Wireless communications are under stress due to the rapid growth of traffic volume and the limited available spectrum. This tendency necessitates rational utilization of these frequencies spectrum, which became the most expensive component in wireless networking.
Meanwhile, multiple industry studies show that the available licensed frequency spectrum is extremely underutilized. The relatively low utilization of the licensed spectrum suggests that spectrum scarcity, as perceived today, is largely due to inefficient fixed frequency allocations rather than any physical shortage of spectrum.
Spectrum 2020 analyzes modern communications technologies based on Cognitive Radio/Software Defined Radio (CR/SDR) that allow adaptive use of the spectrum in accordance with instantaneous space/time coordinates. The CR technology is heavily dependent upon the SDR technology as a radio needs to be configurable according to the prevailing spectrum environment.
Current technologies for dynamic spectrum access largely rely on database-managed approaches. Standards are also emerging that incorporate cognitive elements, where devices can adapt their operating parameters in conjunction with a centralized database.
Autonomous cognitive capabilities through sensing techniques at the device level would, where feasible, offer far greater flexibility for future sharing. These emerging techniques could be used within a number of bands across the radio spectrum to deliver different types of wireless service and could play a role in making more efficient use of spectrum by improving channel throughput within shared operating environments.
Related to CR/SDR standards and markets are subjects of this report research. As an example, one of the first commercial CR/SDR applications - TV White Space (TVWS) communications - is being discussed. The survey of multiple vendors' portfolios was conducted.
The CR/SDR technologies, applications, the industry and market analyses have been performed to show roots of TVWS communications.
TVWS communications origin, properties, regulations, standards, and the industry have been analyzed.
The report concludes that the development of CR/SDR for WS and particular TVWS communications opens a door to utilization previously unused windows of wireless spectrum saving valuable resources and contributing to growth of the economy.
This report, in particular, provides:
An overview of the regulatory climate for CR/SDR in major developed countries.
The analysis of the CR/SDR standardization process
An overview of CR/SDR technologies specifics
The analysis of CR/SDR applications, including military, Public Safety Communications, and commercial
The analysis of market drivers from the perspective of various industries and users groups
Analyses of CR/SDR global market trends
Market intelligence on SDR based solutions in the commercial, government, and military industry segments.
Market geographical specifics
An estimate of major market components
Information on key suppliers of CR/SDR products and their profiles.
Overview of TVWS developmental cycles
Analysis of the regulatory climate: FCC, Ofcom, other
Standardization: IEEE, ETSI, ECMA, IETF
Survey of the industry
Though the focus of the report is public safety applications, the majority of findings relate to a wider spectrum of use cases (communications and localization) in the indoor environments for multiple commercial applications.
Key Topics Covered
1. Introduction 1.1 Traffic Growth: M2M/IoT and 5G Era 1.2 Price of Spectrum 1.3 Methods 1.4 Working Together 1.5 Scope 1.6 Research Methodology 1.7 Target Audience
2. Synergy: Software-Defined and Cognitive Radios 2.1 General 2.2 Purpose 2.3 Definitions (WIF, FCC, ITU) 2.3.1 SDR 188.8.131.52 Multi-tiers: SDR 2.3.2 Cognitive Radio 184.108.40.206 Details 2.4 Regulations 2.4.1 FCC 220.127.116.11 Equipment Type 18.104.22.168 Process 22.214.171.124 Application Guide 126.96.36.199 First Approval 2.4.2 ITU 2.4.3 Ofcom 2.5 Standardization Organizations Efforts 2.5.1 ITU-R 2.5.2 ETSI 188.8.131.52 Major Points 2.5.3 3GPP 2.5.4 IEEE 2.5.5 NASA 2.6 Design Issues 2.7 Properties 2.7.1 Layers 2.7.2 Features: Details 184.108.40.206 Versatility 2.7.3 Issues 2.8 SDR Implementations 2.9 Applications 2.9.1 Commercial 2.9.2 CR/SDR in Military 220.127.116.11 SCA 18.104.22.168.1 ESSOR: European Secure SOFtware Defined Radio 2.9.3 Public Safety Communications (PSC) 2.10 SDR/CR: Benefits 2.11 Impact - CR 2.11.1 Geographical Differences 2.12 Market 2.12.1 Landscape 22.214.171.124 Factors 2.12.2 Cost 2.12.3 Different Perspective 2.12.4 Market Drivers-Summary 2.12.5 Market Forecast 126.96.36.199 Model Assumptions 188.8.131.52 Estimate 184.108.40.206 Segments 220.127.116.11 Geography 18.104.22.168 Components 2.13 Industry
AirNet Communications (SDR Base Stations)
Carlson Wireless (Platform)
General Dynamics (SDR)
Datron World Communications (SDR)
Digital Receiver Technology (Radio Modules)
Ettus Research-NI (Platform)
Green Hills (Software)
Lockheed Martin (SDR)
Motorola Solutions (BS)
Nokia (Base Station)
Nutaq (DSP and FPGA development solutions)
Objective Interface Systems (Software)
Redline Communications (Platform)
Rockwell Collins (Radios)
Saankhya Labs (Chipset)
Spectrum Signal Processing (Platforms)
Xilinx (Chips, SDR Development Kit)
2.14 Example: CR/SDR Commercial Application: White Spaces Communications 2.14.1 General 2.14.2 Definition: TVWS 2.14.3 Roots 2.14.4 FCC Activity 22.214.171.124 Decision 126.96.36.199 Devices 188.8.131.52 Clarifications 184.108.40.206 Sensing 220.127.116.11 Specifics 18.104.22.168.1 Protection 22.214.171.124.2 Frequencies 126.96.36.199.3 TVWS Database (U.S.) 188.8.131.52.4 Related FCC Decisions 184.108.40.206.4.1 Recent Developments 2.14.5 Industry Activity - Microsoft and Other 2.14.6 Japanese WSC 2.14.7 Global WSC Development 2.14.8 Ecosystem and Use Cases 2.14.9 WS Communications Standardization 220.127.116.11 WS Alliance 18.104.22.168.1 Wi-FAR 22.214.171.124.1.1 First TVWS Chipset 126.96.36.199.2 WSAConnect 188.8.131.52 Wireless Innovation Forum (WIF) 184.108.40.206 Cognitive Radio: WS-related IEEE Standards 220.127.116.11.1 IEEE 802.11af - 2013 18.104.22.168.1.1 General: Expectations - Wi-Fi on Steroids 22.214.171.124.1.2 Differences 126.96.36.199.1.3 Benefits 188.8.131.52.1.4 Specifics 184.108.40.206.1.5 Building Blocks 220.127.116.11.1.6 PHY 18.104.22.168.1.7 Summary 22.214.171.124.2 IEEE 802.22 - 2011 126.96.36.199.2.1 General 188.8.131.52.2.2 WG 802.22 and FCC 184.108.40.206.2.3 Overview 220.127.116.11.2.4 Physical Layer - Major Characteristics 18.104.22.168.2.5 Cognitive Functions and MAC 22.214.171.124.3 IEEE 802.22.1 126.96.36.199.4 IEEE 802.22.2 188.8.131.52.5 IEEE 802.22a-2014 184.108.40.206.6 802.22b-2015 220.127.116.11.7 P802.22.3 18.104.22.168.8 Summary-IEEE802.22 22.214.171.124.9 IEEE 802.19 WG 126.96.36.199.9.1 IEEE 802.19.1-2014 188.8.131.52.9.2 IEEE 802.19.1-2018 184.108.40.206.10 IEEE 802.15.4m-2014 220.127.116.11.11 IEEE SCC 41 - DySpan SCC - WS Related 18.104.22.168.11.1 IEEE 1900.4 22.214.171.124.11.2 1900.7 126.96.36.199 CogNeA and ECMA Activity 188.8.131.52.1 CogNeA 184.108.40.206.2 ECMA-392-2011 220.127.116.11 IETF-PAWS 18.104.22.168 ETSI 22.214.171.124 Weightless Protocol 126.96.36.199.1 Weightless Communications 188.8.131.52.2 SIG 184.108.40.206.3 Weightless-W 220.127.116.11.4 Changes 2.15 Industry