270

Photodynamic therapy of cancer using nanoparticles 271

Thermal ablation using nanoparticles 272

Thermosensitive affibody-conjugated liposomes 273

Ultrasound radiation of tumors combined with nanoparticles 273

RNA nanotechnology for delivery of cancer therapeutics 273

Delivery of siRNAs for cancer 274

Nanocarriers for simultaneous delivery of multiple anticancer agents 274

Nanotechnology-based drug delivery to the CNS 274

Nanoencapsulation for delivery of vitamin E for CNS disorders 274

Nanoparticle technology for drug delivery across BBB 274

Delivery across BBB using NanoDelÔ technology 276

NanoMed technology to mask BBB-limiting characteristics of drugs 276

Nanovesicles for transport across BBB 276

Nanotechnology-based drug delivery to brain tumors 277

Multifunctional nanoparticles for treating brain tumors 277

Nanoparticles for delivery of drugs to brain tumors across BBB 277

Nanoparticle delivery across the BBB for imaging and therapy of brain tumors 278

Intravenous gene delivery with nanoparticles into brain tumors 279

PLA nanoparticles for controlled delivery of BCNU to brain tumors 279

Nanoparticles as nonviral vectors for CNS gene therapy 279

Silica nanoparticles for CNS gene therapy 279

Cationic lipids for CNS gene therapy 280

Polyethylenimine-based nanoparticles for CNS gene therapy 280

Dendrimers for CNS gene therapy 280

Carbon nanotubes for CNS gene therapy 280

Nanotechnology-based devices and implants for CNS 280

Nanoparticle-based drug delivery to the inner ear 281

Nanobiotechnology in cardiovascular drug delivery 281

Liposomal nanodevices for targeted cardiovascular drug delivery 281

Drugs encapsulated in biodegradable nanoparticles 282

Controlled delivery of nanoparticles to injured vasculature 282

Nanotechnology-based drug-eluting stents 282

Drugs encapsulated in biodegradable nanoparticles 282

Magnetic nanoparticle-coated DES 283

Nanopores to enhance compatibility of drug-eluting stents 283

Low molecular weight heparin-loaded polymeric nanoparticles 284

Injectable peptide nanofibers for myocardial ischemia 284

Nanotechnology approach to the vulnerable plaque as cause of cardiac arrest 284

Nanobiotechnology-based transdermal drug delivery 285

Delivery of nanostructured drugs from transdermal patches 285

Ethosomes for transdermal drug delivery 286

NanoCyte transdermal drug delivery system 286

Nanoparticles for targeted therapeutic delivery to the liver 287

Nanoparticles for pulmonary drug delivery 287

Systemic drug delivery via pulmonary route 287

Nanoparticle drug delivery for effects on the respiratory system 288

Fate and toxicology of nanoparticles delivered to the lungs 288

Nanoparticle drug formulations for spray inhalation 288

Inhalation of glucose-sensitive nanoparticle for regulated release of insulin 288

Pulmonary drug delivery by surface acoustic wave technology 289

In vivo lung gene transfer using compacted DNA nanoparticles 289

Nasal drug delivery using nanoparticles 290

Mucosal drug delivery with nanoparticles 290

Companies involved in nanobiotechnology-based drug delivery 291

Future prospects of nanotechnology-based drug delivery 294

Nanomolecular valves for controlled drug release 295

Nanosponge for drug delivery 295

Nanomotors for drug delivery 295

7. Clinical Applications of Nanobiotechnology 297

Introduction 297

Nanomedicine 297

Clinical nanodiagnostics 298

Nano-endoscopy 298

Application of nanotechnology in radiology 299

High-resolution ultrasound imaging using nanoparticles 299

Nanobiotechnology combined with stem cell-based therapies 300

Nanobiotechnology in tissue engineering 301

3D nanofilament-based scaffolds 301

Electrospinning technology for bionanofabrication 302

Nanomaterials for tissue engineering 302

Carbon nanotubes for artificial muscles 303

Nanofibers for tissue engineering of skeletal muscle 303

Nanomaterials for combining tissue engineering and drug delivery 303

Nanobiotechnology for organ replacement and assisted function 304

Exosomes for drug-free organ transplants 304

Nanobiotechnology and organ-assisting devices 305

Nanotechnology-based human nephron filter for renal failure 305

Blood-compatible membranes for renal dialysis 306

Nanosurgery 306

Miniaturization in surgery 306

Nanotechnology for hemostasis during surgery 306

Minimally invasive surgery using catheters 307

Nanorobotics 307

Nanoscale laser surgery 308

Nanooncology 309

Nanobiotechnology for early detection of cancer to improve treatment 309

Impact of nanotechnology-based imaging in management of cancer 309

Nanoparticle-MRI for tracking dendritic cells in cancer therapy 310

Nanoparticle-CT scan 310

QDs aid lymph node mapping in cancer 310

Nanosensor device as an aid to cancer surgery 311

Role of nanoparticle-based imaging in oncology clinical trials 311

Nanoparticle-based anticancer drug delivery to overcome MDR 311

Nanoparticle-based management of cancer metastases 312

Nanoshells for thermal ablation in cancer 312

Nanobody-based cancer therapy 313

Nanoparticles for targeting tumors 314

Nanocarriers with TGF-b inhibitors for targeting cancer 314

Nanoshell-based cancer therapy 315

Nanobomb for cancer 315

Combination o

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Nicolas Bombourg



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