Global Renewable Energy Report

NEW YORK, Feb. 6, 2013 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

 

Global Renewable Energy Report

http://www.reportlinker.com/p01094731/Global-Renewable-Energy-Report.html#utm_source=prnewswire&utm_medium=pr&utm_campaign=Renewable_energy

 

This global renewables market research report provides a full overview of all of the renewable energies, and technologies, and the renewable energy companies that provide them. The report analyses their current stages of development for each renewable energy resource, their advantages and disadvantages and their current and potential contribution.

 

 

 

Contents

 

1. Overview of Renewable Energy .26

Renewable energy in world primary energy supply 26

TPES – Total Primary Energy Supply 26

Annual growth of primary energy sources 27

TFEC - Total final energy consumption 28

Secondary energy, Bioenergy power generation 30

Types of renewable energy 31

Hydro power 31

Wind power 33

Solar photovoltaic energy 34

Solar thermal energy .35

Solar thermal heat for water and buildings 36

Solar thermal cooling 37

Solar thermal power generation 37

Biomass energy 37

Biofuels 39

Geothermal energy 41

Ocean energy conversion 42

Distributed generation 44

Renewable energy issues 44

Advantages and disadvantages of renewable forms of energy 47

 

2. Hydropower 49

Overview of hydropower 49

Technologies .49

Large hydropower (LHP) .50

Small hydropower (SHP) .50

Development of SHP in Europe 51

Turbine technologies for small-, mid- and large-scale hydro plants 52

Pelton Turbine 52

Francis Turbine 52

Bulb Turbine 52

Propeller or Kaplan Turbine 53

Security of supply 53

Environmental concerns 53

The potential size of the hydroelectric market 54

The hydro electricity market 54

Europe 58

SHP electricity prices 60

SHP investment costs 60

Albania .61

Austria 61

Belgium 61

Bosnia & Herzegovina .61

Bulgaria 61

Croatia .62

Czech Republic 62

Denmark .62

Finland .62

France 62

Germany .63

Greece .64

Hungary 64

Iceland .64

Ireland 64

Italy .65

Latvia .65

Lithuania .65

Luxembourg 65

Macedonia .65

Netherlands 66

Norway .66

Poland 66

Portugal 66

Romania 67

Serbia 67

Slovakia 68

Slovenia 68

Spain .68

Sweden 68

Switzerland 68

Turkey 69

United Kingdom 70

CIS 71

Armenia 72

Azerbaijan 72

Georgia 72

Kazakhstan 72

Kyrgyzstan .73

Moldova 73

Russia 73

Tajikistan .73

Turkmenistan 74

Ukraine .74

Uzbekistan .74

North America 74

Canada 75

United States 77

Mexico 78

LAC, Latin America and Caribbean 78

Argentina .80

Bolivia 81

Brazil .81

Chile 82

Colombia .82

Costa Rica .83

Dominican Republic 83

Ecuador 83

El Salvador .83

Guatamala .83

Honduras 83

Nicaragua 84

Panama 84

Paraguay .84

Peru 84

Puerto Rico 85

Surinam 85

Uruguay 85

Asia Pacific .85

Afghanistan 87

Bangladesh 87

Bhutan 87

China .88

Large hydropower 88

Additional large hydro developments in China 89

Small hydropower 89

The current status of SHP in China 89

SHP practice and experience in China 90

Decentralised development and management mechanism focusing on local stakeholders 90

Policy stimulates development 90

Funding sources .90

Close relationship with rural electrification programme 90

Emphasis on cost-effective SHP technology 91

Local grid development and SHP own supply area 91

Size matters 91

Tibet (Xizang) 91

Known ownership 91

New hydropower plant development in China .91

Hong Kong .92

India 92

Indonesia 95

Laos 95

Malaysia 96

Myanmar .96

Nepal .96

Korea, North 98

Korea, South .98

Pakistan 98

Papua New Guinea 98

Philippines 98

Sri Lanka .99

Thailand 99

Vietnam 99

Industrialised Asia Pacific .100

Australia 100

Japan .100

New Zealand 101

Taiwan 101

Africa 101

Angola 104

Cameroon 104

Congo DR 104

Ethiopia .104

Ghana 105

Kenya .105

Mali 105

Mozambique 105

Nigeria 105

South Africa 106

Sudan .106

Tanzania 106

Uganda .106

Zambia 106

Middle East 106

 

3. Wind Power .108

Overview of wind power 108

Wind power development in 2009 108

Outlook to 2012 .108

The leading wind power countries in 2009 109

Offshore developments to 2012 111

Long term outlook: 2020 111

Europe 112

North America .112

Latin America 112

Asia 112

Pacific .113

Africa and Middle East 113

Factors affecting wind power 118

Grid balancing 118

Grid extension 118

Storage .119

Capacity credit 119

Mis-match of supply and demand 119

Load following 119

Dispersion 119

Inadequacy of weather forecasting .119

Spinning reserve/back-up 119

Wake effects 120

The operational experiences of wind power 120

E.On Netz Wind Report, 2004 120

Grid balancing 120

Grid balancing congestion 120

E.On Netz Wind Report, 2005 120

E.On conclusions about wind power 121

Western Denmark 2005 .121

ESB report in Ireland 2004 122

USA experience .122

Spain 122

Reduction in carbon emissions .123

Contribution and target of renewables in reducing carbon emissions 123

ENTSO-E 124

Rare Earth Metals .124

United States 125

The start of wind power .126

Market size and forecast 126

Offshore 128

Manufacturers 129

Developers 129

China 130

Installed wind capacity 130

Future targets .131

Wind resources .132

Barriers to growth .132

Offshore wind power 132

Wind turbine size .133

Chinese manufacturing capability 133

Xinjiang Goldwind Co .134

Sinovel Wind Co. .134

Dongfang Electric Group .135

Germany 135

Market size and forecast 135

Market share in Germany 136

Repowering trend .136

Offshore 137

Wind turbine size .139

Regional distribution of wind turbines 140

Spain 141

Future targets for wind power in Spain .142

Manufacturing industry 142

Wind developers 143

India .144

Market size and forecast 144

Future targets .147

Wind energy resources in India 147

Government support 148

2009 developments .149

2010 developments .149

Renewable Portfolio Standard 149

MNES - Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources 149

IREDA - Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Ltd .149

State incentives .149

Manufacturing base 150

Suzlon 150

National wind power markets and support plans; Intermediate countries - Europe 151

Austria 151

Denmark 152

France .154

Greece 155

Ireland .156

Italy 158

Netherlands .159

Norway 160

Poland 161

Portugal .163

Sweden .163

Turkey 165

United Kingdom 165

National wind power markets and support plans Intermediate countries – Asia Pacific 168

Australia 168

Japan .169

Korea, South 171

Ship builders 173

Taiwan 174

National wind power markets and support plans Intermediate countries – Africa 176

Egypt 176

Morocco 177

National wind power markets and support plans Intermediate countries - Americas 179

Brazil 179

Canada .181

Wind farm developers and owners 183

Development of wind turbine size 186

Offshore wind power – the new frontier .188

Operating offshore wind farms 188

 

4. Solar PV 196

Silicon feedstock 197

Country Profiles .198

Germany 198

Spain 199

Japan .200

United States .201

China 204

India 205

Other country profiles .206

Europe 206

Asia Pacific .209

North America 210

Africa 211

Technical background 211

Solar energy 211

Solar photovoltaics 212

Solar cell materials 212

Conditions of use .213

Isolated generation .214

PV and the environment 215

Applications of Solar PV Technology .215

Manufacturing .218

Production capacity, MW 219

Future projections .223

Government and industry support programmes 225

United States - Federal incentives 226

Japan .228

Europe – targets 229

Prices 229

Forecasting a new technology 232

 

5. Solar Thermal Energy 233

Solar Thermal Power Generation Technology 233

Concentrators and Receivers .233

Parabolic Trough 233

Mechanical Tracking 235

Fresnel Principle Solar Collectors 236

Parabolic Dish Systems 236

Central Receiver Systems - Solar Tower .237

Solar Chimney Power Plants .239

Rooftop installations 240

Solar thermal hydrogen production .244

Power Conversion System 244

Rankine-Cycle Systems 244

ISCC, Integrated Solar Combined Cycle Systems .245

Peak thermal-to-electric efficiency can exceed 70% for an ISCC plant compared to 50-55% for a

conventional gas-fired combined cycle plant. 245

TES Thermal Energy Storage 246

Types of storage 248

Development of TES for CSP 252

Current Status of Solar Thermal Electricity Generation – 2009 253

Solar thermal projects by country .255

Spain 255

United States .255

Solar thermal projects in operation, under construction or approved for construction 256

Algeria 256

Australia 256

China 257

Denmark 257

Egypt 257

Germany 257

India 258

Iran 258

Israel 259

Jordan 259

Mexico 259

Morocco 259

United Arab Emirates .260

Costs of STP Solar Thermal Power 260

Commercialisation World Bank .262

Sargent and Lundy Study 263

 

6. Biomass 266

Overview of biomass energy conversion 266

TFEC - Total Final Energy Consumption .268

Usage patterns by region .269

The Fuel Ladder 271

Rural usage .271

Urban usage 271

Bioenergy power generation 273

Benefits and constraints of bioenergy 275

Factors encouraging the development of biomass energy .276

Biomass resources 277

Agricultural crops .278

Agricultural residues 278

Sugar industry wastes (Bagasse) 278

Forestry crops 278

Forestry residues .279

Cereal straw 279

Energy cropping 279

Black liquor .280

Animal waste 280

Sewage .280

Industrial waste .280

Municipal solid waste (MSW) .280

Biomass conversion technologies 280

Direct use .281

Transformation 282

Technology developments 285

Biomass electricity and heat 285

Biomass heat 286

Future primary biomass energy production and consumption 291

Biomass markets by technology per application 294

Biomass heat .294

Europe 297

Technology for biomass heat .297

Domestic heat production 299

Larger scale use of biomass fuel for heating .300

District heating 300

Industrial use of biomass electricity and heat 300

European competitiveness .300

Market characteristics 301

Infrastructure constraints .301

USA .301

Rest of world 301

Biogas .301

Biogas in the developing world .303

MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) 305

Technology .305

Waste reduction 306

Environmental issues .306

Recession 307

Global picture .307

Manufacture and competition 323

Future prospects 323

Landfill gas 323

Environment 324

Technology .324

Landfill gas market 325

Market problems 330

Future prospects for landfill gas 331

Biopower 331

Technology .333

Regional development 334

 

7. Biofuels .352

First generation biofuels 355

Ethanol (Bioethanol) 355

Biodiesel 357

Energy Crops and others .358

Next generation .361

Cellulosic biofuels (lignocellulosic biofuels) 361

Algae 362

Environmental Impact .364

Market .367

Biofuel production .368

Europe 371

USA .380

Argentina 384

Brazil 385

Indonesia .389

Malaysia 390

Aviation sector 391

Air force and the military 392

Oil & Gas Involvement 392

 

8. Geothermal Energy .394

Overview of geothermal energy 394

Overview of geothermal energy capacity and utilisation 395

Geothermal direct use 395

Ground-Source Heat Pumps (GSHP) 401

Geothermal electricity generation .403

Technical background 408

Dry steam .408

Binary cycle .409

Hot dry rock/enhanced geothermal systems (HDR) 410

Location of resources .410

Geothermal energy efficiency .411

Geothermal generation costs .412

North America .413

United States .413

Canada .420

Mexico 421

Asia Pacific 425

Australia 425

Indonesia .425

Japan .435

Philippines 439

China 447

New Zealand 452

Latin America 458

Costa Rica 458

El Salvador 460

Nicaragua .462

Europe 465

France 465

Germany 466

Iceland 468

Italy 471

Africa 474

Kenya .474

 

9. Ocean Energy Conversion 477

Overview of ocean energy conversion 477

Tidal Energy 480

Technical concepts for exploiting Tidal Energy - Tidal Barrages 481

Secondary water storage .482

Current Development of Tidal Barrage Schemes 482

Technical status and experience from operating systems 484

Tidal barrage plant under construction .485

Experimental and proposed tidal barrages .486

Economic considerations .488

Environmental aspects 489

Wave Energy 489

Wave energy technology .490

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) 511

Markets for OTEC 513

Additional benefits of OTEC technology - DOWA 514

Status of Marine Current technology .515

Salinity Gradients .519

Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) 520

Vapour compression 520

Reverse dialysis (RED) .520

Demonstration and commercialisation of salinity gradient power 520

 

10. Distributed Generation 521

 

11. National Policies for Renewable Energy 523

Renewable energy targets 523

Feed-in tariffs and RPS .524

EU and feed-in tariffs .592

US and RPS 592

The feed-in tariff in Europe .592

The evolution of RPS Policy in the United States 593

Comparison of feed-in tariffs and RPS .595

Europe – the EU Renewable Energy Directive .595

Investor confidence, price, and policy cost .595

Effectiveness 595

Innovation and technology diversity 596

Ownership structure 596

Conclusion 596

Feed-in tariffs in the United States .596

 

 

 

Tables

 

Table 1.1: Advantages and disadvantages of different types of renewable energy

Table 2.1: Hydroelectric installed capacity and generation by regions and major countries, 2008,

capacity >2,500 MW

Table 2.2: Europe, hydroelectric net installed capacity and generation, 2008

Table 2.3: CIS, hydroelectric installed capacity and generation, 2008

Table 2.4: North America, hydroelectric installed capacity and generation, 2008

Table 2.5: South and Central America, hydroelectric installed capacity and generation, 2008

Table 2.6: Asia Pacific, hydroelectric installed capacity and generation, 2008

Table 2.7: Africa, hydroelectric installed capacity and generation, 2008

Table 2.8: Middle East, hydroelectric installed capacity and generation, 2008

Table 3.1: Installed wind generating capacity, MW, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 to 2010

Table 3.2: Major owners of wind facilities in the United States, 2009

Table 3.3: Installed capacity of wind power by state, MW, 2003 to 2009

Table 3.4: Operational wind farms in South Korea, 2009

Table 3.5: Projects under development in South Korea, 2009

Table 3.6: Planned phase 3 projects in Taiwan

Table 3.7: Wind energy developers

Table 3.8: Development of offshore and near shore in future key markets based on planned activity to

2020, as of April 2010

Table 4.1: Solar PV production capacity, MW, 2002 to 2012

Table 4.2: Top 10 PV cell manufacturers, MW, 2009

Table 4.3: Summary of key support measures

Table 4.4: Indicative module prices (current prices) in national currencies per watt in selected

countries, 1996 to 2009

Table 4.5: Indicative installed system prices in euro and USD in selected countries in 2008, USD per

W

Table 5.1: Comparison of Solar Thermal Power Technologies

Table 5.2: Focus and Receiver types for Solar Thermal Power Technologies

Table 5.3: Comparison of the main CSP technologies

Table 5.4: Sensible storage materials, solid and liquid, temperature, average heat capacity and media

cost

Table 5.5: Selected low temperature inorganic salt hydrate PCMs , with melting points and average

heat capacity

Table 5.6: Selected low temperature inorganic salt hydrate PCMs, with melting points

Table 5.7: Selected low temperature organic PCMs, with melting points

Table 5.8: Cost of parabolic trough STPP in recent feasibility studies

Table 5.9 Estimated cost of central receiver STPP in USD per kW

Table 5.10: Estimated current US cost and performance of conventional power plants

Table 5.11: Required investment in STP by Phase

Table 6.1: Biomass resources

Table 6.2: Biomass consumption in European countries, ktoe, 1990 to 2009

Table 6.3: Final energy projections (after transformation) including biomass by region, Mtoe

Table 6.4: Biomass consumption in European countries, ktoe, 1990 to 2009

Table 6.5: Biomass consumption in the USA and Europe, ktoe, 2009

Table 6.6: Production of biogas in OECD regions, TJ, 2009

Table 6.7: Project structure for waste-to-energy projects

Table 6.8: History of renewables in the EU, 1991 to 2008

Table 6.9: Waste-to-energy plants in Europe

Table 6.10: Costs for waste-to-energy plants in selected European countries

Table 6.11: Net generation fro

 

 

 

To order this report:

Renewable_energy Industry: Global Renewable Energy Report

 

Contact Clare: clare@reportlinker.com
US:(339) 368 6001
Intl:+1 339 368 6001

SOURCE Reportlinker



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