Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Technologies and Global Markets

Sep 21, 2011, 06:15 ET from Reportlinker

NEW YORK, Sept. 21, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Technologies and Global Markets

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REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

* The global solid oxide fuel cell market in 2011 will be worth more than $380 million, up from $360 million in 2010. This will result in a $530 million global market in 2016, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.9% between 2011 and 2016 under a consensus scenario.

* The market for CPUs is valued at $140 million in 2011 and is forecast to rise to almost $215 million by 2016, reflecting a CAGR of 9%.

* The total market for generators, remote and APUs is likely to increase from $135 million in 2011 to approximately $159 million in 2016, a CAGR of 3.3%.

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Fuel cells are viewed as potential candidates for auxiliary power, mobile power, stationary distributed or central power, and portable product power. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are among the most efficient and cost-effective. Although relatively high operating temperature limits the range of applications possible, stationary, mobile, and even portable product configurations are possible.

Advances in the technology have been made, but sometimes these advances reveal even more challenges to be met. Slowly, there is the realization that total dependency on hydrocarbon fuels is not a viable economic option. SOFCs have a part in securing energy security for the country, improving the environment, greatly reducing urban pollution, and creating jobs in manufacturing as the technology advances. They can also provide a cost-effective and performance-driven rival for other fuel cells, batteries, internal combustion engines, and coal- or oil-fired heat engines.

This study analyzes components of the SOFC, a technology offering the promise of greatly reduced environmental impact and excellent performance, price, and efficiency advantages. Recent historic developments and approaches are described along with recent commercial developments and the state of the art.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

This report can also provide valuable information in terms of assessing investment in particular technologies and, therefore, should benefit investors directly or indirectly. Others may find the broad discussions of energy policy and environmental impact to be of considerable value in understanding the opportunities and problems in the near- to mid-term.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is intended to provide a unique analysis of the SOFC market and will be of interest to a variety of current and potential fuel cell users and integrators as well as competing battery, fuel cell, and conventional power generation makers.

BCC Research wishes to thank those companies, government agencies, and university researchers that contributed information for this report.

SCOPE OF REPORT

This report discusses the North American, European, Far Eastern, and Rest-of-World market value. Target markets are based on optimistic, pessimistic, and consensus alternatives. This is compared to the conventional power generation target and peak shifting opportunities. The current market is small, mainly limited to pilot projects or emerging niches. By 2016, these pilots will be expanding into commercial implementations. This 2016 market is also characterized in terms of optimistic, pessimistic, and consensus scenarios.

SOFC applications are described and analyzed. The following applications are considered:

* Combined heat and power (CHP)

* Exotic

* Military

* Portable product power

* Remote power and auxiliary power units (APUs)

SOFC companies are listed and detailed profiles prepared.

METHODOLOGY

An in-depth analysis of technical and business literature and published dissertations; a review of the history of the technologies involved; and interviews with industry experts, company representatives, federal government researchers, and university scientists provide an assessment of the outlook for alternative electrical power storage. Other INFORMATION SOURCES include product literature from suppliers, scientific references, conferences, and patent searches.

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report, which is based on interviews with commercial and government sources, literature reviews, and patent examinations. Throughout the report, past market data is expressed in current dollars, and estimates and projections are in constant 2011 dollars. Historic markets (2006) and the projected market for 2016 are provided.

Most market summaries are based on a consensus scenario that assumes no unanticipated technical advances and no unexpected legislation. When appropriate, pessimistic, consensus, and optimistic market scenarios characterize several developmental markets. Totals are rounded to the nearest million dollars. When appropriate, information from previously published sources is identified to allow a more detailed examination by clients.

INFORMATION SOURCES

Market assumptions used in this report include those based on updates of material from an earlier version of this analysis, as well as from BCC Research studies. This report's author prepared these studies as well. He also edits the twice-monthly BCC Research newsletter, Fuel Cell Industry Report and Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Progress, which are uniquely valuable sources for this market. Although many segments of the industry are well documented, much of this information is based on estimates, not hard facts. The distinction between these estimates and hard facts can be vital, and wherever possible, sources are identified.

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION . 1

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 1

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY .. 1

INTENDED AUDIENCE .... 1

SCOPE OF REPORT 2

METHODOLOGY 2

INFORMATION SOURCES .... 3

ANALYST CREDENTIALS 3

RELATED REPORTS .... 3

BCC ONLINE SERVICES .. 4

DISCLAIMER . 4

CHAPTER TWO: SUMMARY . 5

SUMMARY . 5

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL SOFC MARKET SUMMARY BY

TECHNOLOGY, BY APPLICATION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO ($

MILLIONS) . 6

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL SOFC MARKET SUMMARY BY

TECHNOLOGY, BY APPLICATION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO ($

MILLIONS) . 6

SUMMARY FIGURE (CONTINUED) 7

CHAPTER THREE: OVERVIEW 8

FUEL CELL BACKGROUND . 8

TABLE 1 SOFC COMPARED TO OTHER FUEL CELLS . 9

SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL BACKGROUND 9

SOFC MATERIALS 10

SOFC Electrodes, Electrolytes, and Interconnects 11

SOFC Glass Seals .. 12

SOFC Gaskets ... 13

TABLE 2 SOFC GASKET MATERIALS ... 13

TABLE 2 (CONTINUED) ... 14

Recent SOFC Material Developments 14

Georgia Tech SOFC Ceramic Material ... 14

Georgia Tech …Continued) .... 15

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science

and Technology and the Fine Ceramics

Research Association Electrode Compositions . 16

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Ceramic Microreactors ... 17

Cornell One-Pot Process . 17

West Virginia University Interconnect Coatings .. 18

Nippon Shokubai Zirconia Sheets . 19

TABLE 3 NIPPON SHOKUBAI ZIRCONIA SHEET SPECIFICATIONS ... 20

University of Birmingham Electrode Doping ... 20

Virginia Tech Self-healing Glass Seals ... 21

SOFC TECHNOLOGY: CURRENT AND DEVELOPMENTAL

CONFIGURATIONS ... 22

Generic Planar SOFC Configuration .. 23

FIGURE 1 PLANAR SOFC CONFIGURATION 24

Generic Thin-film Configuration ... 24

FIGURE 2 THIN-FILM SOFC CONFIGURATION 25

Generic Tubular Configuration . 25

FIGURE 3 TUBULAR SOFC CONFIGURATION .. 26

Westinghouse Design . 26

Siemens Power Generation Design 27

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and

Technology (AIST) Design ... 28

National Institute of …(Continued) ... 29

NanoDynamics Energy Microtubular Configuration .. 30

MIT Design .. 31

MIT Design (Continued) . 32

Ceres Design 33

Bloom Energy SOFC Hydrogen Generation Design ... 34

FuelCon SOFC Test Station . 34

SOFC Gas Turbine Hybrids . 35

FIGURE 4 FUELCELL ENERGY SOFC/T HYBRID SYSTEM AND

TORPEDO CONFIGURATION... 36

GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS AND SUBSIDIES .. 37

U.S. FEDERAL FUEL CELL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES .... 38

U.S Department of Energy ... 38

History of U.S. DOE SOFC Subsidies 39

History of U.S. DOE … (Continued) .. 40

History of U.S. DOE … (Continued) .. 41

History of U.S. DOE … (Continued) .. 42

History of U.S. DOE … (Continued) .. 43

History of U.S. DOE … (Continued) .. 44

U.S. Fuel Cell Budget Situation in 2009 . 45

History of U.S. DOE … (Continued) .. 46

History of U.S. DOE … (Continued) .. 47

U.S. Fuel Cell Budget Situation in 2010 . 48

TABLE 4 2010 BUDGET HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL

TECHNOLOGIES FUNDING PROFILE BY SUBPROGRAM, 2009-

2011 ($ THOUSANDS) . 48

TABLE 4 (CONTINUED) ... 49

U.S. Fuel Cell Budget … (Continued) 50

U.S. Fuel Cell Budget Situation in 2011 . 51

TABLE 5 2011 PROPOSED FISCAL FUEL CELL BUDGET .... 52

U.S. DOE Draft "Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan" .. 52

U.S. DOE Draft "Hydrogen … (Continued) . 53

U.S. DOE Draft "Hydrogen … (Continued) . 54

U.S. DOE Draft "Hydrogen … (Continued) . 55

OTHER U.S. FUEL CELL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES .... 56

U.S. Fuel Cell Council Analysis of Funding Priorities .... 57

U.S. Fuel Cell Council Analysis of … (Continued) 58

Office of Science 59

National Hydrogen Association 60

National Science Foundation .... 61

Department of Defense .... 62

State Incentives 63

Federal Excise Tax Exemption for Anti-idling .. 64

GLOBAL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES .. 65

Canadian Subsidies and Incentives .... 65

European Subsidies and Incentives .... 65

Japanese Subsidies and Incentives .... 66

South Korean Subsidies and Incentives .. 67

South Korean Subsidies and … (Continued) .... 68

SOFC RESEARCH .. 69

ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS .... 69

TABLE 6 MAJOR INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH INTO PEM FUEL

CELLS .. 70

CHAPTER FOUR: MARKETS BY APPLICATION 71

COMBINED HEAT AND POWER .. 71

CHP DEVELOPMENTS .. 72

U.S. DOE EERN CHP Developments . 72

TABLE 7 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1-10 KWE

RESIDENTIAL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FUEL CELLS

OPERATING ON NATURAL GAS, 2008-2020 ... 73

TABLE 8 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1-10 KWE FUEL

CELL AUXILIARY POWER UNITS OPERATING ON STANDARD

ULTRA-LOW SULFUR DIESEL FUEL, 2008-2020 73

European Union SOFC Research Partnership CHP

Developments ... 74

European Union SOFC … (Continued) ... 75

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee

(HTAC) CHP Developments 76

Ceres Power CHP Developments ... 76

Ceres Power CHP Developments (Continued) .. 77

GENERATORS, REMOTE POWER, AND AUXILIARY POWER .. 78

GENERATORS AND PORTABLE POWER PLANTS 79

RECREATIONAL VEHICLE POWER 80

ANTI-IDLING APUS .. 80

Anti-idling APUs (Continued) .. 81

AIRCRAFT APUS .. 82

Aircraft APUs (Continued) ... 83

MARINE VESSEL APUS 84

PORTABLE PRODUCTS . 85

MILITARY 85

EXOTIC .... 85

EXOTIC (CONTINUED) .. 86

EXOTIC (CONTINUED) .. 86

CHAPTER FIVE: SOFC MARKET SUMMARY 87

SOFC SEGMENTS ANALYZED 87

SOFC MARKET DRIVERS AND BASIS FOR SCENARIOS 88

SOFC APPLICATION MARKET DRIVER SCENARIOS 89

TABLE 9 SOFC OPTIMISTIC, PESSIMISTIC, AND CONSENSUS

SCENARIOS, BY APPLICATION ... 89

TABLE 9 (CONTINUED) ... 90

TABLE 9 (CONTINUED) ... 91

TABLE 9 (CONTINUED) ... 92

TABLE 9 (CONTINUED) ... 93

TABLE 9 (CONTINUED) ... 94

SOFC REGIONAL MARKET DRIVER SCENARIOS . 95

TABLE 10 SOFC OPTIMISTIC, PESSIMISTIC, AND CONSENSUS

SCENARIOS, BY REGION ... 95

TABLE 10 (CONTINUED) . 96

TABLE 10 (CONTINUED) . 97

TABLE 10 (CONTINUED) . 98

SOFC PRODUCT MARKET DRIVER SCENARIOS ... 99

TABLE 11 SOFC OPTIMISTIC, PESSIMISTIC, AND CONSENSUS

SCENARIOS .. 99

TABLE 11 (CONTINUED) .... 100

TABLE 11 (CONTINUED) .... 101

TABLE 11 (CONTINUED) .... 102

SOFC MARKETS BY APPLICATION .... 103

TABLE 12 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY

TECHNOLOGY, BY APPLICATION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) .... 103

FIGURE 5 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY

TECHNOLOGY, BY APPLICATION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2006-

2016 ($ MILLIONS) .... 104

FIGURE 6 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY

TECHNOLOGY BY APPLICATION IN 2011, CONSENSUS

SCENARIO (%) . 104

FIGURE 6 (CONTINUED) ... 105

TABLE 13 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY

TECHNOLOGY, BY APPLICATION, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) .... 105

TABLE 14 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY

TECHNOLOGY, BY APPLICATION, PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) .... 106

SOFC MARKETS BY REGION 106

TABLE 15 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY

TECHNOLOGY, BY REGION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, THROUGH

2016 ($ MILLIONS) .... 106

FIGURE 7 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY

TECHNOLOGY, BY REGION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2006-2016

($ MILLIONS) ... 107

FIGURE 8 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY

TECHNOLOGY BY REGION IN 2011, CONSENSUS SCENARIO (%) . 107

FIGURE 8 (CONTINUED) ... 108

TABLE 16 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY

TECHNOLOGY, BY REGION, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO ($

MILLIONS) .. 108

TABLE 17 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY

TECHNOLOGY, BY REGION, PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO, 2006-2016

($ MILLIONS) ... 108

SOFC MARKETS BY PRODUCT . 109

TABLE 18 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY

TECHNOLOGY, BY PRODUCT, CONSENSUS SCENARIO,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) .... 109

FIGURE 9 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY

TECHNOLOGY, BY PRODUCT, CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2006-2016

($ MILLIONS) ... 110

FIGURE 10 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY

TECHNOLOGY BY PRODUCT IN 2011, CONSENSUS SCENARIO

(%) .. 110

FIGURE 10 (CONTINUED) . 111

TABLE 19 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY

TECHNOLOGY, BY PRODUCT, OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) .... 111

TABLE 20 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY

TECHNOLOGY, BY PRODUCT, PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) .... 111

CHAPTER SIX: INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE

ANALYSIS ... 112

COMPETITION .... 112

CONVENTIONAL TURBINE-BASED POWER GENERATION . 112

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 113

ULTRACAPACITORS .... 113

OTHER FUEL CELLS ... 114

Alkaline Fuel Cells ... 114

Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells . 115

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ... 115

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells .. 115

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 115

BATTERIES .... 116

Batteries (Continued) .... 117

TABLE 21 BATTERIES THAT COULD COMPETE WITH SOFCS .. 118

Lead-acid Batteries ... 118

Nickel-metal Hydride Batteries ... 119

Lithium-ion and Lithium-polymer Batteries .. 120

Metal-air Batteries ... 121

Nickel-hydrogen Secondary Batteries ... 122

High-temperature Lithium Batteries .... 122

Sodium-sulfur Batteries 123

Redox and Flow Batteries .. 124

Nickel-iron Batteries 124

Nickel-Zinc Batteries 125

Calcium-metal Sulfide Batteries .. 125

Sodium-metal Chloride Batteries 126

INDUSTRY LEADERS ... 126

TABLE 22 SOFC COMPANIES AND STATUS .... 127

TABLE 22 (CONTINUED) .... 128

TABLE 22 (CONTINUED) .... 129

TABLE 22 (CONTINUED) .... 130

TABLE 22 (CONTINUED) .... 131

TABLE 23 SOFC COMPANY SHIPMENT STATUS . 132

MARKET TIERS .. 133

Leading CHP SOFC Companies .. 133

TABLE 24 LEADING SOFC CHP COMPANIES .. 133

Leading Generators, Remote, and APU SOFC Companies 134

TABLE 25 LEADING SOFC GENERATORS, REMOTE, AND APU

COMPANIES .... 134

Leading Military SOFC Companies .. 134

TABLE 26 LEADING MILITARY SOFC COMPANIES . 135

Leading Portable SOFC Companies . 135

TABLE 27 LEADING PORTABLE SOFC COMPANIES 135

Leading Exotic SOFC Companies 136

TABLE 28 LEADING EXOTIC SOFC COMPANIES . 136

CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION 136

TABLE 29 SOFC DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS .. 136

TABLE 29 (CONTINUED) .... 137

PURCHASING INFLUENCES 138

PRICE INFLUENCE 138

TABLE 30 SOFC PURCHASING INFLUENCES . 138

PRICE TRENDS ... 138

FIGURE 11 DRIVING DOWN COSTS FOR FUEL CELLS (ORDER OF

MAGNITUDE COST REDUCTION) ($/KW) .... 139

TECHNOLOGY LIFE CYCLE . 140

TECHNOLOGY LIFE CYCLE (CONTINUED) .... 141

MANUFACTURING PROCESS .... 142

FIGURE 12 SOFC MANUFACTURING TREE .... 142

FIGURE 13 SOFC MANUFACTURING FLOW .... 143

MANUFACTURING PROCESS (CONTINUED) . 144

SOFC PATENTS ... 145

TABLE 31 RECENT SOFC PATENT ASSIGNEES .. 146

TABLE 31 (CONTINUED) .... 147

TABLE 32 SOFC PATENTS 148

TABLE 32 (CONTINUED) .... 149

TABLE 32 (CONTINUED) .... 150

TABLE 32 (CONTINUED) .... 151

TABLE 32 (CONTINUED) .... 152

TABLE 32 (CONTINUED) .... 153

CHAPTER SEVEN: COMPANY PROFILES ... 154

ACUMENTRICS HOLDING CORP. .. 154

ACUMENTRICS HOLDING CORP. (CONTINUED) .... 155

ADAPTIVE MATERIALS, INC. (ULTRA ELECTRONICS) 156

ADAPTIVE MATERIALS, INC… (CONTINUED) .... 157

ADAPTIVE MATERIALS, INC… (CONTINUED) .... 158

ADELAN U.K., LTD. . 159

ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES (ACCURON

TECHNOLOGIES) .... 160

ADVANCED MEASUREMENTS, INC. .. 160

ALPPS FUEL CELL SYSTEMS .... 161

ALSTOM TECHNOLOGY, INC. ... 161

ALTAIR NANOTECHNOLOGIES, INC. 162

BTU INTERNATIONAL, INC. . 163

THE BABCOCK & WILCOX CO. (MCDERMOTT INTERNATIONAL). 164

BABCOCK-HITACHI K.K. . 164

BHP BILLITON, LTD. .... 165

BLOOM ENERGY . 166

BLOOM ENERGY (CONTINUED) ... 167

BLOOM ENERGY (CONTINUED) ... 168

BLOOM ENERGY (CONTINUED) ... 169

CELLTECH POWER, LLC .. 170

CERAMATEC, INC. ... 170

CERAMIC FUEL CELLS, LTD. .... 171

CERAMIC FUEL CELLS, LTD. (CONTINUED) . 172

CERAMIC FUEL CELLS, LTD. (CONTINUED) . 173

CERAMIC FUEL CELLS, LTD. (CONTINUED) . 174

CERAMIC FUEL CELLS, LTD. (CONTINUED) . 175

CERES POWER HOLDINGS ... 176

CERES POWER HOLDINGS (CONTINUED) 177

CERES POWER HOLDINGS (CONTINUED) 178

CERES POWER HOLDINGS (CONTINUED) 179

CHEVRON TECHNOLOGY VENTURES ... 180

CHUBU ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY, INC. .. 181

CMR PROTOTECH ... 182

CUMMINS POWER GENERATION, INC. . 183

DANA CANADA CORP. . 183

DELPHI CORP. 184

DELPHI CORP. (CONTINUED) .. 185

DIGITAL GAS, INC. .. 186

EBZ ENTWICKLUNGS .. 187

EDISON ELECTRIC INSTITUTE 187

ELCOGEN AS .. 188

EMPRISE CORPORATION 188

ENERGIENED . 188

ENRG, INC. . 189

ENRG, INC. (CONTINUED) ... 190

ENTWICKLUNGS UND VERTRIEBSGESELLSCHAFT

BRENNSTOFFZELLE ... 191

FEV MOTORENTECHNIK GMBH ... 192

FIDERIS . 192

FORSCHUNGSZENTRUM JUELICH ... 193

FRANKLIN ADVANCED MATERIALS . 193

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES .... 194

FUELCELL ENERGY, INC. .... 194

FUELCELL ENERGY, INC. (CONTINUED) .. 195

FUEL CELLS (SCOTLAND), LTD. ... 196

GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY ... 196

GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY

PARK . 197

GLOBAL THERMOELECTRIC, INC. (FUELCELL ENERGY) .... 197

GOETA TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPER INTERNATIONAL .... 198

HABCO, INC. ... 199

HALDOR TOPSOE A/S/TOPSOE FUEL CELL .... 199

HALDOR TOPSOE A/S/TOPSOE … (CONTINUED) ... 200

HALDOR TOPSOE A/S/TOPSOE … (CONTINUED) ... 201

HALDOR TOPSOE A/S/TOPSOE … (CONTINUED) ... 202

HC STARCK GMBH .. 203

HEXIS, LTD. .... 204

HTCERAMIX SA ... 205

HOSOKAWA POWDER TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE. 205

INTERTEC SOUTHWEST, INC. .. 206

K-STYLE ADVANCED CERAMICS CO., LTD. .... 206

KAINOS ENERGY CORP. (NANOGRAM) .. 206

KANSAI ELECTRIC POWER CO., INC. 207

LOGANENERGY CORP. 208

MATERIALS & SYSTEMS RESEARCH, INC. 208

MATERIALS & SYSTEMS ... (CONTINUED) 209

MEIDENSHA CORP. . 210

MERIDIAN ENERGY, LTD. .... 211

MERLONI TERMOSANITARI SPA (ARISTON THERMO GROUP) 211

MESOSCOPIC DEVICES LLC 212

MORPHIC TECHNOLOGIES .. 212

NANODYNAMICS, INC. 213

NATIONAL FUEL CELL RESEARCH CENTER . 214

NEXTECH MATERIALS, LTD. .... 215

NEXTECH MATERIALS, LTD. (CONTINUED) .. 216

NGIMAT CO. .... 217

NGK INSULATORS, LTD. .. 218

NIPPON SHOKUBAI CO., LTD. .. 219

NIPPON TELEGRAPH & TELEPHONE CORP. .. 219

NIPPON TELEGRAPH & TELEPHONE ... (CONTINUED) ... 220

NOAH TECHNOLOGIES CORP. . 221

ONTARIO POWER GENERATION, INC. ... 221

PLANSEE SE ... 221

PLUG POWER, INC. . 222

POHANG IRON AND STEEL COMPANY (POSCO) . 223

PRECISION FLOW TECHNOLOGIES .. 224

PRESIDIO COMPONENTS, INC. 224

PROTONEX 225

RAGAN TECHNOLOGIES, INC. .. 226

RISØ NATIONAL LABORATORY 228

ROLLS-ROYCE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS, LTD 229

SAFCELL …. 230

SANDVIK …. 231

SHELL HYDROGEN BV 232

SIEMENS POWER GENERATION, INC. … 233

SIENERGY SYSTEMS (ALLIED MINDS) .. 235

SOFCPOWER SLC …. 236

SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE … 237

STANFORD MATERIALS CORP. 238

STATOIL ASA .. 239

STAXERA GMBH (SUNFIRE) . 239

SULZER HEXIS AG .. 242

SUMITOMO CORP. … 242

TOKYO GAS CO., LTD. .. 243

TOSOH CORP. CERAMICS DIVISION . 243

TOTO, LTD. . 244

TOYOTA . 244

TOYOTA (CONTINUED) … 245

TABLE 33 TOYOTA POWER GENERATING UNIT SPECIFICATIONS … 246

VAILLANT GMBH …. 246

VERSA POWER SYSTEMS, INC. 247

VIOLET FUEL CELL STICKS 250

WÄRTSILÄ CORP. …. 251

WÄRTSILÄ CORP. (CONTINUED) .. 252

WATT FUEL CELL CORP. . 253

WEBASTO AG . 254

WORLDWIDE ENERGY, LLC . 255

ZTEK CORP. …. 256

ZTEK CORP. (CONTINUED) .. 257

APPENDIX U.S. PATENTS THAT MENTION SOFCS . 258

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