SAN FRANCISCO, June 29, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- At the beginning of the 20th century, the world-famous physicist Albert Einstein proposed a landmark physics theory – the theory of relativity. More than 100 years, the theory of relativity not only opened up a new era in physics research, but also is important in many fields especially in astrophysical applications. In the 21st century, the theory of relativity is still an active research topic in the fundamental physics. However, the debate of the theory of relativity has never stopped for the past 100 years.
Tsao Chang is a Chinese American born in 1942. In 1980, thanks to Chinese Reform, Chang had the fortune to have the help from Yaobang Hu, the General Secretary of the Communist Party. Because of his personal endorsement, Chang visited the United States as a visiting scholar for advanced study for nearly two years. A few years later after Chang came back to China, he was invited by two universities as visiting professor in the United States, and then engaged in space physics research at the University of Alabama. In 2013, Chang was invited by as a foreign visiting professor.
In China and in the United States, Professor Chang has taught classes such as Electrodynamics and Modern Physics, and he has published more than 30 research papers. Chang is an expert in Superluminal research. His first paper in this area was "A New Approach to Study the Superluminal Motion," which is published in 1979. In the paper, he introduced a type of time that is generalized Galilean Transformation. When using this definition of time, the arrow of time is always positive when observing a superluminal particle in any inertial system. Thus, it overcomes the difficulty of backward in time in the Superluminal theory. In an international academic conference in 1985, Chang predicted that the neutrinos are Superluminal particles. In 2000, he collaborated with a senior Professor G-J.Ni of Fudan University to conduct research in a quantum equation of Superluminal neutrinos.
After decades of research, Chang's research on superluminal motion has got a significant experimental breakthrough. In February 2015, Chang published a paper: "Measurement of Time Delay of Alternating Electric Field in Wires" on an open access journal Modern Physics with graduate student K. Liao and Dr. Jing Fan. They published three more papers later. The latest research paper was published in November 2015, which has a title: "The Speed of Alternating Electricity Can Be 20 Times Faster than the Speed of Light."
According to the result of the experiment, Chang pointed out that AC power generates the electromotive force, and then produces the alternating potential difference as well as the longitudinal electric field in the circuit. The alternating electric field leads the movement of electrons in metal wires, and it also generates the electricity and electric power. The speed of alternating electricity is not constant; which is associated with circuit parameters. In most cases, the speed of alternating electricity is slower than the speed of light. However, under the condition of specific circuit parameters, the speed of alternating electricity can exceed the speed of light more than 20 times. That is to say, alternating electricity may transmit signals and electric power faster than light in wires, and the speed of light is not the limit of all motion of matter.
Chang's conclusion is obtained by experiments. In regards to the method of experiment, he said, "this experiment is very simple, and easy to repeat. The advantage of the experiment is that the result is stable." At the same time, he pointed out that this experiment has some specific conditions as follows:
First of all, the total length of the single copper wire is less than 10 meters; Secondly, the length between wires of the circuit loop is less than 3 meters, and the circuit's distributed capacitance can be ignored; third, the operating frequency of alternating electrics signals is selected less than 3MHz. The lower the operating frequency, the better the results. Forth, the circuit adopts a large resistance and micro current. The resistance is 1MΩ, thus the impedance of the circuit is mismatching.
Chang said: "It is in the particular conditions above, our experiments found that the electric signal is 20 times faster than the speed of light in the wire." Although people use all kinds of electrical circuits every day, it is lack in the study of the speed of electric signals in the above conditions. Chang believes that longitudinal alternating electric field could transmit signal and energy wires with a speed faster than light, and it has been neglected for a long time in the physics. In electric circuits, alternating electric signals is neither an electromagnetic transverse wave, nor longitudinal wave. The alternating electric field signal and the electricity is the "longitudinal synchronous vibration," which is electric field in wires drives the electron to have vibration.
For this experiment, some scholars have raised another question: what is the substance in this superluminal experiment? Chang answered: there are two forms of the substance in nature. One is corporeal substance with rest mass, such as electrons, atoms, molecular and so on; the other one is invisible substance without rest mass – ether (namely physical vacuum, characterized by physical fields). Modern physics has admitted that the vacuum is not empty, so rather than admit that "physical vacuum" is "medium" we may admit that ether is an invisible substance. "For this experiment, the substance is the mainly electric field inside wires (electric field is potential difference of unit length; electric potential difference is also known as voltage), the speed of an alternating electricity is determined by the electric field within the wire. The electric field drives the electron in the wire, and generated the power."
Chang also pointed out that the starting point of the experiment is the voltage equation for resistance-inductance (RL) AC circuit, in which contains the Ohm's law. Ohm's law is independent from Maxwell equations, so that it doesn't obey the Lorentz Transformation. Chang believes that Special Relativity is not suitable for electric circuit. Only few people noticed that Ohm's law doesn't obey Lorentz Transformation in the circuit, and it is not mentioned in textbooks. However, this is indeed an important issue because we are using electric equipment every day. If the theory of relativity is not applicable to the circuit, then the scope of relativity is very limited. Therefore, under certain conditions, it is reasonable that the alternating electrical signals have superluminal phenomenon.
Dr. Jing Fan repeated the experiment conducted by Chang and Liao in the laboratory of Nanyang Institute of Technology. He commented that: First we need to make sure the correct measurement of the experiment, and then discuss the correctness of the theory. We cannot confuse two discussions. According to the repeated measurement by Jing Fan, he pointed out that there is no doubt with the experiment measurement. Nowadays, the oscilloscope's time resolution can be easily reached 0.5 ns. Some people think that a difference of tens of nanoseconds is the concept of the last century. Fan pointed out that the experimental results and the circuit theory are fully consistent, and there's nothing to be surprised. Circuit theory can be clearly calculate the inductance and capacitance of the phase shift, and the phase shift in our experiment is due to the alternating electrical signal caused by inductance of the wire with a certain length. In other words, the measurement of the time difference in the experiment is caused by the inductance of the wire. Circuit theory has been verified over hundred years, and it can be seen as an absolute truth. However, some people tried to cover circuit theory with theory of transmission lines, and that is not correct.
For the circuit experiment in the laboratory, the circuit experts often use the lumped element model. This circuit model does not calculate the wire length. Chang pointed out that actually it implied an assumption that the lumped element model does not consider wire length. Then the speed of alternating electrical signals in the wire is assumed infinite. Thus, Chang's experimental results show that the speed of alternating electrical signals in the wire is faster than 20 times of light under certain conditions. The result is not only reasonable, but also improves the lumped element model.
Chang acknowledges that Einstein is a great scientist. On the other side, any physics theory has its scope of application. Any theory should not be seen as a truth without limits. Chang said: "It is important to emphasize that the theoretical formula we used in our experiment is a basic formula of circuit theory, and it is independent from Maxwell's equations. Therefore, the speed of alternating electric field in wires is not relevant to the speed of electromagnetic wave. The speed of near field electromagnetic induction can be superluminal. For a length of 6 meters wire, the light transmission time is 20 nanoseconds. We have measured 1 nanosecond time difference in the experiment, and we thank to the modern oscilloscope technology in 21st century."
This superluminal experiment has been repeated in more than 5 laboratories worldwide.
From human's daily activities, we know that time is uni-directional, it represents the order of all movement in the universe. It is an axiom that time is un-idirectional, and it has nothing to do with human activity.
From the perspective of quantification of physics, time is a more basic physical quantity than the speed of light. The definition of time in relativity is not the only definition in physics.
Since this is an original experiment, and it has great scientific significance, Chang and his partners hope to work with circuit experts and electromagnetism experts furthermore. They are also calling to China's scientific community, asking the qualified labs to do more tests, and paying more attention on this original experiment.
This article is translated from a report of "The Newspaper of Chinese Science and Technology":
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SOURCE China Physics News