Lightweight Materials in Transportation

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Lightweight Materials in Transportation

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INTRODUCTION

BACKGROUND Reducing structural weight is one of the most important ways of reducing fuel consumption and improving the performance of motor vehicles and other types of transportation equipment. For example, an estimated 75% of the average motor vehicle's fuel consumption is directly related to factors associated with vehicle weight.Less weight, consistent with other performance and safety requirements, means more useful work can be extracted from a unit of fuel or other energy source. In addition, weight-reducing technologies are critical to the success of new, highly efficient energy technologies such as hybrid vehicles.Downsizing is one approach to reducing structural weight. However, practical considerations, safety standards and consumer preferences combine to limit the potential for reducing the weight of most transportation systems further through downsizing.The alternative to downsizing is the development of materials that combine relatively low mass (weight) with the requisite strength, flexibility and other performance criteria. The aircraft industry was the first to introduce lightweight materials (e.g., aluminum alloys) on a widespread scale beginning in the 1920s. This continues today with the adoption of lightweight composite materials.Other industries, particularly the automotive industry, did not embrace lightweight materials as rapidly as the aircraft industry. However, in the 1990s automakers doubled their use of aluminum in an effort to reduce vehicle weight to meet federal fuel economy standards. While the Aluminum Association projects that automotive demand for aluminum should slow in the early 21st century, automakers are now incorporating increasing amounts of composites in their products.STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES This report is an update of a BCC Research report published in early 2011. The overall goal of this report is to provide an up-to-date assessment of the business opportunities for providers of lightweight materials that will arise over the next five years as these materials increase their penetration into various transportation markets. In support of this goal, specific objectives of the report include:

- Identifying the lightweight materials with the greatest commercial potential in transportation applications over the next five years (2012 to 2017).

- Estimating the potential global markets for these technologies.

- Analyzing the technical, commercial and other prerequisites of success in these markets.

INTENDED AUDIENCE The report is intended especially for manufacturers and users of lightweight materials in the transportation equipment industry. Although the report is structured around specific technologies, it is largely nontechnical in nature and concerned primarily with markets, pricing, competition and other marketing-related issues.As such, the report's intended audience is mainly marketing executives, entrepreneurs, investors, venture capitalists and other readers with a need to know where the transportation market for lightweight materials is headed in the next five years. The report is not written specifically for scientists and technologists, although its findings regarding the market for their work, including the availability of government and corporate research funding for different technologies and applications, should interest them as well.Others who should find the report informative include government agencies, environmental and public policy interest groups focusing on transportation, energy conservation, the environment and sustainable development in general.SCOPE OF REPORT The report is global in scope, focusing on the worldwide market for lightweight materials in transportation equipment, including motor vehicles, aircraft, trains and ships. Lightweight materials are defined broadly as materials that are used in the fabrication of equipment primarily in order to minimize weight.As the term is used in this report, transportation equipment includes all motorized vehicles or craft used to convey people, animals or cargo between two points, except for vehicles/craft used exclusively for sports or recreation applications (e.g., glider aircraft and sailboats). Sports and recreation vehicles and craft are excluded in part because they are the subject of another BCC report, AVM053A Materials and Devices for High-Performance Sports Products. In this report, dual-purpose transportation equipment, such as small airplanes, is analyzed along with vehicles and craft whose purpose is primarily commercial.The report also does not cover motor vehicles, ships and aircraft built for and used by the armed forces of the United States and other nations.The report includes the following major elements:

- Executive summary.

- Definitions.

- Lightweight materials that are in commercial use or under development for transportation applications.

- Lightweight materials and applications with the greatest commercial potential through 2017.

- Global market trends by type of material and application, 2011 to 2017.

- Factors that will influence the long-term development of the market.

INFORMATION SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY The information sources and methodologies used to develop the market projections in this report are discussed at length in the section "Global Market for Lightweight Materials in Transportation Applications, 2011 through 2017/Detailed Market Estimates and Projections." In general, BCC used the following approach:

- Identified commercial as well as promising developmental materials and their target markets through a literature review and interviews with industry experts.

- Estimated baseline (2011) market penetration ratio for each material and target market.

- Developed forecasts of growth trends in each target market.

- Analyzed technical, economic and other factors that will influence the ability of different materials to compete for a share of their respective market(s) and estimated future consumption of each material on this basis.

The report estimates the market for each technology in unit as well as cost terms. Average cost data were obtained from a variety of sources, including industry publications, manufacturers' price lists and contacts with industry sources. Where possible, BCC has projected 2017 prices based on factors such as historical price trends, supply-demand relationships and overall levels of production.The report carefully documents data sources and assumptions. In this way, readers can see how the market estimates were developed and, if they so desire, they can test the impact on the final numbers of changing assumptions such as price.

ANALYST CREDENTIALS Andrew McWilliams, the author of this report, is a partner in the Boston-based international technology and marketing consulting firm, 43rd Parallel LLC. He is the author of numerous other BCC Research business opportunity analyses, including the previous edition of this report, as well as analyses of related markets such as EGY051A Petroleum Fuel Optimization Technologies; AVM038D Advanced Structural Carbon Products: Fibers, Foams and Composites; AVM053A Materials and Devices for High-Performance Sports Products; and NAN021E Nanocomposites, Nanoparticles, Nanoclays and Nanotubes.REPORT HIGHLIGHTS This report provides:

- An overview of the global market for lightweight materials in transportation equipment, including motor vehicles, aircraft, trains, and ships

- Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2011, estimates for 2012, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2017

- Identification of lightweight materials that are in commercial use or under development for transportation applications

- Discussion of trends by type of material and application

- Factors that will influence the long-term development of the market

- Comprehensive company profiles of major players in the industry.

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

BACKGROUND 1

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 1

INTENDED AUDIENCE 1

SCOPE OF REPORT 2

INFORMATION SOURCES AND METHODOLOGY 2

ANALYST CREDENTIALS 3

RELATED BCC PUBLICATIONS 3

BCC ONLINE SERVICES 3

DISCLAIMER 4

CHAPTER 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 6SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN TRANSPORTATION,THROUGH 2017 6SUMMARY FIGURE TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED INTRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT, 2011-2017 (MILLION TONS/$ BILLIONS) 7

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 9

DEFINITIONS 9

LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS 9

TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT 9

IMPORTANCE OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS 9

FUEL CONSUMPTION IN THE TRANSPORT SECTOR 9

FIGURE 1 TRANSPORTATION SECTOR SHARE OF GLOBAL LIQUID FUELS CONSUMPTION,

2008 AND 2035 (%) 9

FIGURE 2 GLOBAL FUEL CONSUMPTION BY TRANSPORT MODE, 2011 (%) 10

TRANSPORT SECTOR CONTRIBUTION TO GREENHOUSE GASES AND OTHER

EMISSIONS 11

Greenhouse Gases 11

FIGURE 3 GLOBAL TRANSPORT SECTOR CONTRIBUTION TO GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

(%) 11

Other Pollutants 12

ROLE OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN REDUCING TRANSPORT ENERGY

CONSUMPTION AND EMISSIONS 12

TRADE-OFFS 13

Safety Aspects of Lightweight Materials 13

Cost 13

FIGURE 4 COMPARATIVE COST/STRENGTH OF STEEL VERSUS LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS

FOR VEHICLE PRIMARY STRUCTURES, 2011 ($/LB AND GPA) 14

Durability/Reliability 15

Recyclability 16

Conservatism 17

END-USER SEGMENTS 17

TABLE 1 TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT MATERIALS CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2017

(MILLION TONS) 18

FIGURE 5 TRENDS IN TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT MATERIALS CONSUMPTION,

2011-2017 (MILLION TONS) 18

FIGURE 6 MAJOR END-USER SHARES OF TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT MATERIALS

CONSUMPTION, 2011 VERSUS 2017 18

MOTOR VEHICLES 19

Historical Production 19

FIGURE 7 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF MOTOR VEHICLES BY TYPE, 2011 (%) 19

Future Production 20

TABLE 2 PROJECTED MOTOR VEHICLE PRODUCTION BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 (MILLION

UNITS) 21

FIGURE 8 FUTURE TRENDS IN PRODUCTION OF MOTOR VEHICLES BY TYPE, 2011 2017

(MILLION UNITS) 21

Vehicle Weight and Materials Use 21

FIGURE 9 AVERAGE VEHICLE WEIGHTS BY CLASS, 2011 (LBS.) 21

FIGURE 10 TOTAL MOTOR VEHICLE MATERIAL USAGE, 2011-2017 (MILLION TONS) 23

RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK 23

Historical Production 23

TABLE 3 GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK, 2011

(UNITS) 24

Future Shipments 24

TABLE 4 PROJECTED SHIPMENTS OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK,

THROUGH 2017 (UNITS) 24

Weight and Materials Requirements 24

TABLE 5 AVERAGE WEIGHT OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK, 2011 (TONS

PER UNIT) 25

FIGURE 11 TOTAL RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVE AND ROLLING STOCK MATERIAL USAGE, 2011

THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS) 25

SHIPS 26

Historical Deliveries 26

TABLE 6 WORLD SHIP DELIVERIES, THROUGH 2011 (MILLION TONS) 26

FIGURE 12 TRENDS IN WORLD SHIP DELIVERIES, 2004-2011 (MILLION GROSS TONS) 26

Future Deliveries 27

TABLE 7 WORLD SHIP DELIVERIES, THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS) 27

FIGURE 13 PROJECTED SHIP DELIVERIES, 2011-2017 (MILLION GROSS TONS) 27

Weight and Materials Use 28

FIGURE 14 STEELWEIGHT OF PROJECTED SHIP DELIVERIES, 2011-2017 (MILLION TONS) 28

AIRCRAFT 28

Historical Aircraft Deliveries 28

FIGURE 15 GLOBAL CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT DELIVERIES, 2011 (% OF TOTAL UNITS DELIVERED) 29

Future Deliveries 29

TABLE 8 GLOBAL DELIVERIES OF CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011 THROUGH 2017 (UNITS) 30

FIGURE 16 TRENDS IN GLOBAL DELIVERIES OF CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011-2017 (UNITS) 30

Weight and Materials Requirements 30

FIGURE 17 TOTAL CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT MATERIALS USAGE, 2011-2017 (TONS) 30

TABLE 9 CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT AVERAGE UNLOADED WEIGHT BY TYPE OF AIRCRAFT, 2011

(LBS.) 31

CHAPTER 4 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 33OVERVIEW 33METALS AND ALLOYS 33High-Strength Steel 33Description 33Technologies 34Carbon-Manganese Steel 34High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels 34Advanced High-Strength Steels 34Dual-Phase Steels 34Transformation-Induced Plasticity Steels 35High Hole Expansion Steels 35Complex Phase Steels 35Martensitic Steels 35End Users and Applications 35TABLE 10 MAJOR END USES AND APPLICATIONS OF HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL 36Motor Vehicles 36Body Structures 36Other Applications 37Suspensions 37Light Truck Structures 37Rail Cars 37Shipbuilding 37Prices 37FIGURE 18 TRENDS IN GLOBAL CARBON STEEL PRICES, 1995-2012 (APRIL 1994 = 100) 38Manufacturers 39TABLE 11 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF LIGHTWEIGHT STEEL FOR TRANSPORTATIONAPPLICATIONS 39Aluminum 39General Description 39Types of Aluminum Alloys 40TABLE 12 ALUMINUM ALLOY DESIGNATIONS 40End Users and Applications 41Motor Vehicles 41TABLE 13 AVERAGE LIGHT VEHICLE ALUMINUM CONTENT BY REGION OF MANUFACTUREAND YEAR, 2002 THROUGH 2012 (LBS. PER VEHICLE) 42FIGURE 19 TRENDS IN AVERAGE LIGHT VEHICLE ALUMINUM CONTENT BY REGION OFMANUFACTURE AND YEAR, 2002-2012 (LBS. PER VEHICLE) 42FIGURE 20 MAIN ALUMINUM APPLICATIONS IN PASSENGER CARS AND LIGHT TRUCKS,2012 (LBS. PER VEHICLE) 42Railway Locomotives and Rolling Stock 44Shipbuilding 44Aircraft 45Light Aircraft 45Commercial Airliners and Transport Aircraft 45Helicopters 46Prices 46FIGURE 21 ALUMINUM ALLOY PRICE TRENDS, 1995 THROUGH 2012 ($/SHORT TON) 47Manufacturers 48TABLE 14 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF ALUMINUM FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 48Titanium 48Description 48Material Types 49TABLE 15 TITANIUM ALLOYS COMMONLY USED IN AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS 49End Users and Applications 50Motor Vehicles 50TABLE 16 TITANIUM APPLICATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES 50Exhausts 51Springs 51Engine Valves 51Shipbuilding 51Aircraft 51Prices 52Manufacturers 52TABLE 17 MAJOR SUPPLIERS OF TITANIUM AND TITANIUM PRODUCTS FORTRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 52Magnesium 53Description 53Material Types 53End Users and Applications 54Motor Vehicles 54Aircraft 54Prices 54FIGURE 22 TRENDS IN AVERAGE MAGNESIUM PRICES, 2011-2017 ($/TON) 54Manufacturers 55TABLE 18 MAJOR SUPPLIERS OF MAGNESIUM AND MAGNESIUM PRODUCTS FORTRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 56PLASTICS 56Description 56Material Types 57Commonly Used Plastics 57TABLE 19 COMMONLY USED PLASTICS IN TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 57Polypropylene 58Polyvinyl Chloride 58Thermoplastic Olefins 58Polycarbonate 59Polyurethane 59Polyethylene 59Nylon 59Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene 60Polyetheretherketone 60Polyphenyl Sulfone 60Polyetherimide 61End Users and Applications 61Motor Vehicles 61TABLE 20 TYPICAL PLASTICS APPLICATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES 62Aircraft 62TABLE 21 TYPICAL PLASTICS APPLICATIONS IN AIRCRAFT 63Other End Uses and Applications 63Prices 63TABLE 22 PRICES OF PLASTICS USED IN TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS (AVERAGE$/LB.) 63Manufacturers 64TABLE 23 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF PLASTICS FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 64FIBER-REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES 65Description 65Material Types 65Thermoset Composites 65Resin Systems 65Polyester 65TABLE 24 TYPICAL SMC/BMC FORMULATION 66Epoxies 66Reinforcements 66Glass 67Carbon 67Thermoplastic Composites 67Resin Systems 68Reinforcements 68Nanocomposites 68Resin Systems 68Fillers 68Montmorillonite 69Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes 69End Users and Applications 69Motor Vehicles 69TABLE 25 TYPICAL COMPOSITE APPLICATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES 70TABLE 26 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS 70Automotive Applications 71Railway Equipment 72Shipbuilding 72Aircraft 73Prices 74Manufacturers 74TABLE 27 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF POLYMER COMPOSITES FOR TRANSPORTATIONAPPLICATIONS 74METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES 75Description 75Types of Materials 75Aluminum Composites 75Superalloy Composites 76Titanium Composites 76End Users and Applications 76Motor Vehicles 76TABLE 28 POTENTIAL AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF MMCS 77Railway Equipment 77Aircraft 77TABLE 29 POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL/GENERAL AVIATION APPLICATIONS OF MMCS 78Prices 78Manufacturers 78TABLE 30 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES FORTRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 78HYBRID MATERIALS 79Description 79Material Types 79Plastic/Metal Hybrids 79Fiber-Reinforced Metal Laminates 80End Users and Applications 80Motor Vehicles 80Front Ends 80Other Components 81Aircraft 81Manufacturers 81TABLE 31 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF HYBRID MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATIONAPPLICATIONS 81

CHAPTER 5 PATENT ANALYSIS 83

OVERVIEW 83

PATENTS BY TYPE OF MATERIAL 83

FIGURE 23 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED THROUGH OCT. 2012 RELATING TO LIGHTWEIGHT

MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS, BY TYPE OF MATERIAL (PERCENTAGE

OF ALL PATENTS) 83

PATENTS BY TYPE OF TRANSPORT APPLICATION 84

FIGURE 24 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED THROUGH OCT. 2012 AND PATENT APPLICATIONS

RELATING TO LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS, BY TYPE

OF APPLICATION (PERCENTAGE OF ALL PATENTS) 84

CHAPTER 6 PUBLIC POLICY DIMENSIONS OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS 86BACKGROUND 86UNITED STATES 86FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS 86Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 86National Energy Act of 1978 87State and Local Legislation 87SAFETY STANDARDS 88EUROPEAN UNION 88FISCAL POLICY 88Motor Vehicle Fuel Taxes 88Taxes on Jet Fuel 88Carbon Charges 89SAFETY STANDARDS 89JAPAN 89FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS 90FUEL TAXES 90SAFETY STANDARDS 90OTHER COUNTRIES 90CHINA 91Fuel Economy Standards 91Vehicle Safety Standards 91INDIA 91

CHAPTER 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN TRANSPORTATION

EQUIPMENT 93

SUMMARY 93

OVERALL MARKET 93

FIGURE 25 TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN

TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT, 2011 THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS/$ BILLIONS) 93

MARKET BY TYPE OF MATERIAL 93

TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN TRANSPORTATION

EQUIPMENT, 2011 THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 94

FIGURE 26 GLOBAL LIGHTWEIGHT TRANSPORTATION MATERIALS MARKET SHARES BY

TYPE OF MATERIAL, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL TONS CONSUMED) 94

FIGURE 27 GLOBAL LIGHTWEIGHT TRANSPORTATION MATERIALS MARKET DOLLAR

SHARES BY TYPE OF MATERIAL, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL VALUE OF

LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED) 95

MARKET BY END-USER SEGMENT 96

TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN TRANSPORTATION

EQUIPMENT BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2011 THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 96

TABLE 34 GLOBAL LIGHTWEIGHT TRANSPORTATION MATERIALS MARKET SHARES BY

END-USER SEGMENT, THROUGH 2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL TONS/VALUE OF

LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED) 97

DETAILED MARKET ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS 98

MOTOR VEHICLES 98

Summary 98

TABLE 35 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN MOTOR

VEHICLES, THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 98

FIGURE 28 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS TONNAGE SHARES OF MOTOR VEHICLE MARKET,

2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL TONS OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED) 100

FIGURE 29 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS DOLLAR SHARES OF MOTOR VEHICLE MARKET,

2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL TONS OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED) 100

Automobiles and Light Trucks 101

Consumption of Lightweight Materials, 2011 101

FIGURE 30 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN AUTOS AND

LIGHT TRUCKS, 2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 101

FIGURE 31 AUTOMOBILE AND LIGHT TRUCK CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS,

TONNAGE AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 102

TABLE 36 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED IN PRODUCTION OF PASSENGER CARS

AND LIGHT TRUCKS, 2011 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 104

High-Strength Steel 105

Aluminum 105

Titanium 105

Magnesium 105

Plastics 105

Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Composites 105

Metal Matrix Composites 106

Hybrid Materials 106

Market Drivers 106

Production of Passenger Cars and Light Trucks 106

TABLE 37 PROJECTED GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF PASSENGER CARS AND OTHER LIGHT

VEHICLES, THROUGH 2017 (MILLION UNITS) 106

FIGURE 32 TRENDS IN WORLDWIDE SHIPMENTS OF PASSENGER CARS AND OTHER LIGHT

VEHICLES, 2011-2017 (MILLION UNITS) 106

Market Penetration 107

FIGURE 33 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN

AUTOS AND LIGHT TRUCKS, 2011-2017 (PERCENT OF TOTAL MATERIALS BY WEIGHT) 108

Price Levels 108

FIGURE 34 PRICE TRENDS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN AUTOS AND LIGHT

TRUCKS, 2011-2017 ($/TON) 108

Market Projections, 2011 to 2017 110

TABLE 38 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN PASSENGER CARS

AND LIGHT TRUCKS THROUGH 2017* 111

FIGURE 35 AUTOMOBILE AND LIGHT TRUCK CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS,

2017 (%) 112

Heavy Trucks 113

Consumption of Lightweight Materials, 2011 113

FIGURE 36 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN HEAVY TRUCKS,

2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 114

Market Drivers 114

Production of Heavy Trucks 114

TABLE 39 PROJECTED WEIGHT OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIAL USED IN HEAVY TRUCKS,

2011-2017 (MILLION TONS) 115

Lightweight Materials Market Penetration 115

Lightweight Materials Price Trends 115

TABLE 40 PROJECTED AVERAGE PRICE OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS USED IN HEAVY TRUCKS,

THROUGH 2017 ($/TON) 115

Market Projections, 2011 to 2017 116

TABLE 41 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN HEAVY TRUCKS

THROUGH 2017 116

Buses 116

Consumption of Lightweight Materials, 2011 116

FIGURE 37 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN BUSES, 2011

(PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 116

FIGURE 38 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES,

TONS AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 117

TABLE 42 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES, 2011

(MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 119

Market Drivers 119

Bus Shipments 119

FIGURE 39 TRENDS IN WORLDWIDE SHIPMENTS OF BUSES AND RELATED MATERIALS

CONSUMPTION, 2011-2017 (UNITS/MILLION TONS) 120

Lightweight Materials Market Penetration 120

TABLE 43 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN BUSES,

2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS WEIGHT) 121

Lightweight Materials Price Trends 121

TABLE 44 PRICES OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES,

2011 ($) 121

Market Projections 122

TABLE 45 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN BUSES

THROUGH 2017* 122

FIGURE 40 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES,

TONS AND VALUE, 2017 (%) 122

RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK 124

Consumption of Lightweight Materials, 2011 124

FIGURE 41 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN RAILWAY

EQUIPMENT, 2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 124

FIGURE 42 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN THE FABRICATION OF

RAILWAY EQUIPMENT, TONS AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 124

TABLE 46 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATION OF RAILWAY EQUIPMENT,

2011 (TONS/$ MILLIONS) 126

High-Strength Steel 126

Aluminum Alloy 126

Plastics 126

FRP Composites 126

Metal Matrix Composites 127

Market Drivers 127

Railway Car Shipments 127

FIGURE 43 TRENDS IN WORLDWIDE SHIPMENTS RAILWAY CARS, 2011-2017 (UNITS/TONS) 127

Lightweight Materials Market Penetration 128

TABLE 47 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN

RAILWAY EQUIPMENT, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS WEIGHT) 128

Lightweight Materials Price Trends 129

TABLE 48 PRICES OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATION OF RAILWAY

EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2017 ($) 129

Market Projections 2011 Through 2017 130

TABLE 49 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN RAILWAY

LOCOMOTIVES AND CARS, THROUGH 2017 131

FIGURE 44 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN THE

FABRICATION OF RAILWAY EQUIPMENT, TONS AND VALUE, 2017 (%) 132

SHIPBUILDING 133

Consumption of Lightweight Materials, 2011 133

FIGURE 45 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL

SHIPBUILDING, 2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 133

FIGURE 46 ONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL SHIPBUILDING,

TONS AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 133

TABLE 50 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATION OF COMMERCIAL SHIPS, 2011

(MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 135

Market Drivers 135

Ship Production 135

TABLE 51 PROJECTED WEIGHT OF MATERIAL USED IN COMMERCIAL SHIPBUILDING,

2011-2017 135

Lightweight Materials Market Penetration 135

TABLE 52 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN

COMMERCIAL SHIPBUILDING, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS WEIGHT) 136

Lightweight Materials Price Trends 136

TABLE 53 PRICE TRENDS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL

SHIPBUILDING, 2011-2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 136

Market Projections, 2011 Through 2017 137

TABLE 54 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN SHIPBUILDING,

THROUGH 2017 137

FIGURE 47 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL

SHIPBUILDING, TONS AND VALUE, 2017 (%) 137

COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT 139

Consumption of Lightweight Materials, 2011 139

FIGURE 48 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL

AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 139

FIGURE 49 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN

AIRCRAFT, TONS AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 140

TABLE 55 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATION OF COMMERCIAL AND

CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 141

Market Drivers 142

Production of Civilian Aircraft 142

TABLE 56 PROJECTED WEIGHT OF MATERIAL USED IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN

AIRCRAFT, 2011-2017 (TONS) 142

Lightweight Materials Market Penetration 143

TABLE 57 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN

COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS

WEIGHT)

143

Lightweight Materials Price Trends 144

TABLE 58 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT,

2011-2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 144

Projected Market through 2017 144

TABLE 59 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL AND

CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, THROUGH 2017 144

FIGURE 50 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL

AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, TONS AND VALUE, 2017 (%) 145

CHAPTER 8 COMPANY PROFILES 1493M CO. 149ADVANCED MAGNESIUM ALLOYS CORP. 149AEROSPACE METAL COMPOSITES 149AKZO NOBEL NV 149ALCOA INC. 150AZDEL INC. 150BASF SE 150BAYER MATERIAL SCIENCE AG 151CYTEC INDUSTRIES INC. 151DOW CHEMICAL CO. 151E.I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS AND CO. 152DWA ALUMINUM COMPOSITES 152EXATEC LLC 152FMW COMPOSITE SYSTEMS INC. 152FREIGHTCAR AMERICA 153HEXCEL CORP. 153HOLLAND CO. 153LANXESS AG 154LYONDELLBASELL INDUSTRIES 154MAGNESIUM ELEKTRON 154MARTIN MARIETTA COMPOSITES 155MERITOR INC. 155MESSIER-BUGATTI-DOWTY 155METAL MATRIX CAST COMPOSITES LLC 155MX COMPOSITES AB 156POLYONE CORP. 156RAYMOR INDUSTRIES INC. 156RENTON COIL SPRING CO. 157RHODIA SA 157SABIC INNOVATIVE PLASTICS 157SIEMENS AG 157SOLVAY SA 158TICONA ENGINEERING POLYMERS 158TITANIUM METALS CORP. 158UBE INDUSTRIES LTD. 159U.S. STEEL CORP. 159VERKHNAYA SALDA METALLURGICAL PRODUCTION ASSOC. 159VICTREX PLC 160

LIST OF TABLES SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN TRANSPORTATION,

THROUGH 2017 6

TABLE 1 TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT MATERIALS CONSUMPTION, THROUGH 2017

(MILLION TONS) 18

TABLE 2 PROJECTED MOTOR VEHICLE PRODUCTION BY TYPE, THROUGH 2017 (MILLION

UNITS) 21

TABLE 3 GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK, 2011

(UNITS) 24

TABLE 4 PROJECTED SHIPMENTS OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK,

THROUGH 2017 (UNITS) 24

TABLE 5 AVERAGE WEIGHT OF RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVES AND ROLLING STOCK, 2011 (TONS

PER UNIT) 25

TABLE 6 WORLD SHIP DELIVERIES, THROUGH 2011 (MILLION TONS) 26

TABLE 7 WORLD SHIP DELIVERIES, THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS) 27

TABLE 8 GLOBAL DELIVERIES OF CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011 THROUGH 2017 (UNITS) 30

TABLE 9 CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT AVERAGE UNLOADED WEIGHT BY TYPE OF AIRCRAFT, 2011

(LBS.) 31

TABLE 10 MAJOR END USES AND APPLICATIONS OF HIGH-STRENGTH STEEL 36

TABLE 11 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF LIGHTWEIGHT STEEL FOR TRANSPORTATION

APPLICATIONS 39

TABLE 12 ALUMINUM ALLOY DESIGNATIONS 40

TABLE 13 AVERAGE LIGHT VEHICLE ALUMINUM CONTENT BY REGION OF MANUFACTURE

AND YEAR, 2002 THROUGH 2012 (LBS. PER VEHICLE) 42

TABLE 14 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF ALUMINUM FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 48

TABLE 15 TITANIUM ALLOYS COMMONLY USED IN AEROSPACE APPLICATIONS 49

TABLE 16 TITANIUM APPLICATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES 50

TABLE 17 MAJOR SUPPLIERS OF TITANIUM AND TITANIUM PRODUCTS FOR

TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 52

TABLE 18 MAJOR SUPPLIERS OF MAGNESIUM AND MAGNESIUM PRODUCTS FOR

TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 56

TABLE 19 COMMONLY USED PLASTICS IN TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 57

TABLE 20 TYPICAL PLASTICS APPLICATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES 62

TABLE 21 TYPICAL PLASTICS APPLICATIONS IN AIRCRAFT 63

TABLE 22 PRICES OF PLASTICS USED IN TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS (AVERAGE $/LB.) 63

TABLE 23 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF PLASTICS FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 64

TABLE 24 TYPICAL SMC/BMC FORMULATION 66

TABLE 25 TYPICAL COMPOSITE APPLICATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLES 70

TABLE 26 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF NANOCOMPOSITE MATERIALS 70

TABLE 27 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF POLYMER COMPOSITES FOR TRANSPORTATION

APPLICATIONS 74

TABLE 28 POTENTIAL AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF MMCS 77

TABLE 29 POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL/GENERAL AVIATION APPLICATIONS OF MMCS 78

TABLE 30 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES FOR

TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS 78

TABLE 31 MAJOR MANUFACTURERS OF HYBRID MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION

APPLICATIONS 81

TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN TRANSPORTATION

EQUIPMENT, 2011 THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 94

TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN TRANSPORTATION

EQUIPMENT BY END-USER SEGMENT, 2011 THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 96

TABLE 34 GLOBAL LIGHTWEIGHT TRANSPORTATION MATERIALS MARKET SHARES BY

END-USER SEGMENT, THROUGH 2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL TONS/VALUE OF

LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED) 97

TABLE 35 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN MOTOR

VEHICLES, THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 98

TABLE 36 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED IN PRODUCTION OF PASSENGER CARS

AND LIGHT TRUCKS, 2011 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 104

TABLE 37 PROJECTED GLOBAL SHIPMENTS OF PASSENGER CARS AND OTHER LIGHT

VEHICLES, THROUGH 2017 (MILLION UNITS) 106

TABLE 38 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN PASSENGER CARS

AND LIGHT TRUCKS THROUGH 2017* 111

TABLE 39 PROJECTED WEIGHT OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIAL USED IN HEAVY TRUCKS,

2011-2017 (MILLION TONS) 115

TABLE 40 PROJECTED AVERAGE PRICE OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS USED IN HEAVY TRUCKS,

THROUGH 2017 ($/TON) 115

TABLE 41 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN HEAVY TRUCKS

THROUGH 2017 116

TABLE 42 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES, 2011 (MILLION

TONS/$ MILLIONS) 119

TABLE 43 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN BUSES,

2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS WEIGHT) 121

TABLE 44 PRICES OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES,

2011 ($) 121

TABLE 45 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN BUSES

THROUGH 2017* 122

TABLE 46 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATION OF RAILWAY EQUIPMENT, 2011

(TONS/$ MILLIONS) 126

TABLE 47 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN RAILWAY

EQUIPMENT, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS WEIGHT) 128

TABLE 48 PRICES OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATION OF RAILWAY

EQUIPMENT, THROUGH 2017 ($) 129

TABLE 49 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN RAILWAY

LOCOMOTIVES AND CARS, THROUGH 2017 131

TABLE 50 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATION OF COMMERCIAL SHIPS, 2011

(MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 135

TABLE 51 PROJECTED WEIGHT OF MATERIAL USED IN COMMERCIAL SHIPBUILDING,

2011-2017 135

TABLE 52 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN

COMMERCIAL SHIPBUILDING, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS WEIGHT) 136

TABLE 53 PRICE TRENDS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL

SHIPBUILDING, 2011-2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 136

TABLE 54 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN SHIPBUILDING,

THROUGH 2017 137

TABLE 55 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN FABRICATION OF COMMERCIAL AND

CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 141

TABLE 56 PROJECTED WEIGHT OF MATERIAL USED IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN

AIRCRAFT, 2011-2017 (TONS) 142

TABLE 57 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN

COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS

WEIGHT) 143

TABLE 58 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT,

2011-2017 (MILLION TONS/$ MILLIONS) 144

TABLE 59 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL AND

CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, THROUGH 2017 144

LIST OF FIGURES SUMMARY FIGURE TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN

TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT, 2011-2017 (MILLION TONS/$ BILLIONS) 7

FIGURE 1 TRANSPORTATION SECTOR SHARE OF GLOBAL LIQUID FUELS CONSUMPTION,

2008 AND 2035 (%) 9

FIGURE 2 GLOBAL FUEL CONSUMPTION BY TRANSPORT MODE, 2011 (%) 10

FIGURE 3 GLOBAL TRANSPORT SECTOR CONTRIBUTION TO GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

(%) 11

FIGURE 4 COMPARATIVE COST/STRENGTH OF STEEL VERSUS LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS

FOR VEHICLE PRIMARY STRUCTURES, 2011 ($/LB AND GPA) 14

FIGURE 5 TRENDS IN TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT MATERIALS CONSUMPTION,

2011-2017 (MILLION TONS) 18

FIGURE 6 MAJOR END-USER SHARES OF TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT MATERIALS

CONSUMPTION, 2011 VERSUS 2017 18

FIGURE 7 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF MOTOR VEHICLES BY TYPE, 2011 (%) 19

FIGURE 8 FUTURE TRENDS IN PRODUCTION OF MOTOR VEHICLES BY TYPE, 2011 2017

(MILLION UNITS) 21

FIGURE 9 AVERAGE VEHICLE WEIGHTS BY CLASS, 2011 (LBS.) 21

FIGURE 10 TOTAL MOTOR VEHICLE MATERIAL USAGE, 2011-2017 (MILLION TONS) 23

FIGURE 11 TOTAL RAILWAY LOCOMOTIVE AND ROLLING STOCK MATERIAL USAGE, 2011

THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS) 25

FIGURE 12 TRENDS IN WORLD SHIP DELIVERIES, 2004-2011 (MILLION GROSS TONS) 26

FIGURE 13 PROJECTED SHIP DELIVERIES, 2011-2017 (MILLION GROSS TONS) 27

FIGURE 14 STEELWEIGHT OF PROJECTED SHIP DELIVERIES, 2011-2017 (MILLION TONS) 28

FIGURE 15 GLOBAL CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT DELIVERIES, 2011 (% OF TOTAL UNITS DELIVERED) 29

FIGURE 16 TRENDS IN GLOBAL DELIVERIES OF CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011-2017 (UNITS) 30

FIGURE 17 TOTAL CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT MATERIALS USAGE, 2011-2017 (TONS) 30

FIGURE 18 TRENDS IN GLOBAL CARBON STEEL PRICES, 1995-2012 (APRIL 1994 = 100) 38

FIGURE 19 TRENDS IN AVERAGE LIGHT VEHICLE ALUMINUM CONTENT BY REGION OF

MANUFACTURE AND YEAR, 2002-2012 (LBS. PER VEHICLE) 42

FIGURE 20 MAIN ALUMINUM APPLICATIONS IN PASSENGER CARS AND LIGHT TRUCKS, 2012

(LBS. PER VEHICLE) 42

FIGURE 21 ALUMINUM ALLOY PRICE TRENDS, 1995 THROUGH 2012 ($/SHORT TON) 47

FIGURE 22 TRENDS IN AVERAGE MAGNESIUM PRICES, 2011-2017 ($/TON) 54

FIGURE 23 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED THROUGH OCT. 2012 RELATING TO LIGHTWEIGHT

MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS, BY TYPE OF MATERIAL (PERCENTAGE

OF ALL PATENTS) 83

FIGURE 24 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED THROUGH OCT. 2012 AND PATENT APPLICATIONS

RELATING TO LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS FOR TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS, BY TYPE

OF APPLICATION (PERCENTAGE OF ALL PATENTS) 84

FIGURE 25 TRENDS IN GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN

TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT, 2011 THROUGH 2017 (MILLION TONS/$ BILLIONS) 93

FIGURE 26 GLOBAL LIGHTWEIGHT TRANSPORTATION MATERIALS MARKET SHARES BY TYPE OF MATERIAL, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL TONS CONSUMED) 94

FIGURE 27 GLOBAL LIGHTWEIGHT TRANSPORTATION MATERIALS MARKET DOLLAR SHARES

BY TYPE OF MATERIAL, 2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL VALUE OF LIGHTWEIGHT

MATERIALS CONSUMED) 95

FIGURE 28 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS TONNAGE SHARES OF MOTOR VEHICLE MARKET,

2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL TONS OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED) 100

FIGURE 29 LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS DOLLAR SHARES OF MOTOR VEHICLE MARKET,

2011-2017 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL TONS OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS CONSUMED) 100

FIGURE 30 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN AUTOS AND

LIGHT TRUCKS, 2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 101

FIGURE 31 AUTOMOBILE AND LIGHT TRUCK CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS,

TONNAGE AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 102

FIGURE 32 TRENDS IN WORLDWIDE SHIPMENTS OF PASSENGER CARS AND OTHER LIGHT

VEHICLES, 2011-2017 (MILLION UNITS) 106

FIGURE 33 MARKET PENETRATION RATIOS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN AUTOS

AND LIGHT TRUCKS, 2011-2017 (PERCENT OF TOTAL MATERIALS BY WEIGHT) 108

FIGURE 34 PRICE TRENDS FOR LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN AUTOS AND LIGHT

TRUCKS, 2011-2017 ($/TON) 108

FIGURE 35 AUTOMOBILE AND LIGHT TRUCK CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS,

2017 (%) 112

FIGURE 36 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN HEAVY TRUCKS,

2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 114

FIGURE 37 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN BUSES, 2011

(PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 116

FIGURE 38 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES,

TONS AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 117

FIGURE 39 TRENDS IN WORLDWIDE SHIPMENTS OF BUSES AND RELATED MATERIALS

CONSUMPTION, 2011-2017 (UNITS/MILLION TONS) 120

FIGURE 40 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN THE FABRICATION OF BUSES,

TONS AND VALUE, 2017 (%) 122

FIGURE 41 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN RAILWAY

EQUIPMENT, 2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 124

FIGURE 42 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN THE FABRICATION OF RAILWAY

EQUIPMENT, TONS AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 124

FIGURE 43 TRENDS IN WORLDWIDE SHIPMENTS RAILWAY CARS, 2011-2017 (UNITS/TONS) 127

FIGURE 44 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN THE FABRICATION

OF RAILWAY EQUIPMENT, TONS AND VALUE, 2017 (%) 132

FIGURE 45 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL

SHIPBUILDING, 2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 133

FIGURE 46 ONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL SHIPBUILDING,

TONS AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 133

FIGURE 47 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL

SHIPBUILDING, TONS AND VALUE, 2017 (%) 137

FIGURE 48 GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS USED IN COMMERCIAL

AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, 2011 (PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MATERIALS USED) 139

FIGURE 49 CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN

AIRCRAFT, TONS AND VALUE, 2011 (%) 140

FIGURE 50 PROJECTED CONSUMPTION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS IN COMMERCIAL AND CIVILIAN AIRCRAFT, TONS AND VALUE, 2017 (%) 145

To order this report:Heavy_Truck_and_Bus Industry: Lightweight Materials in Transportation

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