Forensic Technologies: New and Growing Markets

 

NEW YORK, Oct. 16, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Forensic Technologies: New and Growing Markets
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STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

This report discusses forensic science industry technologies, commercial products, services, research and development initiatives, and the overall market context in which forensic science exists. The report provides descriptions of technologies and products, an evaluation of trends in the application of these technologies and products, identification of notable patents, and measurements and forecasts of market demand through 2018. Company profiles of leading companies are provided as well. Product and service categories examined include analytical instrumentation and supplies, drug identification, toxicology, fingerprinting and biometrics, DNA profiling and allied areas such as laboratory information management systems (LIMS), forensic accounting and computer/digital forensics, forensics consulting and other important niches.

REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY AND ITS IMPORTANCE

Public and private forensic labs, as well as forensic consulting services in the case of electronic evidence, analyze evidence from millions of cases annually. Although the market for forensic analyses and related products is smaller than the market for biotechnology and pharmaceutical products, crime laboratory analyses serve a critical function in society and thus the forensics sector continues to develop and expand.
The forensics business is one of the most dynamic sectors of the modern economy due to a unique confluence of technological change and social demands. In short, the capability of forensic techniques has grown by leaps and bounds; costs have dropped and hence decision makers have promoted forensics to a generally receptive public. Although the last couple of years have witnessed some controversy over the validity of certain forensic techniques, generally the demand trend for forensic products and services remains on an upswing. In addition to technological change in the forensics business, the impact of legal decisions, such the June 2013 U.S. Supreme Court decision allowing routine DNA "fingerprinting," is critical in shaping the future of the business.
Technology advancements in forensics have been of considerable import in recent years. Examples include enhanced techniques for computer data and mobile device recovery (electronic evidence), successful use of "touch DNA" to prosecute property crimes, higher throughput and even "real-time" DNA sequencing machines for DNA identification, improved fingerprint recovery from metals such as gun cartridges and bomb fragments, use of the chemistry of color to identify chemical and biological weapons, and sensing technologies that are improving the detection of drugs and explosives at security checkpoints. Other advancements include portable DNA profiling techniques used at crime scenes, greater accuracy in ascertaining the age at death of crime victims and developments in scanning, facial recognition and biometrics. These technological advancements have reduced per unit costs in practical applications, thus enhancing the affordability of forensic applications and increasing their market penetration.
Greater use of DNA testing and other technologies has also brought high visibility to forensic testing. The number of crime laboratories in the U.S. performing forensic analyses grew from 300 in 1999 to an estimated 475 in 2013. Publicly funded forensic crime labs now spend in aggregate more than $1.6 billion per year.


INTENDED AUDIENCE

With its broad scope and in-depth analyses, this study will prove to be a valuable resource, particularly for anyone involved with, or interested in, the forensic market for analytical instrumentation, drug and toxicology analysis, DNA profiling, fingerprinting/biometrics and computer forensics.
This study will be particularly useful for researchers, laboratory and government personnel working in research or company settings, as well as business professionals involved with analytical instrumentation, drug and toxicology analysis, DNA profiling, fingerprinting/biometrics and computer forensics. It also will be of value to potential investors and members of the general public interested in acquiring a business–oriented view of the forensic science industry.
The projections, forecasts and trend analyses found in this report provide readers with the necessary data and information for decision-making.


SCOPE AND FORMAT OF REPORT

In preparing this report, an overall study of the crime laboratory segment of the U.S. forensic science market was undertaken. Related areas provided key information as well, as newer areas such as computer forensics make up a growing share of the total forensics business. All areas of the forensics market are addressed including: identification of current and future technologies, products, market segments/end markets, and government and regulatory agencies. Participating companies are discussed in light of technological strengths and weaknesses, relative market share, marketing strengths and innovative marketing practices.


METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

Data for this study were collected using both primary (phone interviews) and secondary data research methodologies. A literature search was conducted covering scientific, medical, business and technical documents, as well as patents. Since some segments of the forensics market are not routinely measured, BCC derived estimates from a variety of sources. Whenever market estimates are derived, they are fully noted. All forecasts are in current 2013 (nominal) dollars, unadjusted for inflation.


ANALYST CREDENTIALS

Kevin Gainer, research analyst, holds both B.A. and M.A. degrees in economic analysis and forecasting and has over 25 years of economic and market research experience. He is the author of six published books and dozens of technical papers, analyses and studies published in conference proceedings, including many unpublished proprietary analyses within corporations. He has worked as a Research Editor and Project Analyst at BCC Research since 1985, and has authored numerous BCC technology market research reports and periodicals.


REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

This report provides:
• An overall study of the U.S. forensic science market.
• Analyses of forensic technologies market trends, with data from 2012, estimates for 2013, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2018.
• Information on all areas of the forensics market including: identification of current and future technologies, products, market segments/end markets, and government and regulatory agencies.
• Information on participating companies in light of technological strengths and weaknesses, relative market share, marketing strengths and innovative marketing practices.
• Information on major patents filed.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY AND ITS IMPORTANCE 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 3
SCOPE AND FORMAT OF REPORT 3
METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 3
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 3
RELATED BCC REPORTS 4
BCC ONLINE SERVICES 4
DISCLAIMER 4


CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6

MAJOR FINDINGS 6
SUMMARY TABLE MAJOR U.S. FORENSIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES MARKET
SEGMENTS FORECAST, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 8
SUMMARY FIGURE MAJOR U.S. FORENSIC PRODUCTS AND SERVICES MARKET
SEGMENTS FORECAST, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 9

CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS OF MAJOR FORENSIC MARKETS 11

DEFINITION OF FORENSIC SCIENCE 11
FORENSICS AS AN ECONOMIC SECTOR 11
HISTORY OF FORENSIC SCIENCE 11
U.S. FORENSIC LABORATORIES 12
TRENDS IN COMPUTERIZATION OF CRIME LABORATORIES 13
MEDICAL EXAMINERS AND CORONERS 14
TABLE 1 PERCENTAGE OF U.S. LABORATORIES PERFORMING VARIOUS FORENSIC
FUNCTIONS (%) 15
CRIME RATES AND FORENSIC BACKLOGS 15
GOVERNMENTAL OVERSIGHT OF FORENSICS 16
CRIMINAL JUSTICE AND FORENSIC SCIENCE REFORM ACT OF 2011 16
GOVERNMENTAL OVERSIGHT 17
TABLE 2 STATES WITH FORENSIC OVERSIGHT BOARDS, 2013 17
THE GROWING ROLE OF FORENSIC DATABASES 18
FINGERPRINT DATABASES 18
NEXT GENERATION IDENTIFICATION (NGI) 19
National Palm Print System (NPPS) 19
Quality Check Automation (QCA) 20
Enhanced IAFIS Repository (EIR) 20
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE FINGERPRINT/BIOMETRICS 20
FORENSIC DATABASES 20
Ident-A-Drug 20
Paint Data Query: PDQ 21
National Automotive Paint File 21
TreadMark 22
SoleMate 22
TreadMate 23
Glass Evidence Reference Database 23
Forensic Information System for Handwriting: FISH 24
Ink Libraries 24
International Ink Library 24
Digital Ink Library 25
Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) Ink Library 25
RxList 26
Ignitable Liquids Reference Collection: ILRC 26
ChemFinder 27
Forensic DB 27
Forensic Accounting Database at University of Baltimore 27
Other New Forensic Software 27
National Databank for Marijuana DNA 28
TABLE 3 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC DATABASE PRODUCT REVENUES BY SECTOR,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 28
ROLE OF FORENSIC SCIENCE IN THE LEGAL SYSTEM 28
PHYSICAL EVIDENCE, COLLECTION AND STORAGE 29
CHAIN OF EVIDENCE OR CUSTODY 30
IMPORTANT TYPES OF EVIDENCE IN LEGAL PROCEEDINGS 30
TABLE 4 PUBLICLY OPERATED CRIME LABORATORIES PERFORMING CERTAIN TYPES
OF ANALYSES* (%) 31
ANALYTICAL PROCESSES USED IN FORENSIC TESTING 31
Organic and Inorganic Chemical Analysis 31
Techniques Used in Organic Analysis 32
Techniques Used in Inorganic Analysis 32
MAJOR FORENSIC TESTING AREAS 32
Analysis of Drug- and Toxicology-Related Specimens 33
New Drug Categories-Designer Drugs 33
DNA Profiling and Fingerprinting Products 34
Novel Fingerprint Recovery Techniques 34
Biometric-Based Fingerprint Identification Systems 35
TABLE 5 VENDORS OF BIOMETRIC-BASED FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS,
2013 35
Beyond Simple Fingerprinting: The FBI Next Generation Identification
(NGI) Initiative 37
DNA Profiling Market 38
Digital Revolution in Sequencing for All End-Use Markets 38
Expanding Applications of DNA Profiling-Property Crimes 39
Chemical Analysis and Serology 40
Microscopy 40
Detection of Nerve Gas and Other Unusual Compounds 40
ROLE OF NEW TECHNOLOGY IN REDUCING FORENSIC BACKLOGS 41
FORENSIC SCIENCE INSTRUMENTATION 41
TABLE 6 COMPANIES BY MAJOR AREAS OF PARTICIPATION IN ANALYTICAL TESTING 42
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTATION 42
DRUG IDENTIFICATION AND TOXICOLOGY ANALYSIS 43
TABLE 7 VENDORS OF DRUG IDENTIFICATION KITS 43
Technologies 44
DNA PROFILING 45
NANOTECHNOLOGY 46
FINGERPRINTING/BIOMETRICS 47
TABLE 8 PARTIAL LIST OF SUPPLIERS OF SOLID-STATE FINGERPRINT SCANNERS 48
FORENSIC IMAGING MARKET INCLUDING HANDHELD DEVICES 48
PORTABLE EXPLOSIVES FORENSICS IMAGING DEVICES 49
HANDHELD SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY
(SD–OCT) IMAGING 50
LAB-ON-A-CHIP PORTABLES 50
PORTABLE CADAVER DETECTION 51
MARKET COMPOSITION 51
GOVERNMENT REGULATION 52
ACCREDITATION 53
TABLE 9 LABORATORY ACCREDITATION STATISTICS (% OF LABORATORIES
ACCREDITED BY A PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION) 53
GOVERNMENT AGENCIES 53
Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) 53
Bomb and Arson Tracking System (BATS) 54
National Integrated Ballistic Information Network—NIBIN 55
National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center
(NLECTC) 55
INTERNATIONAL MARKETS 55
MARKET DEMAND 56
TESTING TRENDS 56
TABLE 10 CRIME INDEX TOTALS, 1999–2011 (NUMBER/%) 56
Increase in DNA Testing Workloads 57
TABLE 11 CRIME LABORATORY WORKLOAD STATISTICS, 2005 (CASE REQUESTS) 57
MARKETS FOR FORENSIC ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES, INSTRUMENTS AND
SUPPLIES 57
ORGANIC MATERIALS ANALYSIS 58
Chromatography 58
Applications 58
Supplies 59
TABLE 12 FORENSIC APPLICATIONS BY INSTRUMENT 59
Mass Spectrometers and Chromatography Hyphenated Products 60
Applications 60
Spectrophotometry 61
UV/Visible Spectrophotometry 61
Infrared (IR) Spectrophotometry 61
Spectrophotometry Applications 61
Supplies 62
Immunoassays 62
Applications 62
Enzyme Immunoassays (EIA) 62
Radioimmunoassay (RIA) 63
Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassays (FPIA) 63
Supplies 64
DNA Profiling 64
COMBINED DNA INDEX SYSTEM (CODIS) 64
TABLE 13 KEY CODIS DATABASE STATISTICS, 2000-2010 65
INORGANIC MATERIALS ANALYSIS 66
Trace Elemental Analysis 67
Emission Spectroscopy 67
AA Spectrophotometry 67
Neutron Activation 67
X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) 67
GENERAL ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS 68
Microscopes 68
Forensic Applications for Microscopes 69
Nanoprobes 70
Fluorescent Light Sources 70
MAJOR ANALYTICAL CATEGORIES 70
Hair Analysis 71
Species and Individual Determination 71
Hair Color and Other Points for Comparison 71
Fiber Analysis 72
Paint Analysis 72
Fire Debris and Explosives Analysis 73
TABLE 14 SIGNIFICANT PRODUCERS OF SPECIALIZED MICROSCOPES USED IN
FORENSIC SCIENCES 74
Questioned Document Analysis 74
Customs and Border Protection (CBP) Fraudulent Document Analysis
Unit 75
Firearms Identification 76
Ballistic Imaging for Firearms Identification 76
National Integrated Ballistic Identification System (NIBIN) 77
TABLE 15 MOST SUCCESSFUL NIBIN/IBIS PARTNERS 78
New Modalities—Terahertz Rays 78
FORENSIC TESTING MARKET SIZE 78
TABLE 16 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC PRODUCT AND SERVICES MARKET BY
SEGMENT, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 79
FIGURE 1 PROJECTED DISTRIBUTION OF U.S. FORENSIC PRODUCT AND SERVICES
REVENUES, 2013 VERSUS 2018 (%) 79
ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS AND SUPPLIES 80
TABLE 17 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS AND SUPPLIES
MARKET BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 81
FIGURE 2 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS AND SUPPLIES
MARKET BY TYPE, 2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 81
Numbers and Types of Analytical Instruments in a Typical Forensic
Laboratory 82
TABLE 18 PRICES AND NUMBERS OF ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS IN FORENSIC
LABORATORIES/DEPARTMENTS ($) 82
Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry 82
TABLE 19 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS
SPECTROMETRY INSTRUMENTS AND SUPPLIES MARKET, THROUGH 2018 ($
MILLIONS)
82
Analytical Instrument Supply Sales 83
Spectrophotometry 84
TABLE 20 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRY INSTRUMENTS
MARKET, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS/%) 84
Elemental Analysis 84
TABLE 21 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS INSTRUMENTS
MARKET, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS/%) 84
Forensic Microscope Sales 85
TABLE 22 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC OPTICAL AND SCANNING ELECTRON
MICROSCOPE MARKET, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS/%) 85
TABLE 23 OPTICAL MICROSCOPE MANUFACTURERS ESTIMATED MARKET SHARE,
2013 (%) 85
Fluorescent Forensic Light Source Sales 85
TABLE 24 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC FLUORESCENT LIGHT SOURCES MARKET,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS/%) 86
MARKET PARTICIPANTS-ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS 86
TABLE 25 MARKET LEADERS SUPPLYING ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS 87
ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENT COMPANY PROFILES 87
Agilent Technologies, Inc. 87
Buck Scientific, Inc. 88
Carl Zeiss 88
Carl Zeiss, Inc. 88
FEI Co. 89
Hitachi High-Technologies Corp. 89
Hitachi High-Technologies America, Inc. 89
Horiba Jobin Yvon, Inc. 90
SPEX Forensics Group 90
Jeol USA, Inc. 90
Leica Microsystems GmbH 91
Melles Griot/Barloworld Scientific Optics Group 91
Nikon Corp. 91
Nikon USA 92
PerkinElmer, Inc. 92
PerkinElmer Life and Analytical Sciences, Inc. 92
Rofin Australia 93
Shimadzu Scientific Instruments, Inc. 93
Spectris, plc 94
PANalytical, Inc. 94
Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. 95
Waters Corp. 95
DRUG IDENTIFICATION KITS 96
TABLE 26 ARRESTS BY DRUG TYPE, 2011 (%) 96
DRUG IDENTIFICATION KITS MARKET SIZE 98
TABLE 27 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC DRUG IDENTIFICATION KITS MARKET,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 98
FIGURE 3 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC DRUG IDENTIFICATION KITS MARKET
2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 98
MARKET PARTICIPANTS-DRUG IDENTIFICATION KITS 99
MARKET SHARES 99
TABLE 28 ESTIMATED MARKET SHARES OF DRUG KIT COMPANIES, 2010 (%) 99
DRUG FIELD TESTING KIT COMPANY PROFILES 99
Microgenics Corp. (Thermo Scientific) 99
Nartec 100
Neogen Corporation 100
NIK/ODV (BAE Systems) 100
ODV, Inc. 100
TOXICOLOGY/IMMUNOASSAY MARKET 101
ALCOHOL ANALYSIS 101
DRUG AND POISON ANALYSIS 102
Drug Analysis 102
Enzyme Immunoassay Screening for Drugs 102
Confirmatory Drug Tests 103
Poison Analysis 103
TOXICOLOGY IMMUNOASSAY REAGENTS 104
THE MARKET FOR FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY TESTING PRODUCTS 104
TABLE 29 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY/IMMUNOASSAY MARKET,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 105
FIGURE 4 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY/IMMUNOASSAY MARKET,
2012–2018 ($ MILLIONS) 105
Market Share 105
TABLE 30 FORENSIC IMMUNOASSAY TESTING PARTICIPANTS, ESTIMATED MARKET
SHARE, 2012 (%) 105
IMMUNOASSAY COMPANY PROFILES 106
Abbott Laboratories 106
Dade Behring, Inc. 106
Roche Diagnostics Systems 106
Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics 106
FORENSIC BIOLOGY AND SEROLOGY 107
BLOOD GROUPING 107
SEROLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BLOODSTAINS 107
Preliminary Color Tests 107
Confirmatory and Species Determination Tests 108
Serological Characterization of Semen 108
PATTERN ANALYSIS OF BLOODSTAINS 108
BONE FORENSICS AND SKELETAL BIOLOGY 109
MARKET SIZE 109
TABLE 31 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC BIOLOGY AND SEROLOGY TESTING MARKET,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 109
FIGURE 5 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC BIOLOGY AND SEROLOGY TESTING MARKET,
2012 TO 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 110
FORENSIC BIOLOGY AND SEROLOGY TESTING COMPANY PROFILE 110
Abacus Diagnostics 110
FINGERPRINTING/BIOMETRICS 110
FINGERPRINT RIDGES AND RIDGE CHARACTERISTICS 111
FINGERPRINT CLASSIFICATION 111
Henry and FBI Systems for Classifying, Storing, Retrieving and
Searching for Fingerprints 111
INTEGRATED AUTOMATED FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS (IAFIS) 112
IAFIS ENHANCEMENTS: AUTOMATIC FEATURE EXTRACTION AND
MATCHING (AFEM) 113
PRODUCT TYPES AND APPLICATIONS 114
TABLE 32 FINGERPRINTING APPLICATIONS, PRODUCT TYPES AND SUPPLIERS 115
PRODUCTS FOR OBTAINING KNOWN OR CRIMINAL 10-PRINTS AND THEIR
SUPPLIERS 115
Methods and Products Involving Ink 115
Semi-Inkless and Inkless Methods 116
10-Print Fingerprint Cards 116
Electronic 116
Live Scan Products 116
TABLE 33 COMPLETE LIST OF LIVE SCAN FINGERPRINT SYSTEM MANUFACTURERS 117
Card Scan Products 118
TABLE 34 COMPLETE LIST OF CARD SCAN FINGERPRINT SYSTEM MANUFACTURERS 119
Portable Mobile ID Fingerprint Scan Products 120
TABLE 35 PORTABLE MOBILE ID FINGERPRINT SCAN PRODUCTS AND VENDORS 120
Printers Used in Conjunction with Above Systems 121
PRODUCTS FOR DEVELOPING AND PRESERVING CRIME SCENE PRINTS AND
THEIR SUPPLIERS 121
Fingerprint Powders for Prints on Hard, Nonporous Substances 121
Chemical Products Used to Recover Prints 122
Super Glue Fuming and Other Products to Recover Prints on
Metal, Tape, Leather and Plastic 122
Chemical Products for Use on Soft and Porous Substances such
as Paper and Wood 123
Iodine Fuming 123
Ninhydrin 123
Silver Nitrate 123
Fluorescent Chemicals for Print Visualization 123
Miscellaneous Chemical Products 124
Products to Preserve Crime Scene Prints 124
Lifting Tape and Backing Cards 124
PHOTOGRAPHY SUPPLIES 124
MAGNIFIERS 124
DIGITAL IMAGING ENHANCEMENT SOFTWARE 124
AFIS Vendors 125
MARKET SIZE 126
TABLE 36 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC FINGERPRINTING MARKET BY PRODUCT TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 126
FIGURE 6 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC FINGERPRINTING MARKET BY PRODUCT TYPE,
2012-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 126
TABLE 37 PRICING COSTS PER UNIT FOR FINGERPRINT SYSTEMS AND SUPPLIES ($) 127
MARKET FOR 10-PRINT PRODUCTS 128
TABLE 38 ESTIMATED NUMBER OF CRIMINAL FINGERPRINT CARDS SUBMITTED TO
THE FBI, THROUGH 2011 129
MARKET FOR ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS 129
MARKET FOR CRIME SCENE PRINT PRODUCTS 130
MARKET FOR AFIS 130
NEC Systems 130
FINGERPRINTING PRODUCT COMPANY PROFILES 131
Forensics Source 131
Lightning Powder Co., Inc. 131
Arrowhead Forensic Products 132
L-1 Identity Solutions, Inc. 132
NEC Corporation of America 132
MorphoTrak 132
Sirchie Finger Print Labs, Inc. 133
Tri-Tech Forensics 133
DNA TESTING 133
APPLICATIONS AND GROWTH RATE 133
SHORT TANDEM REPEATS 134
STR Technology Development 135
Advances in Sample Preparation 136
OVERSEAS ACTIVITIES 136
TABLE 39 STATUS OF EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATE DNA DATABASES,
DATABASE ENTRY CRITERIA BY COUNTRY, 2013 137
INTERPOL GLOBAL DNA PROFILING DATA 138
DNA TESTING METHODS 139
Separation/Extraction/Amplification Methods 139
TABLE 40 USE RATES FOR AMPLIFICATION KITS, 2005 (NO./%) 140
RFLP 140
PCR 140
PCR Kit Market 140
TABLE 41 MOST FREQUENTLY USED PCR KITS BY VENDOR 141
AmpFLSTR Profiler Plus PCR Amplification Kit 141
AmpFLSTR COfiler PCR Amplification Kit 141
Typing Kits 141
AmpliType DQA1 Typing System Kit 141
AmpliType Polymarker (PM) PCR Typing System 142
TABLE 42 EXAMPLES OF APPLIED BIOSYSTEMS DNA KITS 142
STR ANALYSIS (STR) 143
MITOCHONDRIAL DNA ANALYSIS (MTDNA) 143
mtDNA and the National Missing Persons DNA Database (NMPDD) 144
Y-CHROMOSOME ANALYSIS 145
LOW COPY NUMBER (LCN) DNA 145
ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTATION 145
Applied Biosystems AutoMate Express Forensic DNA Extraction
System 146
Lockheed Martin/ZyGEM RapI.D. 146
MultiProbe II: PerkinElmer Forensic Workstation 147
Sequencing Analyzers 147
TABLE 43 SEQUENCING ANALYZER PLACEMENTS IN DNA TESTING LABORATORIES,
2002 (RESPONSE FROM 106 FACILITIES) 147
The ABI Prism 310 147
ABI Prism 377 148
Hitachi FMBIO II 148
Robotics 148
Expert Systems 148
TABLE 44 NDIS APPROVED EXPERT SYSTEMS 149
DNA TESTING PRODUCTS, KITS AND AUTOMATION COMPANY PROFILES 150
Applied Biosystems 150
Forensic ID 150
Hitachi Software Engineering America, Ltd. 150
Pacific Biosciences of California, Inc. 151
PerkinElmer Corp. 151
Promega Corporation 152
DNA MATCHING 152
CODIS 153
DNA IDENTIFICATION ACT OF 1994 153
THE ROLE OF DNA EVIDENCE IN LAW ENFORCEMENT AND IN THE LEGAL
SYSTEM TODAY 153
LABORATORIES PERFORMING DNA ANALYSIS 154
Public Laboratories 154
TABLE 45 CASE WORKLOAD STATISTICS, 1999 AND 2000 154
Private Laboratories Performing DNA Analysis 154
PRIVATE DNA LABORATORY AND KIT PROVIDER COMPANY PROFILES 155
Affymetrix, Inc. 155
The Bode Technology Group, Inc. 155
DNA Diagnostics Center 156
DNA: SI 156
Illumina, Inc. 157
Key Forensic Services 157
Life Technologies 157
Nexttec GmbH Biotechnologie 158
Orchid Cellmark 158
Paternity Testing Corporation 159
Promega Corporation 159
Sorenson Forensics 159
Qiagen N.V. 160
Warnex PRO-DNA Services 160
MARKET SIZE 161
FEDERAL SPENDING ON DNA BACKLOG REDUCTION PROGRAM 162
TABLE 46 FEDERAL FUNDING FOR THE DNA TESTING BACKLOG REDUCTION
PROGRAM, 2004-2010 ($ THOUSANDS) 163
TABLE 47 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC DNA TESTING CONVICTED OFFENDER,
ARRESTEE AND CASE DATA COMPLETED TESTS, 2007-2016 (MILLIONS) 163
TABLE 48 PROJECTED U.S. FORENSIC DNA TESTING MARKET BY PRODUCT TYPE,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 163
FUTURE ADVANCES IN DNA PROFILING 163
DNA Chip Technology 163
Microbial Forensics 165
FORENSIC DNA RESEARCH PRIORITIES 166
General Improvements to the Front End of the Forensic DNA Analysis
Process 166
Physical Separation of the Components of a Mixture 166
Body Fluid/Cell Type Identification and Characterization 167
Identification and/or Characterization of Genetic Markers 167
Improve Tools for Examining Aged, Degraded, Limited, Damaged,
Inhibited or Otherwise Compromised DNA Evidence 167
Species Differentiation 167
Novel Approaches for Genetic Profiling 167
Software Tools for Mixture Interpretation of DNA Data from Casework
Samples 168
Automated Sperm Searches 168
National Institute of Justice Forensic Research R&D Priorities 168
TABLE 49 FORENSIC DNA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 169
Familial DNA Matches and Crime Solving 175
SEQUENCING SOFTWARE 176


CHAPTER 4 TECHNOLOGY 178

TECHNIQUES USED TO ANALYZE ORGANIC FORENSIC EVIDENCE 178
CHROMATOGRAPHY 178
Chromatography Description 178
Chromatography System Types Used in Forensics 178
Gas Chromatography (GC) 178
FIGURE 7 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM 179
Headspace GC 180
High-Performance Liquid Chromatography 180
Thin-layer Chromatography (TLC) 181
MASS SPECTROMETERS AND CHROMATOGRAPHY- HYPHENATED
PRODUCTS 181
Mass Spectrometry 181
FIGURE 8 MASS SPECTROMETER 181
Hyphenated MS/Chromatography Systems Used in Forensics 182
FIGURE 9 HYPHENATED SPECTROSCOPY TECHNIQUES 183
SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 183
UV/Visible Spectrophotometry 184
FIGURE 10 UV/VISIBLE SPECTROSCOPE SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM 184
Infrared (IR) Spectrophotometry 185
FIGURE 11 PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF AN IR SPECTROMETER 185
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometers (FT-IR) 185
FIGURE 12 ELEMENTS OF AN FT-IR SPECTROMETER 186
IMMUNOASSAY 186
Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) 186
Basic EIA 187
FIGURE 13 THE BASIC ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY (EIA) PROCESS 187
Alternate EIA Methods 187
Second-Antibody Precipitation Method 187
Double-Antibody Sandwich Method 188
Reverse-Sandwich Method 188
Reverse-Sandwich Inhibition Method 188
Immunoanalysis Instruments 188
TECHNIQUES USED TO ANALYZE INORGANIC FORENSIC EVIDENCE 189
EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY 189
ATOMIC ABSORPTION (AA) SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 189
FIGURE 14 PRINCIPAL ELEMENTS OF AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER 190
NEUTRON ACTIVATION ANALYSIS 190
TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINING THE IDENTITY OF FORENSIC EVIDENCE 191
GENERAL ANALYTICAL INSTRUMENTS USED FOR FORENSICS AND
APPLICATIONS 191
Microscopes 191
Compound Microscopes 191
Comparison Microscopes 191
Stereoscopic Microscopes 191
Polarized Microscopes 191
Microspectrophotometers 192
Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEMs) 192
SERS Nanoprobe 193
FLUORESCENT LIGHT SOURCES 193
FIREARMS IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS 194
Integrated Ballistics Identification System (IBIS) 194
ALIAS-Pyramidal Technologies 194
DNA PROFILING 195
Extraction and Quantification of DNA and Suppliers 195
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) Method for DNA
Profiling 195
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) DNA Profiling 196
PCR vs. RFLP/Southern Analysis 196
The PCR Process 196
FIGURE 15 THE PCR PROCESS 197
PCR Systems Used in Forensic DNA Profiling and Their Suppliers 197
7500 Real-Time PCR System 197
JANUS Forensic Workstation 198
DQA1 System 198
AmpliType Polymarker (PM) PCR Typing System 198
Newer Real-Time PCR Typing Systems 199
Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Typing 199
STR vs. RFLP and Previously Described PCR Profiling Types 199
Description of STRs and the Profiling Procedure 199
STR Systems Used, Suppliers and the Status of STR Testing 200
Mitochondrial DNA Profiling 200
DNA Chip Technology 201
The Future of DNA Typing Systems 201
TABLE 50 RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES IN THE USE OF DNA FOR
FORENSIC IDENTIFICATION 202


CHAPTER 5 OTHER FORENSICS SCIENCE MARKET SEGMENTS 204

OVERVIEW 204
DIGITAL EVIDENCE 204
TRENDS IN DIGITAL EVIDENCE 205
FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF CYBER ATTACKS 206
MANY NEW MARKET ENTRANTS 207
THE MARKET FOR DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY 208
DIGITAL VERSUS CONVENTIONAL PHOTOGRAPHY 208
TABLE 51 PRINCIPAL APPLICATION AREAS FOR UV-IR FORENSIC PHOTOGRAPHY 209
Cost and Time Savings with Digital Photography 210
CYBERCRIME AND COMPUTER EVIDENCE DISCOVERY 210
NEW TECHNOLOGY ISSUES SEVERELY IMPACT COMPUTER FORENSICS 212
Department of Defense Computer Forensics Laboratory (DCFL) 213
Private Sector 213
FORENSIC IMAGE PROCESSING 214
GOVERNMENT FORENSICS LABS INITIATIVES 215
TABLE 52 RCFL PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS, 2003-2009 215
TABLE 53 EXAMPLES OF NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION FUNDING FOR
COMPUTER FORENSICS RESEARCH ($) 216
NEW FORENSIC TOOLS 219
CELL PHONE FORENSICS 219
OTHER PDAS 220
TABLE 54 PDA FORENSIC TOOLS 221
Palm dd (pdd) 221
Pilot-Link 222
POSE 222
PDA Seizure 222
EnCase 222
Duplicate Disk (dd) 223
COMPUTER EVIDENCE COMPANY PROFILES 223
Ace Data Group, LLC 223
Capsicum Group 223
Cellebrite USA Inc. 224
Center for Computer Forensics 224
Computer Forensics, Inc. 224
Computer Forensics Labs, Inc. (CFL) 225
Computer Forensics Services (CFS) 225
Creative Forensic Services 225
Cyber Agents, Inc. 225
CyberEvidence, Inc. 226
CY4OR 226
Data Discovery 226
Data Recon, LLC 226
Datarecovery.com, Inc. 227
Digital Mountain, Inc. 227
Digitalmedix, Inc. 227
DTI 227
E-Fense, Inc. 228
eMag Solutions, LLC 228
Flashback Data, LLC 228
ForenSec, Ltd. 228
Forensicon, Inc. 229
Global Digital Forensics 229
Great Scott Enterprises 229
Guidance Software, Inc. 229
i2, Inc. 230
IntaForensics, Ltd. 230
Kroll Ontrack 230
LC Technology International, Inc. 231
Lightstone Solutions 231
LuciData, LLC 231
Mantech International Corp. 231
Midwest Data Group 232
Norcross Group 232
Palmer Legal Technologies 232
PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP 233
Protiviti 233
Project Leadership Associates 233
Renew Data 233
Sapphire Technologies 234
Sector Forensics 234
Setec Investigations 234
Tunstall and Tunstall, Inc. 235
UBIC Japan 235
UBIC North America, Inc. 235
Vogon International LLC 235
7SAFE 236
COMPUTER FORENSIC TOOLS 236
FORENSIC ACCOUNTING 236
LABORATORY INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (LIMS) 237
TABLE 55 PERCENT OF CRIME LABORATORIES WITH LIMS BY TYPE OF
JURISDICTION, 2002–2009 (%) 237
BAR CODING AND EVIDENCE TRACKING 239
EXAMPLES OF LIMS SYSTEMS 239
Labtronics 239
Crime Fighter Beast 239
JusticeTrax LIMS 239
LABLynx EMedex 240
Promadis Caseman 240
Themis LIMS 240
StarFruit CrimeLab LIMS 240
StarLIMS 241
SOFTWARE FORENSICS TOOLS 241
FORENSIC PALYNOLOGY 241
POTENTIAL REVENUE FROM RELATED PRODUCTS 242
TABLE 56 ESTIMATED ANNUAL REVENUES FROM RELATED PRODUCTS, 2013 ($
MILLIONS) 242


CHAPTER 6 PATENTS 244

SIGNIFICANCE OF PATENTS 244
EXAMINATION OF RECENTLY ISSUED PATENTS 244
TABLE 57 FORENSIC PATENTS BY CLASSIFICATION, 2008–2013 244
LENGTH OF TIME FROM FILING TO APPROVAL 245
TABLE 58 LENGTH OF TIME FROM PATENT FILING TO APPROVAL 2008-MID-2013 245
COMPANIES RECEIVING PATENTS 245
TABLE 59 RECENTLY ISSUED FORENSIC PATENTS BY INVENTOR/ASSIGNEE, SAMPLE
DURING, 2008-MID-2013 245
SELECTED PATENT ABSTRACTS 246
DATABASES FOR RRNA GENE PROFILING OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES 246
REMOTE COLLECTION OF COMPUTER FORENSIC EVIDENCE 246
ENTERPRISE COMPUTER INVESTIGATION SYSTEM 246
DIGITAL FORENSIC ANALYSIS USING EMPIRICAL PRIVILEGE PROFILING (EPP)
FOR FILTERING COLLECTED DATA 247
DIGITAL FORENSIC ANALYSIS USING EMPIRICAL PRIVILEGE PROFILING (EPP)
FOR FILTERING COLLECTED DATA 247
AUTOMATED FORENSIC DOCUMENT SIGNATURES 248
XANTHENE DYES COMPRISING A SULFONAMIDE GROUP 248
METHOD FOR DETERMINING HARD DRIVE CONTENTS THROUGH
STATISTICAL DRIVE SAMPLING 249
METHODS FOR RAPID MULTIPLEXED AMPLIFICATION OF TARGET NUCLEIC
ACIDS 249
AUTOMATED COLLECTION OF FORENSIC EVIDENCE ASSOCIATED WITH A
NETWORK SECURITY INCIDENT 249
SYSTEM FOR ANALYZING FORENSIC EVIDENCE USING IMAGE FILTER AND
METHOD THEREOF 250
COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR CDNA SYNTHESIS 250
METHODS FOR RAPID FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA 251
FORENSIC IDENTIFICATION 251
KEYBOARD, MOUSE, AND VIDEO (KVM) SESSION CAPTURE SYSTEM THAT
STORES AND CAN PLAYBACK PORTIONS OF LIVE KVM SESSION VIA
FORENSIC CAPTURE MODULE
251
COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR REVERSE
TRANSCRIPTASE-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (RT-PCR) 252
EFFICIENT AND SECURE FORENSIC MARKING IN COMPRESSED DOMAIN 252
FINGERPRINT SCANNING SYSTEMS AND METHODS 253
FRAGMENTED DATA FILE FORENSIC RECOVERY SYSTEM AND METHOD 253
COMPUTER SYSTEM AND COMPUTER-FACILITATED METHOD FOR NUCLEIC
ACID SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT AND ANALYSIS 254
METHODS FOR IDENTIFYING BIOAGENTS 254
METHODS FOR SEARCHING FORENSIC DATA 254
FORENSIC TOOLKIT AND METHOD FOR ACCESSING DATA STORED ON
ELECTRONIC SMART CARDS 255
FORENSIC TEST STRIP AND METHOD FOR THE DETECTION OF SEMEN 255
FORENSIC INTEGRATED SEARCH TECHNOLOGY WITH INSTRUMENT
WEIGHT FACTOR DETERMINATION 256
METHODS, PANELS OF IDENTIFICATION MARKERS, AND KITS FOR
IDENTIFYING FORENSIC SAMPLES 256
SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR COLLECTING DNA AND FINGERPRINTS 257
METHODS, PANELS OF IDENTIFICATION MARKERS, AND KITS FOR
IDENTIFYING FORENSIC SAMPLES 257
ADAPTIVELY COLLECTING NETWORK EVENT FORENSIC DATA 257
METHODS AND APPARATUSES FOR SORTING OBJECTS IN FORENSIC DNA
ANALYSIS AND MEDICAL DIAGNOSTICS 258
FORENSIC SYSTEMS AND METHODS USING SEARCH PACKS THAT CAN BE
EDITED FOR ENTERPRISE-WIDE DATA IDENTIFICATION, DATA SHARING,
AND MANAGEMENT
258
COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR REVERSE
TRANSCRIPTASE-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (RT-PCR) 259
METHOD OF INDEXED STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL OF MULTIDIMENSIONAL
INFORMATION 259
PROGRESSIVE LAYERED FORENSIC CORRELATION OF COMPUTER
NETWORK AND SECURITY EVENTS 260
DETECTION OF LATENT PRINTS BY RAMAN IMAGING 260
DROPLET-BASED NUCLEIC ACID AMPLIFICATION METHOD AND APPARATUS 260
HELICASE-DEPENDENT AMPLIFICATION OF NUCLEIC ACIDS 261
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ALIGNMENT, COMPARISON AND
IDENTIFICATION OF CHARACTERISTIC TOOL MARKS, INCLUDING BALLISTIC
SIGNATURES
261
CAPTURING AIR SAMPLES FOR FORENSIC INVESTIGATION 262
COMPLEXITY MANAGEMENT OF GENOMIC DNA 262
METHODS FOR RAPID FORENSIC ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA AND
CHARACTERIZATION OF MITOCHONDRIAL DNA HETEROPLASMY 263

CHAPTER 7 COMPANY CONTACT INFORMATION AND PRODUCT FOCUS MATRIX 265

TABLE 60 COMPANY CONTACT INFORMATION AND PRODUCT FOCUS MATRIX 265


CHAPTER 8 APPENDIX 1 271

DNA DATA BANK LAWS BY STATE IN EFFECT AS OF AUGUST 2013 (COLLECTED
BY THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF STATE LEGISLATURES) 271
TABLE 61 STATUS OF STATE LAWS ON DNA DATABANKS (CIRCUMSTANCES UNDER
WHICH SAMPLES ARE REQUIRED) 271
SURREPTITIOUS DNA TESTING 276
Alaska HB 49 276
Arizona HB 2021 B 276
Arkansas HB 1074 B 276
Arkansas HB 2310 B 277
California AB 898 B 277
Colorado SB 164 B 277
Connecticut H 5022 B 277
Delaware SB 38 B 277
Florida SB 1648 B 278
Georgia S 119 B 278
Illinois SB 280 B 278
Louisiana SB 295 B 278
Louisiana SB 346 B 278
Louisiana SB 522 B 278
Maine H 300 B 278
Maryland SB 363 B 279
Michigan HB 4746 B 279
Michigan SB 444 B 279
Minnesota SB 239 B 279
Minnesota SB 942 B 279
Mississippi SB 2348 B 279
Montana SB 183 B 279
Nevada A 55 B 280
Nevada AB 16 B 280
New Jersey AB 2617 B 280
New Hampshire H 215 B 280
New Mexico SB 184 B 280
North Carolina HB 79 B 280
North Carolina HB 79 B 280
North Dakota HB 1235 B 281
Ohio SB 11 B 281
Oklahoma HB 1802 B 281
South Dakota SB 184 B 281
Texas H 2703 B 281
Texas H 562 B 281
Texas HB 2703 B 281
Utah SB 116 B 281
Utah HB 107 B 282
Virginia H 2661 B 282
Washington HB 1391 B 282


CHAPTER 9 APPENDIX 2 284

PARTIAL LISTING OF PRINCIPAL FORENSIC CRIME LABORATORIES IN THE
UNITED STATES 284
ALABAMA 284
Alabama Department of Forensic Sciences 284
ALASKA 284
Alaska State Crime Laboratory 284
ARIZONA 284
Arizona Department of Public Safety 284
Tucson Police Dept. 284
Mesa Police Dept. 285
Phoenix Police Dept. 285
Scottsdale Police Dept. 285
ARKANSAS 285
Arkansas State Crime Laboratory 285
CALIFORNIA 285
State Police Laboratory 285
Orange County Sheriff-Coroner/Forensic Science Services 286
San Bernardino County Sheriff's Dept. 286
University of California 286
California Department of Justice 286
Office of the Sheriff 286
Oakland Police Dept. 287
California Department of Justice 287
California Department of Justice 287
Fresno Regional Laboratory 287
Alameda County Sheriff's Office 287
Los Angeles County Sheriff's Dept. 287
San Diego PD 288
Sheriff's Crime Laboratory 288
District Attorney's Office 288
San Francisco PD 288
Forensic Services Division 288
Kern County Crime Lab 288
Sacramento County DA Crime Lab 288
San Mateo County Crime Lab 288
Santa Clara DA 289
Ventura Crime Lab 289
California Department of Justice 289
Huntington Beach Police Dept. 289
Los Angeles Police Dept. 289
COLORADO 289
Department of Justice 289
Colorado Bureau of Investigation 289
Denver Police Dept 290
CONNECTICUT 290
Connecticut State Police 290
DELAWARE 290
Office of the Chief Medical Examiner 290
Delaware State Police Crime Lab 290
FLORIDA 290
Broward County Sheriff's Office 290
Manatee County Sheriff's Office 291
Miami-Dade Police Forensic Laboratory 291
Palm Beach Sheriff's Office 291
Florida Department of Law Enforcement 291
Palm Beach County 291
Florida Department of Law Enforcement Crime Lab 291
Regional Crime Lab @ IRCC 292
GEORGIA 292
Georgia Bureau of Investigation 292
GBI Western Regional Crime Lab 292
U. S. Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory (USACIL) 292
HAWAII 292
Honolulu PD (CODIS) 292
IDAHO 293
Idaho State Police Forensic Services 293
ILLINOIS 293
Rockford Forensic Science Laboratory 293
Forensic Science Center at Chicago 293
Westchester Forensic Science Laboratory 293
Joliet Forensic Science Laboratory 293
Morton Forensic Science Laboratory 293
Springfield Forensic Science Laboratory 294
Metro-East Forensic Science Laboratory 294
DuPont County Sheriff's Office 294
Northern Illinois Sheriff's Office 294
Southern Illinois Forensic Science Centre 294
Illinois State Police 294
INDIANA 294
Indianapolis-Marion County 294
Indiana State Police 295
Johnson County Sheriff's Office 295
IOWA 295
Criminalistics Laboratory, Division of Criminal Investigation, Iowa
State 295
Iowa Department of Public Safety 295
KANSAS 295
Kansas Bureau of Investigation 295
Sedgwick County Regional Forensic Science Center 296
Kansas City Police Dept. 296
KENTUCKY 296
Kentucky State Police 296
Western Regional Forensic Laboratory 296
Jefferson Regional Forensic Laboratory 296
Northern Regional Forensic Laboratory 297
Eastern Regional Forensic Laboratory 297
Southeastern Regional Forensic Laboratory 297
LOUISIANA 297
South West Louisiana Criminalistics Laboratory 297
Acadiana Criminalistics Laboratory 297
Crime Laboratory 297
North Louisiana Crime Laboratory 298
New Orleans PD 298
MAINE 298
Maine State Police Crime Laboratory 298
MARYLAND 298
DOD DNA Registry 298
Maryland State Police 298
Baltimore City PD 298
Baltimore County PD 299
Montgomery County PD 299
Anne Arund


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