Reportlinker Adds World Biofuels Report Ed 1 2010

Oct 07, 2010, 11:45 ET from Reportlinker

NEW YORK, Oct. 7 /PRNewswire/ --Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

World Biofuels Report Ed 1 2010

http://www.reportlinker.com/p0306303/World-Biofuels-Report-Ed-1-2010.html

This new first edition ABS report is concerned with the technologies, markets and development of global biofuel energy, both primary and secondary. The report has extensive quantified information of the world biofuel industry and market with historical profiles the major biofuel-using countries. Detailed sections of the report provide surveys of principal biofuel technologies and crops together with their usage. Environmental issues are discussed in the report, including national positions and incentives. The report also contains a valuable directory of the key market players.

Table of Contents

Published By 2

Copyright Notice .. 2

Table of Contents . 3

List of Figures . 8

List of Tables 13

1 Executive Summary . 18

2 Introduction 20

3 First generation biofuels .. 24

3.1 Ethanol (Bioethanol) . 24

3.1.1 Corn . 25

3.1.2 Sugar beet 26

3.1.3 Sugar cane 26

3.1.4 Sorghum 28

3.2 Biodiesel .. 29

3.2.1 Palm oil .. 29

3.2.2 Soy beans (Soya; Soya beans) 31

3.2.3 Rapeseed .. 31

4 Energy Crops .. 34

4.1.1 Jatropha 34

4.1.2 Camelina .. 38

4.1.3 Croton trees 39

4.1.4 Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) .. 40

4.1.5 Poplar trees . 40

4.1.6 Salicornia (Salicornia Bigelovii, Dwarf saltwort, Dwarf glasswort) . 40

4.1.7 Switch grass . 41

5 Waste vegetable oil and tallow . 42

5.1.1 Fuel: Biodiesel 42

6 Cellulosic biofuels (lignocellulosic biofuels) . 43

6.1 Second generation . 43

6.1.1 Fuel: Ethanol .. 43

7 Algae . 52

7.1 Third generation biofuel . 52

7.1.1 Fuel: Diesel substitute 52

8 Biotechnology 57

9 Conversion process . 59

10 Environmental Impact 61

11 Food versus fuel debate 67

12 Market .. 68

12.1 Financials . 68

12.2 Companies . 74

12.3 Petroleum transport fuels .. 77

13 Biofuel production .. 81

14 Europe .. 87

14.1 EU Biofuels Directive . 88

14.2 Renewable Energy Directive . 90

14.3 REACH .. 93

14.4 Import and export regulations . 94

14.5 Biofuel production . 96

14.5.1 Biodiesel 96

14.6 Ethanol .. 101

14.7 Biofuel consumption .. 111

14.8 Next generation biofuels . 113

14.9 Job creation . 114

14.10 Factors affecting the market .. 115

14.11 EU competitiveness 117

15 European countries .. 118

15.1 Austria 118

15.2 Belgium . 118

15.3 Bulgaria . 119

15.4 Denmark 120

15.5 Estonia 121

15.6 Finland 121

15.7 France . 121

15.8 Germany 122

15.9 Ireland 128

15.10 Latvia .. 129

15.11 Luxembourg 129

15.12 Netherlands 130

15.13 Norway .. 130

15.14 Poland 130

15.15 Portugal . 131

15.16 Romania 131

15.17 Spain 131

15.18 Sweden .. 135

15.19 Switzerland .. 139

15.20 Turkey 140

15.21 UK . 141

16 USA . 142

16.1 Incentives . 142

16.2 Renewable Fuel Standard 143

16.3 Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Farm Bill 2008) . 146

16.4 State legislation . 146

16.5 Biofuel imports and exports .. 148

16.6 Market 149

16.7 Next generation biofuels . 160

16.8 Economic downturn 165

16.9 Animal feed . 166

16.10 Biodiesel 167

17 Brazil .. 176

17.1 Sugar production . 177

17.2 Sugar cane production .. 178

17.3 Ethanol plants 178

17.4 Ethanol .. 181

17.5 Blending mandates . 184

17.6 Export market 184

17.7 Biodiesel 186

17.8 Investment .. 188

17.9 Foreign Investment . 190

18 Latin America .. 191

18.1 Argentina .. 191

18.2 Colombia .. 196

18.3 Honduras .. 197

18.4 Paraguay .. 199

18.5 Peru . 200

18.6 Uruguay . 200

19 North America 203

19.1 Canada .. 203

19.2 Biodiesel 209

19.3 Ethanol .. 209

19.4 Mexico 211

20 Oceania . 213

20.1 Australia 213

20.2 New Zealand .. 218

21 ASIA . 227

21.1 China .. 227

21.2 Chinese Taiwan . 231

21.3 India 231

21.4 Indonesia .. 236

21.5 Japan .. 239

21.6 Korea, South 241

21.7 Malaysia 241

21.8 Pakistan . 243

21.9 Thailand . 244

21.10 The Philippines .. 254

21.11 Vietnam . 257

22 Russia and the CIS countries . 258

22.1 Russia . 258

22.2 Ukraine .. 258

22.3 Other countries . 259

23 Africa .. 260

23.1 South Africa . 260

23.2 Sudan . 261

23.3 Other countries . 261

23.3.1 Kenya 261

23.3.2 Mozambique 261

23.3.3 Tanzania . 261

24 Aviation sector 262

24.1 Carbon emissions . 262

24.2 Bio-jet fuels . 263

24.3 Air force and the military . 269

25 Oil & Gas Involvement 272

26 Biofuel targets, subsidies and incentives 285

27 Conversion units 303

28 Acknowledgements .. 304

List of Figures

Figure 2.1. Development of biofuels .. 22

Figure 2.2. Products from biofuel feedstocks 23

Figure 3.1. World corn price projections, US $ per tonne .. 26

Figure 3.2. World sugar price projections, US $ per tonne . 28

Figure 3.3. Fuel yield for biofuel feedstocks, gasoline equivalent, gallons per acre . 30

Figure 3.4. World vegetable oil prices, US $ per tonne 33

Figure 3.5. World oil seed prices, US $ per tonne 33

Figure 4.1. Jatropha curcas . 35

Figure 4.2. Scale of jatropha projects (hectares) and number of projects, 2008 and 2015 . 36

Figure 4.3. Camelina* . 39

Figure 4.4. Salicornia (Salicornia Bigelovi) .. 41

Figure 6.1. Breakdown of operating costs for a cellulosic plant using enzyme pre-treatment . 45

Figure 6.2. Status of cellulosic ethanol plants as of February 2010 .. 46

Figure 6.3. Adjusted feedstock potential for cellulosic feedstocks 46

Figure 6.4. Planned development of cellulosic ethanol capacity by the top ten developers, million litres .. 47

Figure 7.1. Microalgae and macroalgae. Microalgae (left) Macroalgae (right) 53

Figure 8.1. Role of biotechnology in biofuel production . 58

Figure 9.1. Levelised cost of energy for transport fuels, US $ per litre 59

Figure 9.2. Conversion pathways to produce biofuels .. 60

Figure 10.1. Greenhouse gas savings of biofuels by feedstock and country of origin, % - Biodiesel . 62

Figure 10.2. Greenhouse gas savings of biofuels by feedstock and country of origin, % - Ethanol and Biogas 63

Figure 10.3. Future research challenges for assessing the environmental impacts of biofuels .. 65

Figure 10.4. Global average water footprint for ethanol feedstocks, m³/GJ 66

Figure 10.5. Global average water footprint for biodiesel feedstocks, m³/GJ 66

Figure 12.1. New investment by technology, 2009, US $billion . 69

Figure 12.2. Global Asset Financing (GAF), US $ million, Q1 2009 – Q2 2010 . 69

Figure 12.3. Global Asset Financing (GAF) per biofuel project, US $ million, Q1 2009 – Q2 2010 . 70

Figure 12.4. Biofuels New Build Asset Investment Waves, US $ billion .. 72

Figure 12.5. Investments in terms of feedstocks, US $ million, 2009 .. 72

Figure 12.6. VC/PE investments in biofuels, US $ million, Q1 2009 – Q2 2010 .. 73

Figure 12.7. Average VC/PE investments in biofuels per deal, US $ million, Q1 2009 – Q2 2010 . 73

Figure 12.8. Top ten companies in 2009 in terms of investments, US $ million 74

Figure 12.9. Corporate and government R&D investment by technology, 2009, and total growth on 2008, US $ billion .. 76

Figure 12.10. Average crude oil import costs, US $/barrel* 78

Figure 12.11. Short term oil price forecast, West Texas Spot price, US$ per barrel .. 80

Figure 12.12. DOE EIA World oil price projections, US $ per barrel 80

Figure 14.1. Biofuel chain and supply measures in the EU 87

Figure 14.2. Proportion of biofuel meeting sustainability standards .. 92

Figure 14.3. Idle and used biodiesel capacity in the EU, million litres . 96

Figure 14.4. Average installed capacity of biodiesel plants in the EU, million litres 97

Figure 14.5. Biodiesel production in the top six EU countries, million litres 99

Figure 14.6. Market share of biodiesel production in the top six EU countries, %, 2009 (left) and 2011 (right) . 99

Figure 14.7. Feedstock used for biodiesel production, thousand tonnes .. 101

Figure 14.8. Idle and used ethanol capacity in the EU, million litres . 102

Figure 14.9. Average installed capacity of ethanol plants in the EU, million litres 102

Figure 14.10. Ethanol production in the top six EU countries, million litres 103

Figure 14.11. Market share of ethanol production in the top six EU countries, %, 2009 (left) and 2011 (right) .. 104

Figure 14.12. Balance of ethanol trade, net exporters +and net importers -, million litres .. 105

Figure 14.13. Feedstock used for ethanol production, thousand tonnes . 106

Figure 14.14. Fate of ethanol produced in the EU, million litres 107

Figure 14.15. Imports of biofuels into the EU, million litres . 108

Figure 14.16. Production of DDGS during ethanol production in the EU, thousand tonnes .. 108

Figure 14.17. Consumption of biofuels in the EU, 2006 - 2011 .. 112

Figure 14.18. Biodiesel consumption in the EU, 2009 - 2011, million litres . 112

Figure 14.19. Ethanol consumption in the EU, 2009 - 2011, million litres 113

Figure 15.1. Projections on the production of biodiesel and ethanol in Bulgaria, 2008 – 2020 .. 120

Figure 15.2. Standard greenhouse gas emissions for biofuels, established by the UFOP in Germany, gCO2eq per MJ, % 125

Figure 15.3. Ethanol market in Sweden, thousand litres . 137

Figure 15.4. Biodiesel market in Sweden, thousand litres .. 137

Figure 15.5. Quantity of feedstock used in biofuel production in Sweden, thousand tonnes .. 138

Figure 15.6. Biodiesel consumption in Switzerland, million litres .. 139

Figure 15.7. Ethanol consumption in Switzerland, million litres . 140

Figure 16.1. Renewable fuel volume obligation as established in the RFS program, billion litres. .. 144

Figure 16.2. Blending mandates in the US, launch dates . 145

Figure 16.3. Historical US ethanol imports, million litres 149

Figure 16.4. Growth of the ethanol industry in the US, billion litres . 150

Figure 16.5. Average production capacity of ethanol plants in operation in the US, million litres .. 151

Figure 16.6. Top ten states for ethanol production, million litres .. 158

Figure 16.7. US Ethanol biorefinery locations 158

Figure 16.8. Top ten ethanol producers in terms of installed capacity, million litres .. 159

Figure 16.9. Breakdown of funding for advanced biorefinery projects, December 2009, US $ million 162

Figure 16.10. Fate of corn harvested for ethanol production in the USA, 2009 166

Figure 16.11. Breakdown of feedstocks for biodiesel plants in operation and under construction in the US, % .. 168

Figure 16.12. Breakdown of biodiesel production costs . 169

Figure 16.13. Top ten biodiesel manufacturers in the US, million litres 170

Figure 16.14. Production and consumption of biodiesel in the US, million litres . 171

Figure 17.1. Sugar producing regions and ethanol plants in Brazil . 178

Figure 17.2. Sugar cane and sugar production in Brazil for each crop harvest, million tonnes .. 179

Figure 17.3. Balance of cane products and by-products, 1,000 kg of planted cane .. 180

Figure 17.4. Ethanol production in Brazil for each crop harvest, million litres 181

Figure 17.5. Average price of Brazilian ethanol exports, US $ per litre 186

Figure 18.1. Anticipated fate of biodiesel produced by the ten largest biodiesel producers by installed capacity, million litres, 2010 192

Figure 18.2. Map showing biofuel production and blending terminal locations in Argentina 193

Figure 18.3. Supply commitments for ethanol producers for the Argentinan market from the government, million litres, 2010 194

Figure 18.4. Supply commitments for biodiesel producers for the Argentinan market from the government, million litres, 2010 194

Figure 18.5. Fate of palm oil produced in Honduras, tonnes 198

Figure 18.6. Development of the biofuel market in Paraguay, million litres . 199

Figure 18.7. Quantity of feedstock used in biofuel production in Uruguay, tonnes . 201

Figure 19.1. Ethanol and biodiesel plants in Canadian provinces, million litres . 206

Figure 19.2. Feedstocks used by Canadian biofuel plants, million litres . 209

Figure 19.3. Map of potential areas for biofuel feedstock cultivation in Mexico .. 211

Figure 20.1. Ethanol production capacity in operation in Australia, million litres . 214

Figure 20.2. Biodiesel production capacity in operation in Australia, million litres .. 215

Figure 20.3. Breakdown of biodiesel sold on the Australian market, million litres 217

Figure 21.1. Fuel ethanol plants in China . 228

Figure 21.2. Sugar cane feedstocks in India, thousand tonnes . 232

Figure 21.3. Production and consumption of ethanol in India, 2006 – 2011, million litres .. 233

Figure 21.4. Breakdown of fate of biodiesel produced by manufacturers in Indonesia, million litres .. 237

Figure 21.5. Map of installed ethanol plants in Indonesia .. 238

Figure 21.6. Map of installed biodiesel plants in Indonesia .. 239

Figure 21.7. Annual and forecast of crude palm oil production in Malaysia, million tonnes .. 242

Figure 21.8. Main feedstock used to produce ethanol in Thailand, thousand litres per day . 245

Figure 21.9. Anticipated production of ethanol from cassava and molasses in Thailand, million litres per day . 246

Figure 21.10. Prices of ethanol blends and gasoline in Thailand, 2005 – 2009, THB per litre 247

Figure 21.11. Prices of biodiesel blends and gasoline in Thailand, 2005 – 2009, THB per litre 249

Figure 21.12. Feedstocks used in biodiesel plants in Thailand 251

Figure 21.13. Projections on domestic demand for biodiesel in Thailand, million litres .. 252

Figure 21.14. Breakdown of manufacturers of biodiesel in Thailand, thousand litres per day . 253

Figure 21.15. Projections of idle and operating ethanol capacity in the Philippines, million litres .. 255

Figure 21.16. Projections of ethanol production and imports in the Philippines, million litres .. 256

Figure 21.17. Projections of biodiesel production and consumption in the Philippines, million litres .. 257

Figure 24.1. Timeline of proposed legislation and voluntary targets for the aviation sector 262

Figure 24.2. Aviation fuel demand and supply scenarios 263

Figure 24.3. CAAFI R&D roadmap for biofuel feedstocks 268

List of Tables

Table 2.1. Production processes for first generation biofuels . 21

Table 3.1. Advantages and disadvantages of ethanol compared to gasoline . 24

Table 3.2. Yields of ethanol per feedstock . 25

Table 3.3. Monthly prices for corn, US $ per tonne . 25

Table 3.4. Products from sugar cane production .. 27

Table 3.5. Monthly sugar prices, US $ cents per pound . 28

Table 3.6. Advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel compared to petroleum diesel 29

Table 3.7. Monthly prices for feedstocks for the production of biodiesel, US $ per tonne .. 32

Table 4.1. By-products from jatropha .. 34

Table 4.2. The advantages and disadvantages of jatropha .. 35

Table 4.3. Key companies involved in jatropha projects 37

Table 4.4. Main developers of biodiesel from Camelina 39

Table 6.1. Cellulosic waste materials of food crops .. 44

Table 6.2. Top cellulosic ethanol manufacturers in terms of installed capacity in 2009 . 48

Table 6.3. The advantages and disadvantages of cellulosic ethanol as an alternative to first-generation biofuels feedstocks on the market . 51

Table 7.1. The biodiesel yield per acre for different feedstocks 52

Table 7.2. Production capacity for algae biofuel developers, million litres, 2010 and 2012 . 55

Table 7.3. Products derived from algae .. 56

Table 7.4. The advantages and disadvantages of algae as an alternative to first-generation biofuels feedstocks on the market . 56

Table 9.1. Description of Conversion Pathway 60

Table 10.1. Emissions Lifecycle for each Feedstock . 63

Table 10.2. How green are biofuels? .. 64

Table 12.1. Business model of the top ten biofuel companies in terms of investments last year . 75

Table 12.2. Estimates of subsidies for different energy sources .. 77

Table 12.3. Transport fuel prices and taxes per litre, June 2010 .. 77

Table 12.4. Transport fuel prices, May 2010, US dollars per litre 79

Table 12.5. Relationships between crude oil, gasoline, ethanol and break-even corn prices .. 79

Table 12.6. Average oil price projections, US $ per barrel .. 80

Table 13.1. Biodiesel production, million litres . 81

Table 13.2. Ethanol production, million litres . 82

Table 13.3. Biodiesel projections .. 84

Table 13.4. Bioethanol projections .. 85

Table 14.1. Energy content of marginal transport fuel – pure and blends, MJ/litre .. 87

Table 14.2. Energy content of marginal transport fuel blends, MJ/litre .. 87

Table 14.3. EU Member States goals for the use of biofuels as transportation fuel, % of total fuel use 88

Table 14.4. Road transportation fuels consumption in the EU, 2006 – 2011, ktoe 89

Table 14.5. Renewable Energy Directive targets .. 90

Table 14.6. Greenhouse gas emissions for biofuel feedstocks according to the European Commission .. 91

Table 14.7. Milestones for the biofuel industry in the EU 93

Table 14.8. REACH costs . 94

Table 14.9. Development of biodiesel plants in the EU, thousand litres . 97

Table 14.10. EU 2008 and 2009 biodiesel capacity estimates .. 98

Table 14.11. Production capacity of the main biodiesel producers in Europe .. 100

Table 14.12. Development of ethanol plants in the EU, million litres 103

Table 14.13. Production capacity of the main ethanol producers, 2010 . 105

Table 14.14. Ethanol plants in the EU, million litres, March 2010 .. 109

Table 14.15. Advanced biofuel plants in the EU 114

Table 14.16. Jobs created by the sector in key European countries .. 115

Table 15.1. Fuel Taxes .. 118

Table 15.2. Breakdown of transport fuels in Bulgaria . 120

Table 15.3. Quota for Biodesel and Bioethanol from 2003-2010 .. 122

Table 15.4. Quotas and taxes for biofuels in Germany .. 123

Table 15.5. Tax exemptions in € per litre of biofuels 123

Table 15.6. Land use criteria for sustainable biofuels in Germany .. 124

Table 15.7. Energy tax on pure biodiesels, € per litre . 125

Table 15.8. Consumption of biofuels in Germany, thousand tonnes .. 126

Table 15.9. Average price at the filling station for biodiesel and diesel in Germany, June 2010 .. 126

Table 15.10. Biodiesel plants in operation in Germany, end 2009 .. 127

Table 15.11. Incentives for Irish farmers producing energy crops .. 128

Table 15.12. Financial support for production facilities 129

Table 15.13. Albengoa Bioenergy global presence .. 132

Table 15.14. Biodiesel plants in operation, under construction and planned in Spain . 133

Table 15.15. Ethanol plants in Spain, excluding Abengoa's plants .. 135

Table 15.16. Ethanol plants in Sweden .. 136

Table 15.17. Biodiesel plants in Sweden 138

Table 15.18. Planned biodiesel projects in Switzerland, million litres .. 139

Table 16.1. History of ethanol subsidy legislation in the US 142

Table 16.2. State fuel taxes 147

Table 16.3. Biofuel blends and car manufacturing compatibility in the US . 149

Table 16.4. Ethanol plants in the USA, July 2010 152

Table 16.5. Business structure of the top 5 ethanol producers in the US . 160

Table 16.6. US cellulosic ethanol projects under development and construction 161

Table 16.7. Awardees of US Department of Energy and Department of Agriculture funding, December 2009 163

Table 16.8. Valero Renewables' ethanol plants .. 166

Table 16.9. DDGS produced for a 20 million gallon (91 million litres) plant using different feedstocks . 167

Table 16.10. Business models for the top five biodiesel producers in the US .. 170

Table 16.11. Biodiesel plants in the USA, July 2010 172

Table 17.1. Production costs for ethanol in the USA, Germany and Brazil, € per 1,000 litres .. 176

Table 17.2. Installed biofuel capacity and targets in Brazil .. 177

Table 17.3. Top ten sugar cane facilities in Sao Paulo State for the 2008/2009 harvest .. 182

Table 17.4. Key Companies using SCA Brazil Ethanol brokerage 183

Table 17.5. Biodiesel plants in operation in Brazil . 187

Table 17.6. Investment in renewable energies 188

Table 17.7. Ethanol plants owned by Cosan in Brazil .. 189

Table 18.1. Argentina Renovables' list of biodiesel plants in operation, large scale .. 195

Table 18.2. Ethanol plants in operation in Colombia 196

Table 18.3. Biodiesel plants in operation in Colombia 197

Table 18.4. Top five biodiesel plants in operation in Honduras . 198

Table 19.1. Blending mandates in Canadian provinces, target dates .. 203

Table 19.2. Incentives for biofuels in Canadian provinces 204

Table 19.3. Federal programmes to promote a domestic renewable fuels industry in Canada . 205

Table 19.4. Ethanol plants in operation or under construction in Canada .. 207

Table 19.5. Biodiesel plants in operation or under construction in Canada 208

Table 19.6. Tax exemptions for E10 by Canadian province .. 210

Table 19.7. Ethanol pilot project in Mexico .. 212

Table 20.1. Biodiesel plants in Australia, January 2010 .. 213

Table 20.2. Ethanol plants in operation in Australia, January 2010 . 214

Table 20.3. Biofuels Excise Rates for Australia 216

Table 20.4. Effective fuel tax rates for alternative fuels in Australia .. 216

Table 20.5. Blending mandates in Australia, target dates . 217

Table 20.6. Second generation Biofuels Research and Development Programme projects in Australia . 218

Table 20.7. Leading biofuel players in New Zealand, as of August 2009 220

Table 21.1. China investment in renewable energy markets .. 227

Table 21.2. Ethanol plants in operation in China, million litres .. 228

Table 21.3. Cities with the E10 blend mandate in China 229

Table 21.4. Cost analysis of using different feedstocks for ethanol using 2006 prices in China . 229

Table 21.5. Major biodiesel facilities in China . 230

Table 21.6. Project financing for biofuel projects in India . 235

Table 21.7. Blending mandate for biodiesel in Indonesia . 237

Table 21.8. Blending mandate for ethanol in Indonesia . 237

Table 21.9. Biodiesel projects in operation in Malaysia . 242

Table 21.10. Fifteen year Renewable Energy Development Plans for biofuels in Thailand, million litres per day 244

Table 21.11. Ethanol plants in Thailand, March 2010 . .. 248

Table 21.12. Breakdown of retail prices for B2 and B5 biodiesel in Thailand as of May 2010 .. 250

Table 21.13. Biodiesel plants in operation in Thailand, March 2010 . 254

Table 21.14. Comparison different feedstocks for ethanol in the Philippines .. 256

Table 24.1. Aviation ground rules for 2nd and 3rd generation biomass fuelling . 266

Table 24.2. US military supply contracts for biofuels .. 269

Table 24.3. Biofuel manufacturers with contracts to develop or supply fuel for the aviation sector . 270

Table 25.1. Oil and gas company investments in biofuels . 273

Table 26.1. Biofuel targets, subsidies and incentives for biofuels for EU member states 285

Table 26.2. Biofuel targets, subsidies and incentives outside the EU . 294

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