Global Markets and Technologies for Carbon Nanotubes

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Global Markets and Technologies for Carbon Nanotubes

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INTRODUCTION

MOTIVATION Among the numerous categories in the evolving field of newly synthesized nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are perhaps among the most dynamic and undergoing the most rapid pace of development. The past five years have witnessed relentless growth in the research, development and technological understanding of these remarkable materials. Universities, small businesses and start-ups, as well as large corporations, have continued to probe and exploit numerous commercial possibilities for these fascinating materials. As a result, the list of product applications is expanding considerably and is projected to do so well into the future.

The most tangible evidence for growth and interest is reflected by the emergence of new CNT producers now capable of offering CNTs in commercial-scale quantities—in kilograms, tonnes and even hundreds of tonnes, depending on the specific grade—at more affordable and increasingly competitive unit pricing. In addition, after several years of incubation, there is a new breed of more mature university spin-offs, or nanotechnology companies, targeting specific application sectors. Additional evidence of growth is the increasing presence of larger, more established corporations that recognize the future market opportunities offered by CNTs. Finally, over the past five years, there has been phenomenal growth in patent activity. In 2010 alone, the number of issued CNT-related U.S. patents reached 1,585, an increase of 54% over the previous year. In 2011, this increased more moderately, by 7.7%, but nonetheless reached an annual output record of 1,707. For patents pending, the situation is even more dramatic, with a cumulative backlog from 2001 to 2011 now totaling 16,775. For the current review period (2010 to 2011 total output alone reached 54% of the previous period (2001 to 2009).

In view of the technical momentum—representing a multibillion-dollar technology investment—and the enormous business potential, this report provides a timely update on CNTs—their level of technical maturity, where they are starting to penetrate the marketplace, and when and where the broadening market unravels.

OBJECTIVES AND PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT The primary objectives of this report are threefold:

Assess the current state-of-the-art in CNT production and technical applications understanding.Identify the current players seeking to exploit their unique properties.Evaluate actual or impending markets in terms of the technical readiness of CNTs and the projected market revenues.

SCOPE OF REPORT

This updated report is divided into the following nine major chapters:

CHAPTER THREE—TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW defines, outlines the history, describes the production methodology, identifies the unique properties of various forms of CNTs and emphasizes the major application challenges.

CHAPTER FOUR—PATENT ANALYSIS provides an extensive search/analysis of U.S. issued and pending patents (along with Canadian, European and WPTO databases where there is no USPTO presence), a collation of the main technical/application sectors and identifies the most active organizations—U.S. and foreign—driving CNT technology.

CHAPTER FIVE—INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS identifies current producers, progress in continuous production scale-up, market segmentation and an industry profile covering the major players.

CHAPTER SIX—MARKETS BY APPLICATION represents the body of the report assessing the latest progress and technical readiness in the major application sectors of composites, electronics, energy storage, membranes, sensors and other applications.

CHAPTER SEVEN—GLOBAL MARKET ANALYSIS estimates five-year potential revenues of all notable CNT producers.

CHAPTER EIGHT—NORTH AMERICAN MARKET ANALYSIS estimates five-year potential revenues of U.S. and Canadian CNT producers.

CHAPTER NINE—EUROPEAN MARKET ANALYSIS estimates five-year potential revenues of European CNT producers.

CHAPTER TEN—ASIAN MARKET ANALYSIS estimates five-year potential revenues of Asian CNT producers.

CHAPTER ELEVEN—MARKET PULL: PROGNOSIS FOR GLOBAL CNT APPLICATIONS identifies the most promising applications realizable based on the leading proponents, technical readiness and market interest.

CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND TARGET AUDIENCE This report represents a major update to BCC Research's report, Carbon Nanotubes: Technologies and Global Markets, NAN024D, published in January 2010. The most significant revisions in this new edition include the following:

An extensive patent analysis of the U.S. patent database.An in-depth assessment of the unfolding commercial markets.Progress in the synthesis and commercial scale-up of CNTs.Extensive compilation of the producers and end users dictating market development.A five-year projected market analysis of the emerging CNT industry.

This comprehensive technical and business assessment on the current status of the CNT industry should prove informative to nanomaterials manufacturers, investors seeking near-term commercialization opportunities, technologists confronted with nanomaterial device integration issues and companies interested in exploiting revolutionary nanomaterials for advanced composites, biomedical, electronic, energy storage, membranes/separation, sensing, security and other emerging applications.

METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION This report is primarily derived from the enormous amount of patent and technical literature relating to CNTs disclosed in the public domain. In addition, complementary information has also been drawn from the business community, such as company investment news, company profiles, press releases and personal telephone interviews with selected companies. AUTHOR'S CREDENTIALS John Oliver, the author of this report, is the founder of Innov8 Solutions, which provides advanced materials consultation services to industrial clients. He has more than 30 years of industrial R&D experience in surface and colloid science spanning a wide range of materials technology. Primarily, working as a senior scientist at Xerox Research Centre of Canada, he developed an invaluable understanding in advanced materials used in digital printing technologies such as xerography and ink-jet printing (IJP). In the past 10 years through his involvements with the Alberta Research Council and several Alberta universities, his interests have evolved into the realm of nanomaterials and microsystems device integration. He has a Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from McGill University, and a BSc degree in Chemistry from Surrey University, U.K. His publications include more than 40 technical peer-reviewed technical articles and 20 patents. Between 2005 and 2009, he was the editor of BCC's monthly Nanoparticle News and has authored five previous BCC Research's nanomaterial technical reports, Quantum Dots: Technical Status and Market Prospects (GB-278, NAN027B/NAN027C) and Carbon Nanotubes: Technologies and Commercial Prospects (NAN024C, NAN024D).TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

MOTIVATION 1

OBJECTIVES AND PURPOSE OF THIS REPORT 1

SCOPE OF REPORT 1

CONTRIBUTION OF THE STUDY AND TARGET AUDIENCE 2

METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION 2

AUTHOR'S CREDENTIALS 3

RELATED BCC REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS 3

REPORTS 3

MONTHLY NEWSLETTER 3

BCC ONLINE SERVICES 3

DISCLAIMER 4

CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 6

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET REVENUES FOR CNT GRADES BASED ON COMMITTED

PRODUCTION ESTIMATES, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 6

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR CNT GRADES BASED ON COMMITTED

PRODUCTION, 2011-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 7

CHAPTER 3 TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW 9

WHAT ARE CNTS? 9

FIGURE 1 FORMATION OF A SWNT STRUCTURE 9

FIGURE 2 CNT STRUCTURES 10

A BRIEF HISTORY OF NANOTUBES 10

TABLE 1 CHRONOLOGY OF SOME CNT LANDMARK DEVELOPMENTS, 1953–2012 11

COMPARISON OF CARBON COMPOUNDS 12

TABLE 2 SOME COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES OF CARBON ALLOTROPES 12

DIAMOND 13

Diamondoids 13

Nanocrystalline Diamond and CNT Hybrid Films 14

GRAPHITE 14

FULLERENES 15

Spherical Form: Buckminsterfullerene 15

Cylindrical Form: CNTs 16

Hybrid Forms: Carbon Nanobuds and Graphene Nanoribbons 16

Linear Form: Carbynes 16

CARBON NANOFIBERS 17

CARBON NANOSPHERES 17

CARBIDE-DERIVED MESOPOROUS CARBON 18

PROPERTIES OF CNTS 18

TABLE 3 SOME CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES OF CNTS 19

TABLE 4 COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT CNTS AND CFS 20

APPLICATIONS OF CNTS 20

TABLE 5 DIVERSE RANGE OF INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS FOR CNTS 20

TABLE 6 SOME EXAMPLES OF OPTIMUM FORMS OF CNTS REQUIRED FOR DIFFERENT

APPLICATIONS 21

OTHER TYPES OF NANOTUBE COMPOUNDS 21

SYNTHETIC INORGANIC NANOTUBES 21

TABLE 7 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS OF SOME INORGANIC NANOTUBES 23

NATURAL INORGANIC NANOTUBES 24

ORGANIC NANOTUBES 25

NANOTUBE PRODUCTION 25

TABLE 8 COMPARISON OF THE MOST COMMON TYPES OF CNT BATCH PRODUCTION

TECHNOLOGIES 26

ARC DISCHARGE 26

LASER ABLATION 26

CVD 27

SYNTHETIC PROCESS FACTORS AFFECTING GROWTH 27

TABLE 9 SYNTHETIC PROCESS FACTORS AFFECTING CNT GROWTH 28

CONTINUOUS SCALABLE PRODUCTION 28

TABLE 10 COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CNT PROCESSES 29

TABLE 11 COMPARISON OF SWNT CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES 29

CVD 30

Flame Combustion 31

Plasma Torch 32

Other Developments 33

Catalyst-Free SWNTs 33

Chiral-Specific Growth 34

Nonmetallic Catalysts 35

Natural Lava Catalysts 36

Pulsed Laser Vaporization (PLV) 36

Purer and Controlled Diameter SWNTs 37

Separation and Sorting 37

Varying Carbon Feedstock 37

PURIFICATION AND PRODUCT QUALITY CONTROL 38

TABLE 12 COMMON CNT CHEMICAL PURIFICATION PROCESSES, OUTCOMES AND

DISADVANTAGES 39

TABLE 13 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT IN SEPARATION, PURIFICATION, CAPPING AND

UNCAPPING OF CNTS BASED ON U.S. PATENTS 40

CNT APPLICATIONS INTEGRATION 40

TABLE 14 LEADING U.S. RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS SPEARHEADING CNT SYNTHESIS AND

APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT 41

SURFACE CHEMICAL FUNCTIONALIZATION 41

TABLE 15 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CHEMICAL FUNCTIONALIZATION OF CNTS AND

POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS 42

TABLE 16 EXEMPLARY U.S. PATENTS RELATING TO CNT CHEMICAL FUNCTIONALIZATION 43

TABLE 17 ORGANIZATIONS OFFERING SURFACE FUNCTIONALIZED CNT DISPERSIONS AND

THEIR APPLICATIONS 43

SEPARATING ELECTRONIC STRUCTURES 44

TABLE 18 NOTABLE DEVELOPMENTS IN SORTING ELECTRONIC GRADE CNTS 44

CNT GROWTH AND DEVICE FABRICATION 46

TABLE 19 EXEMPLARY U.S. PATENTS RELATING TO SELF-ASSEMBLY AND ORGANIZATION

OF CNTS 46

TABLE 20 SCALABLE DEVICE INTEGRATION OF CNTS 47

OTHER FORM FACTORS 48

TABLE 21 EXEMPLARY U.S. PATENTS RELATING TO THE USE OF CNTS AS

NANOTEMPLATES 48

DWNTS AND BUCKYPAPER 48

TWNTS 50

SWNT-BASED PEAPODS OR NANO TEST TUBES 50

MWNT-BASED MICROCAPSULES 50

OTHER FORMS OF CNTS 50

TABLE 22 RECENT RESEARCH DEVELOPMENTS IN OTHER CNT VARIANTS 51

DRY SPINNING OF CNT FIBERS AND SHEET FORMING YARNS 51

THREE-DIMENSIONAL CNT ARCHITECTURES 53

WET SPINNING OF SWNTS 53

CONTINUOUSLY GROWN SWNT FIBERS 54

CONTINUOUSLY GROWN SWNT NONWOVEN TRANSPARENT FILMS 55

CNT-REINFORCED POLYMER FIBERS 55

CHAPTER 4 PATENT ANALYSIS 57

RATIONALE AND METHODOLOGY 57

U.S. PATENTS ISSUED 58

CHRONOLOGICAL GROWTH TRENDS IN PATENT ACTIVITY 58

FIGURE 3 CNT PATENTS ISSUED, 1994-2011 (CUMULATIVE TOTAL: 7,726) 58

PATENT ACTIVITY CLASSIFIED BY INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION SECTOR 59

FIGURE 4 BREAKDOWN OF THE MAIN INDUSTRY/APPLICATION SECTORS DERIVED FROM

U.S. CNT ISSUED PATENTS, 1994-2004 59

TABLE 23 INDUSTRIAL SECTORS AND EXEMPLARY APPLICATIONS EMERGING FROM

ISSUED U.S. CNT PATENTS, 1994–2009 60

FIGURE 5 BREAKDOWN OF THE MAIN INDUSTRY/APPLICATION SECTORS FROM U.S. CNT

ISSUED PATENTS, 2007-JUNE 30, 2009 (%) 60

FIGURE 6 U.S. AND FOREIGN CNT PATENTS ISSUED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO

INDUSTRIAL/APPLICATIONS SECTORS, 1994–2002 (COMBINED TOTAL: 415) 62

FIGURE 7 U.S. AND FOREIGN CNT PATENTS ISSUED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO

INDUSTRY/APPLICATION SECTOR, 2003-2004 (COMBINED TOTAL 480) 63

FIGURE 8 U.S. AND FOREIGN CNT PATENTS ISSUED, CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO

INDUSTRIAL/APPLICATION SECTOR, 2007 TO JUNE 30, 2009 (COMBINED TOTAL 1,987) 64

Comparison of U.S. Patent Activity with Asian, European and Other Countries 65

1994 to 2004 65

FIGURE 9 U.S. VERSUS ASIAN CNT PATENTS ISSUED, 1994–2004 (COMBINED TOTAL 679) 65

FIGURE 10 EUROPEAN AND OTHER COUNTRIES WITH U.S. CNT ISSUED PATENTS,

1994–2004 (COMBINED TOTAL 51) 66

2007 to June 30, 2009 67

FIGURE 11 U.S. CNT PATENTS ISSUED: ASIA, 2007–JUNE 30, 2009 67

FIGURE 12 U.S. CNT PATENTS ISSUED: EUROPEAN AND OTHER COUNTRIES, 2007–JUNE 30,

2009 (NUMBER) 68

2010 to 2011 69

FIGURE 13 U.S. CNT PATENTS ISSUED: ASIA, 2011–2012 (NUMBER)* 69

FIGURE 14 U.S. CNT PATENTS ISSUED: EUROPEAN AND OTHER COUNTRIES, 2010–2011

(NUMBER)* 70

Domestic Patent Activity 71

FIGURE 15 LEADING U.S. STATES WITH U.S. CNT ISSUED PATENTS, 2009–NOVEMBER 21,

2011 (NUMBER)* 71

Small Businesses 72

TABLE 24 LEADING SMALL U.S. BUSINESSES WITH CNT ISSUED AND PENDING PATENT

APPLICATIONS, 2010-NOVEMBER 22, 2011 (NUMBER)* 72

TABLE 25 OTHER SMALL U.S. BUSINESSES WITH MULTIPLE CNT ISSUED AND PENDING

PATENT APPLICATIONS, 2010-NOVEMBER 22, 2011 (NUMBER)* 73

Large Businesses 74

TABLE 26 LEADING LARGE U.S. BUSINESSES WITH CNT ISSUED AND PENDING PATENT

APPLICATIONS, 2010-NOVEMBER 22, 2011 (NUMBER)* 74

TABLE 27 OTHER LARGE U.S. BUSINESSES WITH MULTIPLE CNT ISSUED AND PENDING

PATENT APPLICATIONS, 2010-NOVEMBER 22, 2011 (NUMBER)* 75

Academic Institutions 76

TABLE 28 CNT ISSUED AND PENDING PATENT APPLICATIONS AMONG LEADING U.S.

ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS, 2010-NOVEMBER 1, 2011 (NUMBER)* 76

Government and Other Research Institutions 77

TABLE 29 U.S. GOVERNMENT AND OTHER RESEARCH INSTITUTIONS WITH CNT ISSUED

AND PENDING PATENT APPLICATIONS, 2010-NOVEMBER 24, 2011 (NUMBER)* 77

U.S. Patent Activity According to Foreign Ownership 78

Leading Japanese Companies 78

TABLE 30 CNT ISSUED AND PENDING PATENT APPLICATIONS FOR LEADING JAPANESE

ORGANIZATIONS, 2010-NOVEMBER 24, 2011 (NUMBER)* 78

Leading Korean, Taiwanese and Chinese Organizations 79

TABLE 31 U.S. CNT ISSUED AND PENDING PATENT APPLICATIONS FOR LEADING KOREAN,

TAIWANESE AND CHINESE ORGANIZATIONS, 2010-NOVEMBER 24, 2011 (NUMBER)** 79

Leading Organizations in European and Other Countries 80

TABLE 32 CNT ISSUED AND PENDING PATENTS FOR LEADING ORGANIZATIONS IN EUROPE

AND OTHER COUNTRIES, 2010 TO NOVEMBER 24, 2011 (NUMBER)**** 80

U.S. PATENTS PENDING 81

FIGURE 16 GROWTH AND BACKLOG IN U.S. PATENTS FILED 2001-DECEMBER 29, 2011

(NUMBER)* 81

CHALLENGES IN PATENTING NANOTECHNOLOGY 82

PATENT BACKLOG 82

WHO OWNS WHAT? 83

QUALITY VERSUS QUANTITY 83

A NEW BREED OF PATENT BROKERAGE COMPANIES 83

PATENT TROLL 84

CHAPTER 5 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS 86

OVERVIEW 86

INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 86

NANOTUBE PRODUCERS 86

TABLE 33 INFLUENTIAL PLAYERS INVOLVED IN LARGE-SCALE CNT PRODUCTION AND

MARKET EXPLOITATION 87

TABLE 34 INFLUENTIAL PLAYERS INVOLVED IN SMALL-SCALE CNT PRODUCTION AND/OR

SPECIALIZED MARKET EXPLOITATION 88

MARKET SEGMENTATION 89

TABLE 35 MARKET SEGMENTATION OF CNT INDUSTRY 89

COMPANY PROFILES: CNT PRODUCERS 89

Arkema 89

Bayer MaterialScience AG 91

TABLE 36 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN COMMERCIALIZING BAYER MATERIALSCIENCE

MWNTS 92

Canatu, Ltd. 93

Catalytic Materials, LLC/Catalyx Nanotech 94

CNano Technology, Ltd. 95

Fullerene International Corp. 96

Hanwha Nanotech Corp. 97

Haydale Limited 97

Hitachi Chemical Co. Ltd. 98

Hodogaya Chemical Co. Ltd./Mitsui & Co. 98

Hyperion Catalysis Int'l Inc. 99

MER Corp. 101

Nanocyl S.A. 101

NanoIntegris, Inc. 102

Nanoledge, Inc. 103

Nanotailor, Inc. 104

Nanothinx S.A. 105

Pyrograph Products, Inc. 106

Raymor Industries, Inc. 106

Selah Technologies, LLC 108

Shenzhen Nanotech Port Co., Ltd. 108

Showa Denko KK 109

SouthWest NanoTechnologies (SWeNT), Inc. 109

TABLE 37 SWENT'S LATEST COMMERCIAL SWNT DEVELOPMENTS: OCTOBER

2009-OCTOBER 2011 111

Thomas Swan & Co., Ltd. 112

Unidym, Inc. 113

TABLE 38 UNIDYM'S LATEST COMMERCIAL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTS: 2010–2011 115

Xintek, Inc. 116

COMPANY PROFILES: CNT SPECIALTY AND ANCILLARY PRODUCTS 117

Applied Nanotech Holdings, Inc. 117

Brewer Science, Inc. 118

Carbon Solutions, Inc. 118

Eikos, Inc. 119

First Nano, Inc. 119

NanoComposites, Inc. 120

Nanocomp Technologies, Inc. 120

Nanomix, Inc. 121

Q-Flo, Ltd. 122

Zyvex Technologies 123

TABLE 39 ZYVEX TECHNOLOGIES COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT POLYMER

COMPOSITES, 2007–2011 124

COMPANY PROFILES: LARGE U.S. CORPORATIONS 125

TABLE 40 LARGE U.S. CORPORATIONS LEADING IN U.S. CNT PATENT ACTIVITY* (TOTAL

NUMBER OF PATENTS 579) 125

DuPont Co. 126

General Electric Company 126

GM Corporation 127

Intel Corp. 127

IBM Corporation 127

Micron Technology 128

Shell Oil Company 128

Xerox Corp. 128

COMPANY PROFILES: LARGE FOREIGN CORPORATIONS 129

CHALLENGES AND ISSUES FACING THE CNT INDUSTRY 129

Industry Driving Forces 129

TABLE 41 EXEMPLARY COMPANIES LEADING THE CNT INDUSTRY EVOLUTION 129

Nanotube Consumers and the Evolving Grade Structure 129

TABLE 42 DIVERSITY IN CNT CONSUMER MARKET PRODUCTS 130

Cost/Performance Balance 130

Competition 131

TABLE 43 COMPETITIVE MATERIAL ALTERNATIVES TO CNTS FOR CERTAIN APPLICATIONS 131

Toxicity 132

TABLE 44 PROGRESS IN IDENTIFYING AND RESOLVING CNT TOXICOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR,

2005–2007 132

TABLE 45 PROGRESS IN IDENTIFYING AND RESOLVING CNT TOXICOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR,

2008–2011 133

Environmental Safety 135

NANOTECHNOLOGY RISKS AND REGULATORY CONTROL 136

Asian Initiatives 136

Canadian Government 136

European Commission 136

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 138

U.S. Led Nanotechnology Regulatory Control Initiatives 138

SouthWest NanoTechnologies (SWeNT), Inc. 139

Thomas Swan & Co., Ltd. (U.K.) 139

CBEN at Rice University 139

City of Berkeley, Calif., Nanomaterials Ordinance 139

EPA 140

Nanoethics and Social Advocacy Groups 140

Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars 140

CHAPTER 6 MARKETS BY APPLICATION 143

COMPOSITES 143

TABLE 46 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CNTS COMPARED WITH OTHER FIBERS 143

TABLE 47 CNT COMPOSITES: RANGE OF POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS 144

TABLE 48 CNT COMPOSITES: PROPERTIES ENDOWED 144

TABLE 49 MECHANICAL PROPERTY ENHANCEMENTS IN VARIOUS CNT COMPOSITES 145

CEMENT MATRIX 145

CERAMIC MATRIX 147

TABLE 50 ENHANCEMENTS CLAIMED IN VARIOUS CNT CERAMIC SYSTEMS 147

DIAMOND COMPOSITES 151

GLASS MATRIX 151

METAL MATRIX 152

TABLE 51 SOME EXAMPLES OF CNT-METAL COMPOSITES 152

POLYMER MATRIX 154

TABLE 52 EXAMPLES OF CNT-POLYMER COMPOSITE MATRIX SYSTEMS AMENABLE TO

COMMERCIAL PROCESSING AND APPLICATION 154

TABLE 53 SOME EXAMPLES OF CNT-POLYMER COMPOSITES 155

TABLE 54 VARIOUS PROCESSING STRATEGIES USED TO MANUFACTURE POLYMER-CNT

COMPOSITES 156

Electrical Conductivity Properties of Polymer-CNT Composites 156

Mechanical Properties of Polymer-CNT Composites 157

TABLE 55 ULTIMATE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CNT FIBERS AND EXAMPLES OF THEIR

ENHANCEMENT IN VARIOUS POLYMER COMPOSITE SYSTEMS 157

TABLE 56 KEY PROPERTIES CONTROLLING ULTIMATE REINFORCING AND CONDUCTIVITY

POTENTIAL OF SWNTS IN A POLYMER MATRIX 158

Thermal Conductivity Properties of Polymer-CNT Composites 158

Commercial Product Applications of Polymer-CNT Composites 159

TABLE 57 POLYMER COMPOSITE CNT PRODUCTS CURRENTLY MANUFACTURED OR UNDER

COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 159

TABLE 58 LEADING COMPANIES INVOLVED IN THE COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF

CNT-POLYMER COMPOSITES 160

TABLE 59 MOST ACTIVE COMPANIES ACCORDING TO CNT-POLYMER COMPOSITE U.S.

PATENTS, 2007–DECEMBER 29, 2011 (TOTAL NUMBER OF PATENTS 607) 161

TABLE 60 OTHER ACTIVE ORGANIZATIONS ACCORDING TO U.S. CNT-POLYMER COMPOSITE

PATENTS, 2007–DECEMBER 29, 2011 162

Automotive Applications 162

TABLE 61 EXAMPLES OF READY-TO-MOLD HYPERION AUTOMOTIVE MWNT-RESIN

COMPOUNDS 163

TABLE 62 COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE FOR HYPERION CONDUCTIVE AUTOMOTIVE

MWNT-RESIN COMPOUNDS 163

TABLE 63 ADVANTAGES OF MWNTS COMPARED WITH CONVENTIONAL CONDUCTIVE

FILLERS USED IN MOLDED AUTOMOTIVE PLASTICS 164

TABLE 64 CLASSIFICATION OF CONDUCTIVE MOLDED PLASTICS ACCORDING TO FILLER

LOADING AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES 165

TABLE 65 VARIOUS APPLICATIONS OF MWNTS IN ELECTROSTATICALLY DISSIPATIVE

PLASTIC AUTO COMPONENTS 165

TABLE 66 ADVANCES IN IMPROVING THE STRENGTH AND CONDUCTIVITY OF

POLYMER-CNT COMPOSITES, 2007–2009 168

Aeronautical Applications 168

TABLE 67 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN AEROSPACE CF COMPOSITES INDUSTRY 171

Electronic Applications 171

TABLE 68 VARIOUS ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS OF MWNTS IN MOLDED PLASTIC

ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS 171

Flame-Retardant Applications 172

Military Applications 173

TABLE 69 CNT COMPOSITE COMPANIES ATTRACTING MILITARY AND OTHER CIVILIAN

APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENT 174

Space Applications 174

TABLE 70 FUTURE SPACE APPLICATIONS FOR CNTS 175

Sporting Goods Applications 175

TABLE 71 SPORTING GOODS PROTOTYPES BASED ON MWNT-PLASTIC COMPOSITES 176

Other Applications and Important Property Considerations 177

Biocatalytic Films 177

Biomedical Composites 177

Conventional Adhesives 178

Dry Adhesives 178

TABLE 72 RECENT PATENT ACTIVITY IN CNT DRY ADHESIVE SYSTEMS* 179

Polymer Composite Coatings and Inks 179

TABLE 73 ORGANIZATIONS EXPLORING CNT-BASED OR OTHER CARBON-BASED INKS AND

SMART COATINGS 179

TABLE 74 COMPARATIVE PROPERTY PERFORMANCE OF CONDUCTIVE TRANSPARENT

COMPOSITE COATINGS 181

Sensor Networks for Ongoing Composite Structural Diagnostics and

Repair 184

Surface Chemical Functionalization and Form Factor 185

ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS 186

TABLE 75 U.S. ORGANIZATIONS LEADING THE ELECTRONICS SECTOR WITH CNT PATENTS,

2010-DECEMBER 29, 2011 (NUMBER)* 186

TABLE 76 LEADING ASIAN AND EUROPEAN ORGANIZATIONS HOLDING ELECTRONICS CNT

PATENTS, 2010-DECEMBER 29, 2011 (NUMBER)** 187

ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS 188

Emergence of Nanoelectronics 188

TABLE 77 KEY CNT PROPERTIES ATTRACTING FUTURE ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS 190

CNT Electronic Components Development 190

Synthesis and Characterization of Electronic-Grade SWNTs 192

Electronic Device Integration and Self-Assembly 195

Competition-Silicon Nanowires 196

Connectivity, Large-Scale Integration and Potential Replacement for Copper 197

Thermal Management (Solid-Based) 200

TABLE 78 ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN CNT ELECTRONIC THERMAL MANAGEMENT

APPLICATIONS 200

California Institute of Technology 201

CAT Science/University of Copenhagen (Denmark) 201

Fujitsu, Ltd. (Japan) 201

IBM (Yorktown Heights, N.Y.) 202

Koila, Inc. (Sunnyvale, Calif.) 202

LG Electronics (Korea) 202

Molecular Nanosystems, Inc. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 202

Nanoconduction, Inc. (Sunnyvale, Calif.)/NASA Ames Research Center 203

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (Golden, Colo.) 203

Nextreme Thermal Solutions (Research Triangle Park, N.C.) 203

OCZ Technology (Sunnyvale, Calif.) 203

Purdue University 203

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 204

University of California, Berkeley 204

University of Colorado 204

Thermal Management (Liquid-Based) 204

Cooligy, Inc. (Mountain View, Calif.) 205

Seoul National University, Korea 205

University of Leeds/Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, U.K. 205

Beyond the CMOSFET Paradigm 205

Current Industry FET Development 206

TABLE 79 LEADING COMPANIES WITH CNTFET PATENT INTEREST 206

GE Global Research Center 207

IBM Optoelectronic Applications 207

Infineon Technologies, Germany 208

Development of Other CNT Nanoelectronic Components 208

FE DISPLAYS AND RELATED DEVICES 209

What is FE? 209

Why CNTs are Attractive Material Candidates? 209

TABLE 80 ADVANTAGES OF CNTS AS A COLD FE CATHODE 209

FE Applications 210

FE Displays 211

Fabrication 211

How CNT-FEDs Compare with Other Display Technologies 211

TABLE 81 ADVANTAGES OF FE DISPLAYS OVER LCDS 212

Major Factors Dictating CNT-FED Development 212

TABLE 82 MAJOR FACTORS DICTATING EMERGENCE OF CNT-BASED TECHNOLOGY IN FPD

MARKETPLACE 212

Leading Organizations Involved in FED Development 213

TABLE 83 LEADING U.S. ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN U.S. CNT FED-DISPLAY PATENT

ACTIVITY, 2000-DECEMBER 29, 2011 (NUMBER) 213

TABLE 84 LEADING FOREIGN COUNTRIES INVOLVED IN U.S. CNT-FED DISPLAY PATENT

ACTIVITY, 2000-DECEMBER 29, 2011 (NUMBER) 213

TABLE 85 MAJOR PLAYERS AND ANCILLIARY GROUPS/COMPANIES INVOLVED IN CNT-FED

HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT 214

TABLE 86 ORGANIZATIONS ACTIVELY INVOLVED IN CNT-FED PROTOTYPES, 2000–2011 215

Canon KK (Japan) 215

cDream Corp. (San Jose, Calif.) 216

CEA/LETI (France) 216

CopyTele, Inc. (Melville, N.Y.) 217

Futaba Corp. (Japan) 218

Japan, Inc. 219

Motorola Laboratories (Tempe, Ariz.) 219

TABLE 87 ADVANTAGES AND CHALLENGES OF MOTOROLA'S CNT-BASED FED COMPARED

WITH EXISTENT FPD TECHNOLOGIES 220

Nano-Proprietary/Applied Nanotech, Inc. (Austin, Texas) 220

Noritake Itron Corp./Ise Electronics (Japan) 222

Printable Field Emitters, Ltd. (U.K.) 223

Samsung (Korea) 223

Taiwan, Inc. 224

OTHER FED APPLICATIONS 225

TABLE 88 EXAMPLES OF OTHER FED APPLICATIONS 226

Light Bulbs and Light Sources 226

TABLE 89 ADVANTAGES OF FE-CNT FLUORESCENT WHITE LIGHT SOURCE OVER

CONVENTIONAL LAMPS 227

TABLE 90 RATIONALIZING CNT SYNTHESIS WITH END-USE FE PERFORMANCE

REQUIREMENTS 228

Applications of CNT-Based FE Light Sources 228

TABLE 91 ORGANIZATIONS WITH U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY RELATING TO CNT-BASED FE

LIGHT-SOURCES 228

Advance Nanotech, Inc./University of Bristol 229

Ahwahnee Technology (San Jose, Calif.) 229

Delta Optoelectronics, Inc. (Taiwan) 230

Dialight Japan Co., Ltd. 230

EPFL/NanoLight Int'l, Ltd. (Switzerland) 230

Electrovac AG (Austria) 231

Foxconn/Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd. (Taiwan) 231

Hanwha Chemical Co./Iljin Nanotech (Korea) 232

IBM/Thomas J. Watson Research Center 232

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) 233

Nanoexa (Burlingame, Calif.) 233

Nano-Proprietary/Advanced Nanotech Holdings, Inc. (Austin, Texas) 233

Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. (Korea) 234

Taitung University, Taiwan 234

University of Surrey/Advanced Technology Institute (U.K.) 235

FLEXIBLE DISPLAYS AND ELECTRONICS 235

TABLE 92 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN THE APPLICATION OF CNTS IN

FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS AND DISPLAYS 237

Advance Nanotech, Inc. (New York, N.Y.)/Cambridge University, (U.K.) 238

Advanced Technology Institute/University of Surrey/Surrey Nanosystems, Ltd. 239

Aneeve Nanotechnologies, LLC (Los Angeles, Calif.) 239

Arrowhead Research (Pasadena, Calif.)/University of Florida 239

DuPont Electronic Technologies (Hayward, Calif.) 240

Eikos, Inc. (Franklin, Mass.) 241

NanoIntegris, Inc. (Skokie, Ill.) 241

NEC Corp. (Tokyo, Japan) 241

Rennselaer Polytechnic Institute 241

Unidym, Inc. (Menlo Park, Calif.) 242

University of Illinois/Semprius, Inc. (Durham, N.C.) 243

MEMORY APPLICATIONS 244

TABLE 93 ATTRACTIVE PROPERTIES OF CNTS FOR MEMORY APPLICATIONS 244

TABLE 94 LEADING COMMERCIAL PLAYERS IN CNT-MEMORY INITIATIVES BASED ON U.S.

PATENTS, 1997–DECEMBER 29, 2011 246

Nantero, Inc. (Woburn, Mass.) 246

SanDisk 3D LLC (Santa Clara, Calif.) 248

OTHER ELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS 248

TABLE 95 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN OTHER APPLICATIONS OF CNTS USED IN

ELECTRONIC DEVICES 248

ENERGY CONVERSION AND STORAGE 249

BATTERIES 249

Lead-acid Batteries 249

Lithium-Ion Batteries 250

Lithium Polymer Batteries 251

CNT Commercial Battery Developments 252

TABLE 96 LEADING PLAYERS IN CNT-BASED BATTERY TECHNOLOGY ACCORDING TO U.S.

PATENT ACTIVITY, 2004-DECEMBER 29, 2011 253

Micro Bubble Technologies, Inc. (South Korea)/Next Alternative, Inc. (Canada) 253

FUEL CELLS 254

TABLE 97 CNTS ENDEARING PROPERTIES USED IN FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS 255

Hydrogen Fuel Cells 255

TABLE 98 KEY PROPERTIES AFFECTING FUEL CELL PERFORMANCE 256

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) 256

Substitution of CNTs in MEA Materials 257

CNTs Used in Hydrogen and DMFCs 257

Optimizing Catalyst Loading and Retention 257

CNT-Based MEAs 258

Critical Fuel Cell Components 258

Gas Diffusion Layers (GDLs) 258

Surface Wettability 259

Early Commercial Applications and Development of Fuel Cells 260

TABLE 99 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS PATENTING U.S. CNT FUEL CELL ENHANCEMENTS,

2002–DECEMBER 30, 2006 260

More Recent Patent Activity and Commercial Developments in Fuel Cells 261

TABLE 100 PATENT ACTIVITY IN CNT-BASED FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS AMONG U.S.

ORGANIZATIONS, 2007–DECEMBER 29, 2011 261

TABLE 101 PATENT ACTIVITY IN U.S. CNT-BASED FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS AMONG

FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS, 2007-DECEMBER 29, 2011 262

Angstrom Power, Inc. (Vancouver, Canada) 262

Intematix Corp. (Fremont, Calif.) 263

Japan, Inc. 263

Motorola, Inc. (Tempe, Ariz.) 264

MTI MicroFuel Cells, Inc. (Albany, N.Y.) 265

Neah Power Systems, Inc. (Bothel, Wash.) 265

Pacific Fuel Cell Corp. (Riverside, Calif.) 266

Samsung SDI (Korea) 266

Showa Denko KK (Japan) 266

Toyota (Japan) 267

UltraCell Corp. (Livermore, Calif.) 267

HYDROGEN STORAGE 267

Carbon Nanostructures 268

Underlying System Properties 269

Commercial Development and Patent Activity 270

TABLE 102 EARLY PATENT ACTIVITY IN U.S. CNT-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE

APPLICATIONS, 1997–APRIL 2006 270

TABLE 103 LEADING U.S. AND FOREIGN PATENT ACTIVITY IN U.S. CNT-BASED HYDROGEN

STORAGE APPLICATIONS, 2007–DECEMBER 29, 2011 271

Nanomix, Inc. 271

Motorola, Inc. 272

Sony Corporation 272

SUPERCAPACITORS 272

Basic Characteristics 272

TABLE 104 PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES 273

TABLE 105 ADVANTAGES OF SUPERCAPACITOR ELECTRICAL STORAGE DEVICES

COMPARED WITH BATTERIES 273

TABLE 106 COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF BATTERIES VERSUS CAPACITORS 274

Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC) 274

Research Activities in CNT-Based EDLCs 275

Georgia Institute of Technology Textile and Fiber Engineering 275

INRS (Quebec, Canada) 275

MIT Laboratory for Electromagnetic and Electronic Systems (LEES) 276

NASA Johnson Space Center 276

National Institute of AIST (Japan) 277

Rice University 277

Stanford University/UCLA 277

Tsinghua-Foxconn Nanotechnology Research Center (China) 278

University of California, Davis 278

University of California, San Diego 279

University of Cambridge/Department of Engineering (U.K.) 279

University of Southern California (USC) 280

University of Texas at Austin 280

University of Texas at Dallas/NanoTech Institute 280

Early Patent Activity and Commercial Development in CNT-Based EDLCs 281

GSI Creos Corp., Asahi Glass and TDK (Japan) 281

TABLE 107 U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN U.S. CNT-BASED EDL CAPACITORS AND APPLICATIONS,

1997–DECEMBER 30, 2006 281

Hyperion Catalysis International 282

Iljin Nanotech (Korea) 282

Recent Patent Activity and Commercial Development in CNT-Based EDLCs 282

TABLE 108 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN U.S. CNT-BASED EDL CAPACITOR

PATENT ACTIVITY, 2007–DECEMBER 29, 2011 283

Arrowhead Research Corp./Agonn Systems, Inc. (Pasadena, Calif.) 284

Kemet Corp. (Greenville, S.C.) 284

Nisshinbo Holdings, Inc. (Tokyo, Japan) 284

Honda Motor Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan) 285

SOLAR/PV CELLS 285

Basic Characteristics 285

Academic Research 286

TABLE 109 ACADEMIC RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN CNT-BASED SOLAR CELLS 286

TABLE 110 MORE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT-BASED SOLAR CELLS, 2010 TO 2012 287

Commercial Development 288

TABLE 111 CNT PATENT ACTIVITY IN SOLAR CELL APPLICATIONS, 1997–DECEMBER 30,

2006 (NUMBER) 288

TABLE 112 PATENT ACTIVITY LEADERS IN CNT-BASED SOLAR CELL APPLICATIONS,

2007–DECEMBER 29, 2011 (NUMBER) 289

Ambit Corp. (Ashland, Mass.) 290

Arrowhead Research Corp./Nan Polaris (Pasadena, Calif.) 290

BP Solar North America (Frederick, Mass.) 291

DuPont (Wilmington, Del.) 291

Dow Corning Corp. (Midland, Mich.) 292

Eikos, Inc. (Franklin, Mass.) 292

First Solar, LLC (Phoenix, Ariz.) 293

HelioVolt Corp. (Austin, Texas) 293

Innovalight, Inc. (Sunnyvale, Calif.) 294

Konarka Technologies (Lowell, Mass.) 294

Miasolé (San Jose, Calif.) 295

Nanosolar, Inc. (Palo Alto, Calif.) 295

Natcore Technogy (Red Bank, N.J.) 295

Plextronics, Inc. (Pittsburg, Pa.) 296

Wakonda Technologies, Inc/RIT 296

OTHER ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS 297

TABLE 113 PATENT ACTIVITY IN U.S. CNT-BASED APPLICATIONS USED IN OTHER ENERGY

CONVERSION SYSTEMS, 2007-DECEMBER 29, 2011 (NUMBER) 297

Mechanical Energy Storage 298

Thermionic Power 298

Thermal Rectifiers 299

Thermocells 299

Thermoelectric Power 299

Thermopower Wave 300

MEMBRANES: FILTRATION AND SEPARATION MEDIA 300

TABLE 114 ATTRACTIVE PROPERTIES OF CNTS AS SEPARATION MEMBRANES 301

DEVELOPMENTS AND APPLICATIONS 301

TABLE 115 ORGANIZATIONS WITH U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN CNT MEMBRANES,

FILTRATION AND SEPARATION MEDIA, 2007-DECEMBER 29, 2011 301

TABLE 116 RESEARCH AND COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS OF VARIOUS

CNT-BASED MEMBRANE SEPARATION TECHNOLOGIES 302

Biosource, Inc./Voltea, Ltd. (London, U.K.) 303

Clemson University 303

Cnanoz, Inc (Research Triangle Park, N.C.) 304

Covalent Industrial Technologies, LLC (Hayward, Calif.) 304

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) 305

NanOasis Technologies (Richmond, Calif.) 306

Philip Morris USA Research Center 306

Procter & Gamble Co. 307

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 307

Seldon Laboratories, LLC 308

University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research 308

Velocys, Inc. (Plain City, Ohio)/Oxford Catalysts Group plc (Oxford, U.K.) 309

SENSORS 310

TYPES OF SENSORS 310

TABLE 117 TYPES OF CNT SENSORS 310

Biosensors 310

TABLE 118 RECENT TYPES OF CNT BIOSENSOR SYSTEMS 311

Chemical Sensors 312

TABLE 119 KEY PROPERTIES OF CNTS EXPLOITED IN SENSOR APPLICATIONS 312

Physical Sensors and Actuators 313

RECENT PATENT ACTIVITY IN SENSORS 314

TABLE 120 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN U.S. CNT-SENSOR PATENT ACTIVITY,

2007–DECEMBER 29, 2011 (NUMBER) 315

COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS 315

Applied Nanotech Holdings, Inc. (Austin, Texas) 315

Enzyme Coated CNT Sensor 315

Gated Metal Oxide Sensor 315

Palladium Nanoparticle Hydrogen Sensor 316

Photoacoustic Sensor (PAS) 316

Other Recent Sensor and Detector-Related Developments 316

Honeywell Int'l, Inc. (Morristown, N.J.) 317

Motorola Laboratories (Tempe, Ariz.) 317

Nano Engineered Applications, Inc. (Riverside, Calif.) 318

Nanomix, Inc. (Emeryville, Calif.) 318

Nanosensors, Inc. (Santa Clara, Calif.) 320

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Wash. 320

YTC America, Inc. (Camarillo, Calif.) 321

OTHER APPLICATIONS 322

BIOSENSORS 322

Alpha Szenszor, Inc. (Worcester, Mass.) 322

Applied Nanotech Holdings, Inc. (Austin, Texas) 322

Nanomix, Inc. (Emeryville, Calif.)/MysticMD, Inc. (Groton, Conn.) 323

BIOMEDICAL DEVELOPMENTS 323

TABLE 121 POTENTIAL USES OF CNTS IN THE BIOMEDICAL AREA 323

TABLE 122 RESEARCH DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS, PRIOR TO

2007 323

TABLE 123 RESEARCH DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS, 2007-2009 324

TABLE 124 RESEARCH DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS, 2010–2011 326

Potential Commercial CNT Biomedical Developments 326

Cromoz, Inc. (Research Triangle Park, N.C.) 326

Ensysce Biosciences, Inc., (Houston, Texas) 327

Intel Corp. (Santa Clara, Calif.) 327

XinRay Systems, LLC (Research Triangle Park, N.C.) 327

CATALYST SUPPORTS 328

Industrial Chemical Process Synthesis 328

TABLE 125 U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY LEADERS IN CNT CATALYST SUPPORTS, 2007–DECEMBER

29, 2011 (NUMBER) 329

BTU Int'l, Inc. (North Billerica, Mass.) 329

Headwaters Technology Innovation, Inc. (Lawrenceville, N.J.) 330

Hyperion Catalysis Int'l, Inc. (Cambridge, Mass.) 330

Electrocatalysis 330

Photocatalytic Support Systems 330

TABLE 126 APPLICATIONS OF CNTS IN PHOTOCATALYTIC SYSTEMS 331

ELECTROPHOTOGRAPHY 331

Xerox Corp. (Stamford, Conn.) 331

INSTRUMENTS: ACTUATORS, MANIPULATORS AND PROBES 332

TABLE 127 U.S. CNT PATENT ACTIVITY INVOLVING ACTUATORS, INSTRUMENTS AND

MANIPULATORS, 2009–DECEMBER 29, 2011 (NUMBER) 332

Commercial Developments in SPM/AFM CNT Probes 332

Carbon Design Innovations (Burlingame, Calif.) 333

Carbon Nanoprobes, Inc. (White Plains, N.Y.) 333

Xidex Corp. (Austin, Texas) 334

OIL RECOVERY 334

TABLE 128 U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY IN CNT ENHANCEMENTS IN OIL RECOVERY,

2010–DECEMBER 29, 2011 (NUMBER) 335

SECURITY 336

TABLE 129 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN VARIOUS CNT-BASED SECURITY

APPLICATIONS 336

Bioterrorism and Explosives Detection 336

Stanford University 337

MIT 337

Body Armor and Smart Textiles 337

National Research Council Canada (Ottawa, Canada) 338

Nanocomp Technologies, Inc. (Concord, N.H.) 338

Q-Flo, Ltd. (Cambridge, U.K.) 339

Nico Technologies (Ann Arbor, Mich.) 339

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Tags 339

Alien Technology Corp. (Morgan Hills, Calif.) 340

Ambient Systems, B.V. (Enschede, Netherlands) 340

AMBIT Corporation (Ashland, Mass.) 341

Nantero Inc. (Woburn, Mass.)/HP Specialty Printing Systems (San Diego,

Calif.) 341

X-Ray Detection 342

American Science and Engineering, Inc. (Billerica, Mass.) 342

XinRay Systems, LLC (Research Triangle Park, N.C.) 342

POLISHING 343

Applied Materials, Inc. (Santa Clara, Calif.) 343

CHAPTER 7 GLOBAL MARKET ANALYSIS 345

TECHNOLOGY PUSH 345

CNT COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION AND ESTIMATED SALES REVENUES 345

MWNTs 345

TABLE 130 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR MWNT ANNUAL PRODUCTION AND

REVENUES: TIER 1 COMPANIES, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 345

SWNTs 346

TABLE 131 GLOBAL ANNUAL PRODUCTION COMMITMENT FOR COMMERCIAL SWNTS AND

REVENUES: TIER 1 COMPANIES, THROUGH 2016 (KG/YEAR, $ MILLIONS) 347

Few-Walled Grades (FWNTs) 347

TABLE 132 FORECAST FOR SPECIALTY FWNTS PRODUCTION AND REVENUES, THROUGH

2016 347

MARKET PULL 348

COMPOSITES: POLYMER 348

TABLE 133 COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS IN CNT POLYMER COMPOSITES 348

COMPOSITES: OTHER MATRIX MATERIALS 349

TABLE 134 COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS IN OTHER MATRIX COMPOSITES 349

ELECTRONICS 350

TABLE 135 COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS IN ELECTRONICS 350

ENERGY 350

TABLE 136 COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS IN ENERGY 350

OTHER APPLICATIONS 351

TABLE 137 COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENTS IN OTHER APPLICATIONS 351

CHAPTER 8 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET ANALYSIS 353

CNT COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION AND ESTIMATED SALES REVENUES 353

MWNTS 353

TABLE 138 ANNUAL PRODUCTION COMMITMENT AND REVENUES FOR U.S. COMMERCIAL

MWNT PRODUCERS: TIER 1 COMPANIES, THROUGH 2016 (METRIC TONS, $ MILLIONS) 353

SWNTS 354

TABLE 139 ANNUAL PRODUCTION COMMITMENT AND REVENUES OF U.S. COMMERCIAL

SWNT PRODUCERS: TIER 1 COM

To order this report:Nanotechnology Industry: Global Markets and Technologies for Carbon Nanotubes

Nicolas Bombourg

Reportlinker

Email: nicolasbombourg@reportlinker.com

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Intl: +1 805-652-2626

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