Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Technologies and Global Markets

Jan 14, 2014, 07:53 ET from Reportlinker

NEW YORK, Jan. 14, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Technologies and Global Markets

http://www.reportlinker.com/p0619257/Solid-Oxide-Fuel-Cells-Technologies-and-Global-Markets.html#utm_source=prnewswire&utm_medium=pr&utm_campaign=Battery

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Fuel cells are viewed as potential candidates for auxiliary power, mobile power, stationary distributed or central power, and portable product power. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are among the most efficient and cost–effective. Although relatively high operating temperatures limit the range of applications stationary, mobile and even portable product configurations are possible.Advances in technology have been made, but sometimes these advances reveal even more challenges. SOFCs contribute to securing energy security for the country, improving the environment, greatly reducing urban pollution, and creating jobs in manufacturing as the technology advances. They can also provide a cost–effective and performance–driven rival for other fuel cells, batteries, internal combustion engines, and coal– or oil–fired heat engines.This study analyzes components of the SOFC, a technology offering the promise of greatly reduced environmental impact and excellent performance, price, fuel flexibility, and efficiency advantages. Technology, applications, and recent commercial developments are described.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

This report can provide valuable information in terms of assessing investment in particular technologies and, therefore, should benefit investors directly or indirectly. Others may find the broad discussions of energy policy and environmental impact to be of considerable value in understanding the opportunities and problems in the near– to mid–term.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is intended to provide a unique analysis of the SOFC market and will be of interest to a variety of current and potential fuel cell users and integrators as well as competing battery, fuel cell, and conventional power generation makers.BCC Research wishes to thank those companies, government agencies, and university researchers that contributed information for this report.

SCOPE OF REPORT

This report discusses the North American, European, Far Eastern, and Rest–of–World market values. Target markets are based on optimistic, pessimistic, and consensus alternatives. This is compared to the conventional power generation target and peak shifting opportunities. The current market is emerging, with niche products, pre–commercial demos, and subsidized pilot projects.Over the next five years these pilots will be expanding into commercial implementations. The 2018 market is also characterized in terms of optimistic, pessimistic, and consensus scenarios.SOFC applications are described and analyzed. The following applications are considered:• Combined heat and power (CHP).• Remote power and auxiliary power units (APUs).• Military.• Portable product power.• Exotic.

SOFC companies are listed and detailed profiles prepared in the Company Profiles chapter.

METHODOLOGY An in–depth analysis of technical and business literature and published dissertations; a review of the history of the technologies involved; and interviews with industry experts, company representatives, federal government researchers, and university scientists provide an assessment of the outlook for alternative electrical power storage. Other information sources include product literature from suppliers, scientific references, conferences, and patent searches.

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report, which is based on interviews with commercial and government sources, literature reviews, and patent examinations. Throughout the report, past market data is expressed in current dollars, and estimates and projections are in constant 2013 dollars. Historic and current markets and the projected market for 2018 are provided.

Most market summaries are based on a consensus scenario that assumes no unanticipated technical advances and no unexpected legislation. When appropriate, pessimistic, consensus, and optimistic market scenarios characterize several developmental markets. Totals are rounded to the nearest million dollars. When appropriate, information from previously published sources is identified to allow a more detailed examination by clients.

INFORMATION SOURCES Market assumptions used in this report include those based on updates of material from an earlier version of this analysis, as well as from BCC Research studies. This report's author prepared these studies as well. He was also a long–time editor of BCC Research newsletters Fuel Cell Industry Report and Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Progress. Although many segments of the industry are well documented, much of this information is based on estimates, not hard facts. The distinction between these estimates and hard facts can be vital, and wherever possible, sources are identified.ANALYST CREDENTIALS This report's project analyst, Donald Saxman, edited BCC Research's Fuel Cell Industry Report and Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Progress newsletters. Mr. Saxman has more than 28 years of experience in market analysis, technical writing, and newsletter editing. Since 1983, he has operated as a technical market consultant and subcontractor to BCC Research and in this capacity has prepared more than 85 technology market research reports, including many that covered battery technology and battery markets. His previous experience includes supervision of a quality–control laboratory at a major secondary lead refinery, experience as an analytical chemist at a hazardous waste testing service, product assurance manager for a space station life–support–system project, and an information technology business analyst and project manager.REPORT HIGHLIGHTS Global solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) market in 2013 is worth more than $906 million, up from $303 million in 2008. The forecasted revenues will likely reach almost $1.3 billion by 2018, demonstrating a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.5%.

This report provides:

• An overview of the global market for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs).

• Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2008 and 2012, estimates for 2013, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2018.

• Discussion of the current state, setbacks, innovations, and the future needs of the market.

• Examination of the market by application and by product sizes; utility scale, medium scale and small scale.

• Analyses of the technology and recent commercial developments in SOFCs global market.

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2INTENDED AUDIENCE 2SCOPE OF REPORT 2METHODOLOGY 3INFORMATION SOURCES 3ANALYST CREDENTIALS 4RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4BCC RESEARCH ONLINE SERVICES 4DISCLAIMER 4

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO,THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 7SUMMARY FIGURE 1 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY YEAR, 2008–2018 ($ MILLIONS) 7SUMMARY FIGURE 2 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2013 ($ MILLIONS/%) 8

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10

FUEL CELL BACKGROUND 10TABLE 1 SOFC COMPARED TO OTHER FUEL CELLS 10SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL BACKGROUND 11SOFC MATERIALS 12SOFC Electrodes, Electrolytes, and Interconnects 12SOFC Glass Seals 13SOFC Gaskets 14TABLE 2 SOFC GASKET MATERIALS 15Recent SOFC Material Developments 15Georgia Tech SOFC Ceramic Material 15National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science andTechnology and the Fine Ceramics Research AssociationElectrode Compositions17University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign CeramicMicroreactors 17Cornell University One-Pot Process 18West Virginia University Interconnect Coatings 18Nippon Shokubai Zirconia Sheets 19TABLE 3 NIPPON SHOKUBAI ZIRCONIA SOFC SHEET SPECIFICATIONS 19University of Birmingham Electrode Doping 20Virginia Tech Self-healing Glass Seals 20SOFC TECHNOLOGY: CURRENT AND DEVELOPMENTAL CONFIGURATIONS 21Generic Planar SOFC Configuration 22FIGURE 1 PLANAR SOFC CONFIGURATION 22Generic Thin-film Configuration 23FIGURE 2 THIN-FILM SOFC CONFIGURATION 23Generic Tubular Configuration 24FIGURE 3 TUBULAR SOFC CONFIGURATION 24Westinghouse Tubular Design 24Siemens Power Generation Tubular Design 25Advanced Microtubular Designs 26FIGURE 4 TUBULAR CELL AND CURRENT PATH WITH SIEMENS CELLSCONFIGURATION 26FIGURE 5 TUBULAR CELL AND CURRENT PATH WITH A STRAIGHT METAL WIRE ASCURRENT COLLECTOR 28FIGURE 6 CURRENT PATH IN RADIAL AND AXIAL DIRECTION WITH A SPRING COILAS CURRENT COLLECTOR 29National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology(AIST) Microtubular Design 29NanoDynamics Energy Microtubular Configuration 31MIT SOFC Power Plant Design 32Ceres Power CHP Design 33Bloom Energy Design 35TABLE 4 BLOOM ENERGY SERVER SPECIFICATIONS 35FuelCon SOFC Test Station 36SOFC Gas Turbine Hybrids 37FIGURE 7 FUELCELL ENERGY SOFC/T HYBRID SYSTEM AND TORPEDOCONFIGURATION 37GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS AND SUBSIDIES 39U.S. FEDERAL FUEL CELL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES 39U.S. Department of Energy 39History of U.S. DOE Fuel Cell Subsidies 41U.S. Fuel Cell Budget Situation in 2009 42U.S. Fuel Cell Budget Situation in 2010 45TABLE 5 HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES FUNDING PROFILE BYSUBPROGRAM IN 2010 BUDGET ($ THOUSANDS) 45U.S. Fuel Cell Budget Situation in 2011 47TABLE 6 FISCAL FUEL CELL BUDGET, 2010-2012 ($ MILLIONS) 48The Sequestration Transparency Act of 2012 48TABLE 7 FISCAL FUEL CELL BUDGET, 2011-2013 ($ MILLIONS) 49U.S. DOE Draft Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan 50Office of Science 53Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Interagency Task Force 54Federal Excise Tax Exemption for Anti-idling 55Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association 55JOBS FC Model 56National Science Foundation 56Department of Defense 57State Incentives 58GLOBAL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES 59Canadian Subsidies and Incentives 59European Subsidies and Incentives 59Japanese Subsidies and Incentives 60South Korean Subsidies and Incentives 60Australian Subsidies and Incentives 63SOFC RESEARCH 63ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS 63TABLE 8 MAJOR INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH INTO PEM FUEL CELLS 63

CHAPTER 4 MARKETS BY APPLICATION 66

COMBINED HEAT AND POWER 66CHP DEVELOPMENTS 67U.S. DOE EERE CHP Developments 67TABLE 9 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1 KWE TO 10 KWE RESIDENTIALCOMBINED HEAT AND POWER FUEL CELLS OPERATING ON NATURAL GAS,2008-202067TABLE 10 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1 KWE TO 10 KWE FUEL CELLAUXILIARY POWER UNITS OPERATING ON STANDARD ULTRA-LOW SULFUR DIESELFUEL THROUGH 202068European Union SOFC Research Partnership CHP Developments 68Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) CHPDevelopments 70Ceres Power CHP Developments 70Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 72GENERATORS, REMOTE POWER, AND AUXILIARY POWER 73GENERATORS AND PORTABLE POWER PLANTS 74RECREATIONAL VEHICLE POWER 74ANTI-IDLING APUS 75AIRCRAFT APUS 76MARINE VESSEL APUS 78PORTABLE PRODUCTS 78MILITARY 79EXOTIC 79

CHAPTER 5 SOFC MARKET SUMMARY 82

SOFC SEGMENTS ANALYZED 82SOFC MARKET DRIVERS AND BASIS FOR SCENARIOS 83SOFC APPLICATION MARKET DRIVER SCENARIOS 84TABLE 11 SOFC CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOS, BYAPPLICATION 84SOFC REGIONAL MARKET DRIVER SCENARIOS 89TABLE 12 SOFC CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOS, BYREGION 89SOFC PRODUCT MARKET DRIVER SCENARIOS 93TABLE 13 SOFC CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOS, BY SCALE 93SOFC MARKETS BY APPLICATION 98TABLE 14 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY APPLICATION CONSENSUSSCENARIO, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 98FIGURE 8 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION CONSENSUS SCENARIO,2008-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 98FIGURE 9 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2013(%) 99TABLE 15 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION OPTIMISTIC SCENARIOTHROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 100TABLE 16 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOTHROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 100SOFC MARKETS BY REGION 101TABLE 17 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION CONSENSUS SCENARIO THROUGH2018 ($ MILLIONS) 101FIGURE 10 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2013 (%) 101TABLE 18 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO THROUGH2018 ($ MILLIONS) 102TABLE 19 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH2018 ($ MILLIONS) 102SOFC MARKETS BY PRODUCT 103TABLE 20 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY PRODUCT CONSENSUSSCENARIO, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 103FIGURE 11 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2013 (%) 103TABLE 21 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO THROUGH2018 ($ MILLIONS) 104TABLE 22 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO THROUGH2018 ($ MILLIONS) 105

CHAPTER 6 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS 107

COMPETITION 107CONVENTIONAL TURBINE-BASED POWER GENERATION 107INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 108ULTRACAPACITORS 108OTHER FUEL CELLS 108TABLE 23 COMPETING FUEL CELLS 109Alkaline Fuel Cells 109Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells 109Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 110Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 110BATTERIES 110TABLE 24 BATTERIES THAT COULD COMPETE WITH SOFCS 112Lead-acid Batteries 112Nickel-metal Hydride Batteries 112Lithium-ion and Lithium-ion polymer Batteries 113Metal-air Batteries 114Nickel-hydrogen Secondary Batteries 115Sodium-sulfur Batteries 115Redox and Flow Batteries 116Nickel-iron Batteries 116Nickel-Zinc Batteries 117INDUSTRY LEADERS 117TABLE 25 SOFC COMPANIES AND STATUS 118TABLE 26 SOFC COMPANY SHIPMENT STATUS 121MARKET TIERS 122LEADING CHP SOFC COMPANIES 122TABLE 27 LEADING SOFC CHP COMPANIES 122LEADING SOFC GENERATOR, REMOTE AND APU COMPANIES 122TABLE 28 LEADING SOFC GENERATOR, REMOTE AND APU COMPANIES 123LEADING MILITARY SOFC COMPANIES 123TABLE 29 LEADING MILITARY SOFC COMPANIES 123LEADING PORTABLE SOFC COMPANIES 124TABLE 30 LEADING PORTABLE SOFC COMPANIES 124LEADING EXOTIC SOFC COMPANIES 124TABLE 31 LEADING EXOTIC SOFC COMPANIES 124NO LONGER ACTIVE SOFC COMPANIES 125TABLE 32 NO LONGER ACTIVE SOFC COMPANIES 125CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION 126TABLE 33 SOFC DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 126PURCHASING INFLUENCES 127PRICE INFLUENCE 127TABLE 34 SOFC PURCHASING INFLUENCES 127PRICE TRENDS 128FIGURE 12 DRIVING DOWN COSTS FOR FUEL CELLS (ORDER OF MAGNITUDE COSTREDUCTION) 128TECHNOLOGY LIFE CYCLE 130MANUFACTURING PROCESS 131FIGURE 13 SOFC MANUFACTURING TREE 131FIGURE 14 SOFC MANUFACTURING FLOW 131SOFC PATENT ANALYSIS 133TABLE 35 U.S. SOFC PATENTS 133TABLE 36 RECENT U.S. SOFC PATENT ASSIGNEES 139

CHAPTER 7 COMPANY PROFILES 143

ACUMENTRICS HOLDING CORP. 143ADELAN U.K. LTD. 145ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES (ACCURON TECHNOLOGIES) 146ADVANCED MEASUREMENTS INC. 147ALPPS FUEL CELL SYSTEMS 147ALSTOM TECHNOLOGY INC. 148ALTAIR NANOTECHNOLOGIES INC. 148AMERICAN ELEMENTS 148BLASCH PRECISION CERAMICS 149BLOOM ENERGY 149BTU INTERNATIONAL INC. 151CERAMATEC INC. 152CERAMIC FUEL CELLS LTD. 153CERES POWER HOLDINGS 160CHAO ZHOU THREE-CIRCLE (GROUP) CO. LTD. 164CHUBU ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY INC. 165CMR PROTOTECH 165CONVION OY 166TABLE 37 CONVION SOFC TECHNOLOGY GOALS 167CUMMINS POWER GENERATION INC. 168DANA HOLDING CORPORATION 170DANA CANADA CORP. 170DELPHI CORP. 171EBZ ENTWICKLUNGS 172ELCOGEN AS 173EMPRISE CORPORATION 173ENERGIENED 174ENRG INC. 174FCO POWER INC. 175FEV MOTORENTECHNIK GMBH 176FIDERIS 177TABLE 38 TYPICAL TURN–KEY, SOFC FUEL CELL TEST SYSTEMS THAT UTILIZE THEFIDERIS INNOVATOR SERIES MODULES 177FORSCHUNGSZENTRUM JULICH 178FUELCELL ENERGY INC. 179GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 182GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY PARK 182HABCO INC. 182HALDOR TOPSOE A/S/ TOPSOE FUEL CELL 183HC STARCK GMBH 186FIGURE 15 AMPERIT AND AMPERGY POWDERS FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS 186HEXIS LTD. 187TABLE 39 HEXIS GALILEO FUEL CELL SYSTEM 189HOSOKAWA POWDER TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE 190ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS INC. 190K-STYLE ADVANCED CERAMICS CO. LTD. 190KANSAI ELECTRIC POWER CO. INC. 191KERAFOL (KERAMISCHE FOLIEN GMBH) 191LG FUEL CELL SYSTEMS INC. (ROLLS-ROYCE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS LTD.) 191LILLIPUTIAN SYSTEMS 193LITHUANIAN ENERGY INSTITUTE 194LOGANENERGY CORP. 194MATERIALS & SYSTEMS RESEARCH INC. 194MEIDENSHA CORP. 196MERIDIAN ENERGY LTD. 196MERLONI TERMOSANITARI SPA (ARISTON THERMO GROUP) 197NATIONAL FUEL CELL RESEARCH CENTER 197NEXTECH MATERIALS LTD. 198FUELCELLMATERIALS.COM DIVISION 198NGIMAT CO. 201NGK INSULATORS LTD. 201NIPPON SHOKUBAI CO. LTD. 202NIPPON TELEGRAPH & TELEPHONE CORP. 202NOAH TECHNOLOGIES CORP. 203ONTARIO POWER GENERATION INC. 204PLANSEE SE 204PLUG POWER INC. 205POHANG IRON AND STEEL COMPANY (POSCO) 205POINT SOURCE POWER INC. 206PRECISION FLOW TECHNOLOGIES 207PRESIDIO COMPONENTS INC. 207PROTONEX 207MESOSCOPIC DEVICES SUBSIDIARY 207RAGAN TECHNOLOGIES INC. 209REDOX POWER SYSTEMS 211RISO DTU NATIONAL LABORATORY 211SAFCELL 213SAINT-GOBAIN 214SANDVIK 214SIEMENS POWER GENERATION INC. 215SIENERGY SYSTEMS (ALLIED MINDS) 217SOFCPOWER 218SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE 219FIGURE 16 SECA ADVANCED POWER SYSTEM COST COMPARISON 220STANFORD MATERIALS CORP. 222SUMITOMO CORP. 223SUNFIRE GMBH (STAXERA) 223TABLE 40 MK200 SOFC TECHNICAL DATA 224TERMINUS ENERGY INC. 225TOKYO GAS CO. LTD. 226TOSOH CORP. CERAMICS DIVISION 227TOTO LTD. 227TOYOTA 228TABLE 41 TOYOTA POWER GENERATING UNIT SPECIFICATIONS 229ULTRA ELECTRONICS AMI 230VAILLANT GMBH 232VIOLET FUEL CELL STICKS 232WATT FUEL CELL CORP. 233WEBASTO AG 234ZIRCAR ZIRCONIA INC. 234ZTEK CORP. 234

CHAPTER 8 APPENDIX U.S. PATENTS THAT MENTION SOFCS 237

TABLE 42 U.S. SOFC PATENTS 237

LIST OF TABLES SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO,

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 7

TABLE 1 SOFC COMPARED TO OTHER FUEL CELLS 10

TABLE 2 SOFC GASKET MATERIALS 15

TABLE 3 NIPPON SHOKUBAI ZIRCONIA SOFC SHEET SPECIFICATIONS 19

TABLE 4 BLOOM ENERGY SERVER SPECIFICATIONS 35

TABLE 5 HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES FUNDING PROFILE BY

SUBPROGRAM IN 2010 BUDGET ($ THOUSANDS) 45

TABLE 6 FISCAL FUEL CELL BUDGET, 2010-2012 ($ MILLIONS) 48

TABLE 7 FISCAL FUEL CELL BUDGET, 2011-2013 ($ MILLIONS) 49

TABLE 8 MAJOR INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH INTO PEM FUEL CELLS 63

TABLE 9 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1 KWE TO 10 KWE RESIDENTIAL

COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FUEL CELLS OPERATING ON NATURAL GAS,

2008-2020

67

TABLE 10 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1 KWE TO 10 KWE FUEL CELL

AUXILIARY POWER UNITS OPERATING ON STANDARD ULTRA-LOW SULFUR DIESEL

FUEL THROUGH 2020

68

TABLE 11 SOFC CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOS, BY

APPLICATION 84

TABLE 12 SOFC CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOS, BY REGION 89

TABLE 13 SOFC CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOS, BY SCALE 93

TABLE 14 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY APPLICATION CONSENSUS

SCENARIO, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 98

TABLE 15 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO THROUGH

2018 ($ MILLIONS) 100

TABLE 16 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 100

TABLE 17 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION CONSENSUS SCENARIO THROUGH

2018 ($ MILLIONS) 101

TABLE 18 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO THROUGH 2018

($ MILLIONS) 102

TABLE 19 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH

2018 ($ MILLIONS) 102

TABLE 20 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY PRODUCT CONSENSUS

SCENARIO, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 103

TABLE 21 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO THROUGH

2018 ($ MILLIONS) 104

TABLE 22 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO THROUGH

2018 ($ MILLIONS) 105

TABLE 23 COMPETING FUEL CELLS 109

TABLE 24 BATTERIES THAT COULD COMPETE WITH SOFCS 112

TABLE 25 SOFC COMPANIES AND STATUS 118

TABLE 26 SOFC COMPANY SHIPMENT STATUS 121

TABLE 27 LEADING SOFC CHP COMPANIES 122

TABLE 28 LEADING SOFC GENERATOR, REMOTE AND APU COMPANIES 123

TABLE 29 LEADING MILITARY SOFC COMPANIES 123

TABLE 30 LEADING PORTABLE SOFC COMPANIES 124

TABLE 31 LEADING EXOTIC SOFC COMPANIES 124

TABLE 32 NO LONGER ACTIVE SOFC COMPANIES 125

TABLE 33 SOFC DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 126

TABLE 34 SOFC PURCHASING INFLUENCES 127

TABLE 35 U.S. SOFC PATENTS 133

TABLE 36 RECENT U.S. SOFC PATENT ASSIGNEES 139

TABLE 37 CONVION SOFC TECHNOLOGY GOALS 167

TABLE 38 TYPICAL TURN–KEY, SOFC FUEL CELL TEST SYSTEMS THAT UTILIZE THE

FIDERIS INNOVATOR SERIES MODULES 177

TABLE 39 HEXIS GALILEO FUEL CELL SYSTEM 189

TABLE 40 MK200 SOFC TECHNICAL DATA 224

TABLE 41 TOYOTA POWER GENERATING UNIT SPECIFICATIONS 229

TABLE 42 U.S. SOFC PATENTS 237

LIST OF FIGURES SUMMARY FIGURE 1 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY YEAR, 2008–2018 ($ MILLIONS) 7

SUMMARY FIGURE 2 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2013 ($ MILLIONS/%) 8

FIGURE 1 PLANAR SOFC CONFIGURATION 22

FIGURE 2 THIN-FILM SOFC CONFIGURATION 23

FIGURE 3 TUBULAR SOFC CONFIGURATION 24

FIGURE 4 TUBULAR CELL AND CURRENT PATH WITH SIEMENS CELLS

CONFIGURATION 26

FIGURE 5 TUBULAR CELL AND CURRENT PATH WITH A STRAIGHT METAL WIRE AS

CURRENT COLLECTOR 28

FIGURE 6 CURRENT PATH IN RADIAL AND AXIAL DIRECTION WITH A SPRING COIL AS

CURRENT COLLECTOR 29

FIGURE 7 FUELCELL ENERGY SOFC/T HYBRID SYSTEM AND TORPEDO

CONFIGURATION 37

FIGURE 8 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION CONSENSUS SCENARIO,

2008-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 98

FIGURE 9 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2013 (%) 99

FIGURE 10 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2013 (%) 101

FIGURE 11 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2013 (%) 103

FIGURE 12 DRIVING DOWN COSTS FOR FUEL CELLS (ORDER OF MAGNITUDE COST

REDUCTION) 128

FIGURE 13 SOFC MANUFACTURING TREE 131

FIGURE 14 SOFC MANUFACTURING FLOW 131

FIGURE 15 AMPERIT AND AMPERGY POWDERS FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS 186

FIGURE 16 SECA ADVANCED POWER SYSTEM COST COMPARISON 220

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