Lithium Batteries: Markets and Materials

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Lithium Batteries: Markets and Materials

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STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Originally, the term "battery" referred to a number of individual electrochemical cells; therefore, a single cell, like the familiar cylindrical flashlight power source, was not considered a battery at all. Now a battery refers to any electrochemical storage mechanism.

A battery has five components: two active elements (a cathode and an anode), a separator, an electrolyte medium for carrying ions between the reactants through the separator, and a container. One reactant or electrode has a net negative charge and is called the anode. In lithium batteries, the anode material is lithium, or in a few cases, a lithium-aluminum alloy. In some cases, the anode is metallic lithium; in other instances, including lithium-ion cells, the anode consists of an ionic lithium compound. The other reactant electrode, with a positive charge, is called the cathode. The cathode usually is a metallic compound. The electrolyte is usually similar to the cathode to promote ion transfer. Finally, the battery is contained in a case that provides dimensional stability and a positive and negative electrode or battery cap for discharging (or recharging) the cell. A number of separate electrochemical cells are combined within the same case to create a battery.

Until about 25 years ago, the battery market was seen as mature, with demand closely related to sales of either automobiles or various consumer products. Since then, improved lithium batteries have helped spark a dramatic change in this relationship. Just as lithium batteries replaced nickel-based and primary batteries for many applications, traditional lithium-ion battery designs are beginning to be replaced by advanced lithium-ion chemistries like lithium phosphate, lithium-iron phosphate, lithium-sulfur, and lithium-polymer systems.

Lithium batteries were developed in the 1960s and were first commercialized in the early 1970s, but did not receive wide consumer use until 1981. There are now six commercial and developmental lithium battery types, nearly 30 commercialized electrode couples, and more than 1,000 specific designs. The latest generation of lithium batteries includes very large cells suitable for powering vehicles or storing significant amounts of utility power as well as very small thin-film cells capable of powering micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS).

In fact, improved lithium batteries have allowed the commercialization of entire new classes of portable products, including laptop computers, cellular phones, and tablet computers. Lithium batteries have now been used in commercial plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and are slowly gaining acceptance.

During the 1990s, lithium batteries posted double-digit growth. Between 2000 and 2005, there was a period of steady sales or incremental growth (as opposed to the double-digit growth of the 1990s). Lithium battery sales then picked up through the 2008 financial crash. As prices fell, this was especially true for unit sales. In mid-2008, sales and market value plummeted due to the global recession. The market slowly improved in late 2012 and early 1013 and further growth depends on the overall economy as well as the plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and lithium battery PHEV market.

Lithium batteries are linked to serious failure modes, including incidents where they set portable computers on fire, where EV batteries caused vehicles to burn, and where the Dreamliner civil aircraft fleet was grounded due to overheating.

New designs and better quality-controlled improved external control systems reduce these risks but give pause to some designers and open the door to competing energy-storage systems.With this background in mind, this study summarizes the global primary and secondary lithium battery markets. This provides the basis for a detailed analysis of global lithium battery material technology and markets.

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

The lithium battery industry has largely stabilized from the "exciting" period of 2008 through 2011. During that pivotal period, the U.S. kicked off several unprecedented (and expensive) lithium battery and electric vehicle subsidies, the number of well-funded lithium battery companies skyrocketed, several new giant lithium battery-using consumer products were introduced—and then the global recession threatened to wash away all these gains.• First, several of lithium batteries' largest and highest growth markets entered a period of retraction. Even as "must-have" portable products, like smart phones (initially iPhones but then equally popular competitors) and then the whole tablet approach to portable computing and entertainment grew in popularity, battery-powered laptop and cell phone sales fell.• Meanwhile the newly elected administration of President Barack Obama announced plans to fund billions of dollars in U.S. lithium battery development. The administration canceled billions of dollars' worth of funding for Bush-era fuel-cell-and hydrogen-power-vehicle development funding. The Obama administration also implemented new Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) fuel-efficiency standards that will provide a significant incentive for wider HEV and EV use. By 2012 the results were coming in and they were not universally encouraging. Several high profile, well-funded lithium battery makers, lithium battery material producers, and electric vehicle makers were bankrupt or even ceased operation. Some of these subsidized companies were sold to non-U.S. firms. Two leading would-be plug-in sources (GM and Chrysler) filed for bankruptcy. At the same time, gasoline prices peaked and fell from a high of more than $4 per gallon to less than $2 per gallon, then stabilized between $2 and $3 a gallon.• Due to global recessionary forces and some safety issues, hybrid vehicle sales faltered, then stabilized, and then resumed robust growth – not with lithium batteries in most cases. In fact, there are major concerns about the future of developmental plug-in EVs.• In 2008 and 2009, there were significant concerns about whether there were enough lithium reserves to meet lithium battery demand. By 2012 and 2013, this has turned out to be a non-issue. This is partially due to lower than predicted demand and partially because of a number of "emerging" producers that are beginning to develop lithium reserves in China, Canada, Australia, and elsewhere (from Wyoming to Ireland). Meanwhile, the Bolivian government is negotiating with several companies from several nations with the aim of developing the vast Bolivian lithium salt deposits.• Even though U.S. and European lithium battery manufacturing is underway, most lithium batteries are still currently manufactured in Japan, South Korea, or China. Lithium battery material companies include South American, U.S., and Canadian companies. Most lithium salts currently come from Chile, but Bolivia has vast reserves that could soon be developed. Lithium battery research and development (R&D) takes place worldwide, but especially in the Far East, the U.S., Europe (especially France), and Canada. At the same time, there are more and more multinational lithium battery partnerships, including partnerships between U.S. and European or Far Eastern companies.

None of these developments were considered likely in 2008 and 2009. Previous forecasts and analyses either did not consider them or treated them as relatively unlikely pessimistic or optimistic scenarios. This BCC Research study is based on a new consensus: Is the period of uncertainty over and will the lithium battery markets continue to stabilize? Answering those questions is the reason for doing this study.

SCOPE OF THE REPORT

This report begins with a discussion of primary and secondary lithium battery technologies and markets.

The following lithium battery markets are analyzed:• Portable products- Computing, communications, and multifunctional- Tools- Others• Medical products- Implantable- Not implantable• Stationary applications- Computer memory preservation- Uninterruptible power supplies- Load leveling and alternative energy storage• Military/Aerospace- Primary- Secondary- Developmental• Automotive and motive power- Industrial electric vehicles (traction)- Plug-ins and hybrid vehicle motive power (EVs and HEVs)- Automotive securityThe report then concentrates on lithium battery materials:• Electrode materials and active elements- Aluminum - Cobalt compounds- Conductive polymers- Copper compounds- Electrolytic manganese dioxide- Halogens- Fullerenes- Inorganic carbon - Lithium metal and compounds- Nickel metal and compounds- Rare earth compounds- Sulfur compounds- Vanadium compounds• Lithium battery electrolytes• Battery separators

These market sectors are defined, leading global companies are identified, and the markets analyzed (including a 5-year market projection).

Lithium battery companies are identified and profiled. Each profile includes points of contact and a discussion of structure, description, and activity.

METHODOLOGY

Throughout the report, past market data are expressed in current U.S. dollars, and estimates and projections are in constant 2013 U.S. dollars. Historic markets (2008), current (projected 2013), and the projected market for 2018 are provided. Most market summaries are based on a consensus scenario for wholesale (producer) prices that assumes no unanticipated technical advances and no unexpected legislation. When appropriate, pessimistic, consensus, and optimistic market scenarios characterize several developmental markets. Totals are rounded to the nearest million dollars. When appropriate, information from previously published sources is identified to allow a more detailed examination by clients.INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report provides a unique analysis of the global lithium battery and associated materials market, and will be of interest to manufacturers and users of these batteries. This report will be especially useful to material miners, compounders, and fabricators. It also will be valuable to those involved in battery development and marketing, as well as those offering competing power sources. BCC Research wishes to thank those companies, government agencies, and university researchers that contributed information for this report.INFORMATION SOURCES

This report's author prepared these studies as well. Although many segments of the industry are well documented, much of this information is based on informed estimates or predictions, not hard facts. The distinction between these estimates and hard facts can be vital, and wherever possible, sources are identified.ANALYST CREDENTIALS

This report's project analyst, Donald Saxman, was a long-time editor of BCC Research's monthly Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Progress and Battery & EV Technology News. He has founded several other BCC newsletters and has more than 25 years of experience in market analysis, technical writing, and newsletter editing. Since 1983, he has operated as a technical market consultant and subcontractor to BCC Research, and in this capacity, he has prepared more than 70 focused market analyses. His previous experience includes supervision of a quality-control laboratory at a major secondary lead refinery, experience as an analytical chemist at a hazardous waste testing service, product assurance manager for a space station life support system project, and an information technology business analyst and project manager. Mr. Saxman has an extensive network of unique and valuable contacts throughout the energy and chemistry industries. He is directly responsible for the creation of tens of millions of dollars worth of successful proposals, including Fortune 500, federal government, and state government proposals involving energy, aerospace, and financial industries.REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

This report provides:

• An overview of the market for lithium batteries and materials.

• Analyses of market trends, with data from 2012, estimates for 2013, and projection of compound annual growth rate (CAGR) for the period 2013 to 2018.

• Details about the six commercial and developmental lithium battery types, nearly 30 commercialized electrode couples, and more than 1,000 specific designs.

• Coverage of the global primary and secondary markets that provides the basis for a detailed analysis of lithium battery materials technology.

• Identification of the following sectors: Portable products, medical products, implantable, not implantable, stationary applications, military/aerospace, and automotive and motive power; and in materials, electrode materials and active elements, lithium battery electrolytes, and battery separators.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 3SCOPE OF THE REPORT 4METHODOLOGY 5INTENDED AUDIENCE 6INFORMATION SOURCES 6ANALYST CREDENTIALS 6RELATED BCC REPORTS 6BCC ONLINE SERVICES 7DISCLAIMER 7

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 9

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR LITHIUM BATTERY SALES,THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 9SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR LITHIUM BATTERY SALES2008-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 10

CHAPTER 3 LITHIUM BATTERY TECHNOLOGIES 12

LITHIUM BATTERY TECHNOLOGY BACKGROUND 12PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERIES 12PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY SUMMARY 12TABLE 1 PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY TYPES 12PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPOSITIONS 14TABLE 2 PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPOSITIONS 14PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATIONS 15TABLE 3 CONSUMER PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATIONS 15TABLE 4 INDUSTRIAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATIONS 16TABLE 5 MILITARY/AEROSPACE PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATIONS 17PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY TYPES 17Lithium-Carbon Monofluoride Batteries 17Lithium-Copper Oxyphosphate and Lithium Copper Oxide Batteries 18Lithium-Iodine Batteries 18Lithium-Iron Sulfide Batteries 19Lithium-Manganese Dioxide Batteries 19Lithium-Silver Vanadium Pentoxide Batteries 21Lithium-Sulfur Dioxide Batteries 21Lithium-Sulfuryl Chloride Batteries 22Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Batteries 22PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPANIES 22TABLE 6 PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPANIES 22Duracell International 23EaglePicher Corp. (OM Group) 23Ener1, Inc. (EnerDel) 24Energizer Holdings 25GP Batteries (Gold Peak International) 25Greatbatch, Inc. 26ICCNexergy (including Applied Power, Inc.) 26Medtronic, Inc. 27MiniMax Energy Technology 27Panasonic 27Saft 28Solicore 29Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd. 29Sony Corp. 30Spectrum Brands (Rayovac) 30Ultralife Batteries, Inc. 31Varta AG Microbatteries 32Yardney (Lithion, Ener-Tek) 32PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET SUMMARY 33TABLE 7 PRIMARY LITHIUM MARKET SUMMARY 33Portable Product Primary Lithium Batteries 34Medical Product Primary Lithium Batteries 34Stationary Product Primary Lithium Batteries 34Military/Aerospace Primary Lithium Batteries 35Automotive/Motive Primary Lithium Batteries 35Primary Lithium Battery Market Prediction 35TABLE 8 GLOBAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY VOLUME AND VALUE, 2013(MILLIONS) 35TABLE 9 PROJECTED GLOBAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY VALUE BY MARKET,THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 36TABLE 10 PROJECTED GLOBAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY VALUE BY TECHNOLOGY,THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 37TABLE 11 PROJECTED GLOBAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY VALUE BY REGION,THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 37SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERIES 37SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY SUMMARY 37TABLE 12 SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY TYPES 38SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPOSITIONS 40TABLE 13 SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPOSITIONS 40SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY TYPES 41Lithium/Aluminum-Polymer Batteries 41Lithium/Aluminum-Manganese Dioxide Batteries 41Lithium/Aluminum-Vanadium Pentoxide Batteries 41Lithium-Cobalt Oxide Batteries 42Lithium-Copper Chloride Batteries 42Lithium-Ion and Lithium-Ion Polymer Batteries 42Lithium-Ion Compared with Lithium-Ion Polymer 43Lithium Metal Polymer Batteries 44Lithium-Ion as Smart Batteries 46TABLE 14 SMART BATTERY SYSTEM STAKEHOLDERS 49State of the Art and Recent Developments 49High-Temperature Lithium-Iron Sulfide Batteries 51TABLE 15 HIGH-TEMPERATURE LITHIUM-IRON SULFIDE BATTERY R &D 51Rechargeable Lithium-Manganese Dioxide Batteries 52Lithium-Molybdenum Disulfide Batteries 53Lithium-Niobium Selenide Batteries 53Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Dioxide Batteries 54Lithium-Titanium Disulfide Batteries 54Lithium-Titanium Disulfide Polymer Electrolyte Batteries 54Lithium-Vanadium Oxide Polymer Electrolyte Batteries 54Thin-Film Batteries 54TABLE 16 THIN-FILM MICRO-BATTERY COMPANIES 56Rechargeable Lithium-Air Batteries 57SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPANIES 59TABLE 17 SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPANIES 59A123 Systems LLC 61TABLE 18 A123 BATTERY COMPARED TO OTHER HIGH-CAPACITY BATTERYSYSTEMS 62TABLE 19 A123 BATTERY PULSE DURATION AND POWER DENSITY 62ABSL Power (AEA Battery Systems, AGM Batteries Ltd.) 69Actacell (Contour Energy) 70Accutronics, Ltd. 71Advanced Battery Systems, Inc. 71Advanced Battery Systems, LLC 72Advanced Battery Technologies Inc. (ABAT) 73All Power Battery 75Amprius 75Apple Inc. 76Arotech Corp. (Electric Fuel Battery Corp.) 76Axeon (Johnson Matthey) 77BASF Battery Materials-Ovonic 78Ovonic Battery Co. 78Batteries Plus 81Battery-Biz 81Battery Clinic Inc. 81Battery Systems Inc. 81Battery Technology Inc. 82Bollore Group 82Boston-Power 84Bren-Tronics 86BYD Company Limited 87C&D Technologies Inc. 88Cell-Con 89China BAK Battery Inc. 89China Sun (Dalian Xinyang High-Tech Development Co.) 92Continental Corp. 93Covalent Associates Inc. 93DelTran Battery Tender 94Dow Kokam 94

CHAPTER 4 LITHIUM BATTERY MATERIALS 97

LITHIUM BATTERY MATERIAL BACKGROUND 97TYPES OF LITHIUM BATTERY MATERIALS 97TABLE 20 LITHIUM BATTERY CATHODE MATERIALS 98TABLE 21 LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTE MATERIALS 99TABLE 22 LITHIUM BATTERY SEPARATOR MATERIALS 101ELECTRODE MATERIALS AND ACTIVE ELEMENTS 102Electrode Material and Active Element Companies 102TABLE 23 LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTRODE MATERIAL COMPANIES 1023M 103Admiralty Resources 104Advanced NanoPower, Inc. 105Air Products 105Ajay SQM Group 106Akzo Nobel 106Alfa Aesar-Johnson Matthey Co. 106Allan Chemical Corp. 106Allchem Industries, Inc. 107Altair Nanotechnologies, Inc. 107AmSyn (Amber Synthetics) 111Applied Nanomaterials, Inc (ApNano) 111Advanced Research Chemicals (ARC) 112Arkema 112Ashland Chemicals 113Avalon Rare Metals 113BASF Corp. 113Bayer MaterialScience 115Belmont Metals, Inc. 115Cabot Corp. 116Caledonia Mining Corp. 116Canada Lithium Corp. 117Cannon-Muskegon Corp. (C-M Group) 117Chambishi Metals, plc (ZCCM-IH) 117Chempro Group 118Climax Molybdenum 118Columbus Chemical Industries 118Coyne Chemical 118CTT 119Darton Commodities, Ltd. 119Delta EMD (Valmont Industries, Inc.) 119Dexmet Corp. 120Dow Chemical Co. 120Dynatec Madagascar S.A. 121Eramet/Eurotungstene Poudres S.A. 121Evonik Industries AG 121LI-TEC Battery GmbH 121Evraz Stratcor, Inc. 124Ferro Corp. 124FMC Corp. 124Formation Metals Inc. 126Frontier Carbon Corp. (FCC) 126Fusite (Division of Emerson Electric Co.) 127Galaxy Resources 127GFS Chemicals, Inc. 127Glencore Xstrata 128GrafTech International 128H.C. Starck 128Henkel (Acheson) 129Hermetic Seal Technology, Inc. 129Honjo Chemical Corp. 130Hunan Xiangtan Electrochemical Group 130International Cobalt Co., Inc. 130International Lithium Corp. (Ganfeng Lithium Co.) 131ISE Corp. 132Lamart Corp. 132Lithium Corp. 132Lithium Exploration Group 134LG Chemical 134mPhase Technologies 135Mays Chemical Co. 136Materials and Electrochemical Research Corp (MER) 136Mitsui & Co., Ltd. 137Nano-C, Inc. 137Nanocyl S.A. 137Noah Technologies 138Norilsk Nickel 138OM Group 138Phillips 66 140Phostech Lithium (Süd-Chemie) 140Pred Materials 141Preminco, Ltd. 141Prince Minerals (American Minerals, Inc.) 141QNI Pty, Ltd. (Queensland Nickel) 142QuantumSphere Inc. 142Raymor Industries, Inc. 143Reade Advanced Materials 144Rock Tech Lithium 144Rockwood Lithium 145Shalina Resources Ltd (SRL) 147Sheperd Chemical Co. 147Shu Powders, Ltd. 148Spectrum Chemicals 148SQM (Sociedad Quimica y Minera) 148Sheldahl Technical Materials 149Showa Denko K.K. (SDK) 149Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd 150Superior Graphite Co. 151Teck Resources Ltd. 151Thomas Swan & Co., Ltd. 151Timcall Graphite & Carbon 152Todini and Co. SPA 152Toray 153Toxco, Inc. (Lithchem International) 153Tronox 153Umicore 154Ube Industries 154Unidym 155Vale Ltd. 156Wego Chemical & Mineral 156Wogen Resources, Ltd. 156Xiamen Tungsten Co., Ltd. 156LITHIUM METAL AND COMPOUNDS 157Lithium Miners and Processors 157TABLE 24 LITHIUM MINERALS AND BRINE: ESTIMATED WORLD PRODUCTION BYCOUNTRY, 2002-2006 (METRIC TONS)1, 2 157TABLE 25 LITHIUM MINERALS AND BRINE: ESTIMATED WORLD PRODUCTION BYCOUNTRY, 2007-2011 (METRIC TONS) 158TABLE 26 LITHIUM PRODUCERS 160Lithium Compound Companies 163TABLE 27 LITHIUM COMPOUND COMPANIES 164Lithium Applications, Production and Consumption 165TABLE 28 U.S. LITHIUM CONSUMPTION, 1994-2012 (METRIC TONS OF CONTAINEDLITHIUM) 165TABLE 29 GLOBAL LITHIUM MARKETS, 2012 (%) 166Lithium Prices 166COPPER COMPOUNDS 167NICKEL AND IRON METAL AND COMPOUNDS 167Nickel Metal and Compounds 167Iron Compounds (Lithium Iron Phosphate) 167ELECTROLYTIC MANGANESE DIOXIDE COMPOUNDS 169Manganese Dioxide Companies 170TABLE 30 MANGANESE DIOXIDE COMPANIES 170COBALT COMPOUNDS 170Cobalt Companies 170TABLE 31 COBALT COMPOUND COMPANIES 171Cobalt Consumption Patterns 172TABLE 32 GLOBAL COBALT MARKETS (%) 172TABLE 33 U.S. COBALT CONSUMPTION, 1994-2012 (MT OF COBALT CONTENT) 172TABLE 34 COBALT PRODUCTION AND RESERVES BY COUNTRY, 2011 AND 2012(MT OF COBALT CONTENT) 173Cobalt Prices 174TABLE 35 HISTORIC GLOBAL COBALT PRICES, 1991-2006 ($/LB) 174ALUMINUM METAL COMPOUNDS 175SULFUR COMPOUNDS 175VANADIUM COMPOUNDS 176TABLE 36 VANADIUM COMPOUND COMPANIES 176RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS 176INORGANIC CARBON 177TABLE 37 CARBON COMPOUND COMPANIES 178FULLERENES (AND GRAPHENES) 178TABLE 38 FULLERENE COMPANIES 180CONDUCTIVE POLYMERS 181TABLE 39 CONDUCTIVE POLYMER BATTERY ENERGY DENSITIES 182HALOGENS 182TABLE 40 HALOGEN BATTERY APPLICATIONS 183Iodine Compounds 183Bromine Compounds 183Chlorine Compounds 184TABLE 41 HALOGEN COMPOUND COMPANIES 184LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTES 185TABLE 42 LITHIUM CONTAINING BATTERY ELECTROLYTE MATERIALS 185LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTE COMPANIES 186TABLE 43 LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTE MATERIAL COMPANIES 186LITHIUM BATTERY SEPARATORS 187LITHIUM BATTERY SEPARATOR COMPANIES 188TABLE 44 BATTERY SEPARATOR COMPANIES 189Amerace Microporous Products 189Asahi Kasei 189Celgard, LLC 190Dexmet Corp. 191Entek Membranes LLC 191Hollingsworth and Vose Co. 192Lynntech, Inc. 192Nippon Kodoshi Corp. (NKK) 192SK Energy Corp. 192TFP, Inc. 193Toray Industries, Inc. (Toray Tonen Specialty Separator Godo Kaisha) 193Ube Industries 195W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc. 195LITHIUM BATTERY MATERIALS MARKET SUMMARY 196TABLE 45 PROJECTED GLOBAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY ACTIVE ELEMENT VALUE,THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 196TABLE 46 PROJECTED GLOBAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTE VALUE,THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 197TABLE 47 PROJECTED GLOBAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY SEPARATOR VALUE,THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 197TABLE 48 PROJECTED SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY ACTIVE ELEMENT VALUE,THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 198TABLE 49 PROJECTED GLOBAL SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTEVALUE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 198TABLE 50 PROJECTED GLOBAL SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY SEPARATOR VALUE,THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 198TABLE 51 PROJECTED GLOBAL LITHIUM BATTERY MATERIALS VALUE BY TYPE,THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 199FIGURE 1 PROJECTED GLOBAL LITHIUM BATTERY MATERIALS VALUE BY TYPE,2008-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 199

CHAPTER 5 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ASPECTS 201

THE DRIVING FORCES OF THE INDUSTRY 201TREND ANALYSIS 201TABLE 52 SUMMARY OF INDUSTRY DRIVING FORCES BY END-USE APPLICATIONS 201TABLE 53 LITHIUM MARKET SEGMENTATION SUMMARY 207DRIVING FORCE 1: LITHIUM BATTERY AND BATTERY MATERIAL PATENTSITUATION 210Patent Disputes 210University of Texas, Hydro Quebec, NTT, and Others 2103M, Sony and Lenovo 2113M and Panasonic 212Valence Technology versus Phostech Lithium and Hydro Quebec 212DRIVING FORCE 2: IMPROVING BATTERY TECHNICAL MATURITY 213DRIVING FORCE 3: DEVELOPING NEW APPLICATIONS FOR LITHIUMBATTERIES 214DRIVING FORCE 4: EVOLVING TRANSPORTATION APPLICATIONS-EVS TOHEVS TO PLUG-INS 214DRIVING FORCE 5: PUBLIC SECTOR R&D 214Ames National Laboratory 215Argonne National Laboratory 215Arizona State University 217Battelle Memorial Institute 218Brookhaven National Laboratory 218California Institute of Technology 218California NanoSystems Institute (UCSB) 220Center for Nanoscale Science (CNS) 220Ecole Polytechnique Federale De Lausanne 221Florida State University 221Georgia Institute of Technology 221Fluid Mechanics Research Group 222Hunter College 222Idaho National Laboratory 222John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory 224Kyoto University 224Kyushu University 224Laboratoire d'Electrochimie Organique et de Photochimie Redox 224Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 224Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 225Los Alamos National Laboratory 225Massachusetts Institute of Technology 225NanoEngineering Group 226Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies 226Tiny Technologies Initiative 226Max Planck Institut Für Festkorperforschung 227Michigan State University 227National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 228John H. Glenn Research Center 228NASA Ames Research Center 228NASA Jet Propulsion Lab 229National Renewable Energy Laboratory 230North Carolina State University 231Northwestern University 231McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science 231Oak Ridge National Laboratory 232Ohio State University 232Oregon State University 232Center for Advanced Materials 232Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 233Pennsylvania State University 233Nanomaterials Physics Research Group 233Center for Advanced Materials 233Purdue University 234Birck Nanotechnology Center 234Polytechnic University 234Princeton University 234Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) 235Rice University 235The Richard E. Smalley Institute for Nanoscale Science andTechnology 235Rochester Institute of Technology 237Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey 237Sandia National Laboratory 237Savannah River National Laboratory 238Simon Fraser University 239Sophia University 239Stanford University 239State University of New York (SUNY) 239Universita La Sapienza 239Universitat Tubingen Institut Fur Organische Chemie 240University of California 240Institute for Polymers and Organic Solids (UCSB) 240Materials Department (UCSB) 240Department of Materials Science and Engineering (UCLA) 240University of Chicago 240University of Colorado 241University of Dayton Research Institute 241University of Durham 241University of Illinois 241University of Kentucky 241Advanced Carbon Materials Center 241University of Massachusetts 242University of Minnesota 242University of Missouri 243Missouri University of Science and Technology 243University of Nevada at Las Vegas 243University of New Mexico 244University of New South Wales 244University of North Carolina 244University of Oklahoma Carbon Nanotubes Technology Center(CaNTeC) 244University of Pennsylvania 245University of Rhode Island 245University of Southern California 245University of St. Andrews 245University of Texas at Austin 246University of Tokyo 246USCAR 246Waseda University 246DRIVING FORCE 6: BATTERY QUALITY CONTROL AND PRODUCT SAFETY 247The Manufacturing and Assembly Process 247TABLE 54 GENERIC BATTERY MANUFACTURING TREE 248Product Safety Issues 249Alternative Designs 251Material Safety Issues 252TABLE 55 TYPICAL C60 MSDS DATA 254MARKET SEGMENTATION AND INDUSTRY CONCENTRATION FACTORS 256LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET SEGMENTATION FACTORS 256TABLE 56 LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET SEGMENTATION AND MARKET FORCES 257TABLE 57 LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET SEGMENTATION AND MARKET FORCES 258LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET CONCENTRATION FACTORS 260TABLE 58 LITHIUM BATTERY CONCENTRATION FACTORS 260MATERIAL MARKET SEGMENTATION FACTORS 261Mining 261Processing/Refining 261Chemical Synthesis 261Compounding 262Recycling 262TABLE 59 LITHIUM BATTERY RECYCLING COMPANIES 263INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT AND TRADE PRACTICES 264LITHIUM BATTERIES AS PART OF THE OVERALL GLOBAL BATTERY MARKET 264TABLE 60 TOTAL BATTERY MARKET THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 264DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 264TABLE 61 LITHIUM BATTERY DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 264INDUSTRY PURCHASING INFLUENCES 266LITHIUM BATTERY PURCHASING INFLUENCE SIGNIFICANCE 266TABLE 62 LITHIUM BATTERY PURCHASING INFLUENCES 267LITHIUM BATTERY PURCHASING INFLUENCES 268TABLE 63 TYPICAL RETAIL LITHIUM BATTERY PRICES, 1996-2013 ($) 268LITHIUM BATTERY MATERIAL PURCHASING INFLUENCES 268How Significant are Material Prices? 268EaglePicher Technologies (OM Corp.) 272Ecolocap Solutions 273EIC Laboratories 273Electrovaya (Electrofuel) 274Ener1 Inc. (Enerdel) 278Enerize Corp. (Fife Batteries) 283EnerSys Inc. 284Envia Systems Inc. 286E-One Moli Energy (Canada) Ltd. 287E-One Moli Energy Corporate Headquarters 287Exide Technologies 289Farasis Energy 289Flux Power 291Fuji Photo Film Co. Ltd. 292General Motors 292GP Batteries (Gold Peak International) 295Greatbatch Inc. (Electrochem) 296Harding Energy Inc. 297Hong Kong Highpower Technology 297HYB Battery Co. Ltd. (Hua-Yue-Bao Battery) 297Huanyu Power Source (Henan Huanyu Group Co.) 298IBM Corp. 298Almaden Research Center 298ICCNexergy 300Industrial Battery Engineering 302Innergy Power Corp. (Ecotality) 303Johnson Controls 303K2 Energy 309Magna E-Car Systems 311Magna International of America Inc. 311Magna International Japan 311LG Chemical 312Maxell Corp. 314MaxPower Inc. 314Microchip Technology Inc. 315Microvast Power Systems, Ltd. 315Minmax Energy Technology Co. Ltd. 316Mitsubishi Group 316Multiplier Industries 319Nanoexa 319NEC Corp. (NEC Energy Devices Ltd.) 319NEC Energy Devices Ltd. 319NEXcell Battery Co. 323Nissan Motor Co. 324Odyne Systems LLC 326Panasonic 327Panasonic (America) & Panasonic Energy Co. 327PolyPlus Battery Co. 329Quallion LLC 331Renata Batteries 332Ricardo-AEA 332Ricardo Inc. 333Robert Bosch GmbH 333Saft 334Saft America Inc. 334Samsung 342SETO Holdings Inc. (Hong Kong Batteries) 343Hong Kong Batteries 343Sion Power 343Sony Corp. 344Sony Dr. 344TABLE 64 COMPARISON BETWEEN CONVENTIONAL BATTERY AND NEXELION 346Thundersky (Winston Battery Limited) 348TIAX LLC 348Toshiba 349Toshiba America Inc. 349TABLE 65 SCIB SPECIFICATIONS 351Tracer Technologies 351Ultralife Batteries Inc. 351Uniross Batteries Corp. 353Valence Technology Inc. 353Ventronics 362Yardney (Lithion, Ener-Tek) 362Yuasa Battery Inc. (Yuasa Battery America Inc., Yuasa-Exide, GSYUASA) 362SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET SUMMARY 366TABLE 66 SECONDARY LITHIUM MARKET SUMMARY 367PORTABLE PRODUCT SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERIES 367MEDICAL PRODUCT SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERIES 368STATIONARY PRODUCT SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERIES 368MILITARY/AEROSPACE SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERIES 368AUTOMOTIVE/MOTIVE SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERIES 369SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET PREDICTION 369TABLE 67 2013 SECONDARY GLOBAL LITHIUM BATTERY VOLUME AND VALUE(MILLIONS) 370TABLE 68 GLOBAL PROJECTED SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY VALUE BY TYPE,THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 370TABLE 69 GLOBAL PROJECTED SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY VALUE BYTECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 371FIGURE 2 GLOBAL PROJECTED SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY VALUE BYTECHNOLOGY, 2008-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 371

CHAPTER 6 LITHIUM BATTERY MARKETS 373

LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET ANALYSIS CONVENTIONS 373MARKET VALUE MODEL 373DEFINITIONS OF REGIONS 374ANALYSIS DURATION 374MONETARY CONVENTIONS 374LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET SECTORS 375TABLE 70 LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET SECTORS 375PORTABLE PRODUCT LITHIUM BATTERIES 376COMPUTER, TABLET AND SMARTPHONE LITHIUM BATTERIES 376Computer, Tablet, and Smartphone Lithium Battery Market Summary 377TABLE 71 PORTABLE COMPUTER, TABLET, AND SMARTPHONE DRIVING FORCESAND MARKET DEVELOPMENTS 378TABLE 72 PORTABLE COMPUTER, TABLET, AND SMARTPHONE BATTERY DRIVINGFORCES AND MARKET DEVELOPMENTS 379TABLE 73 GLOBAL PORTABLE COMPUTER, TABLET AND SMARTPHONE LITHIUMBATTERY MARKET PROJECTIONS BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 379TABLE 74 GLOBAL PORTABLE COMPUTER, TABLET AND SMARTPHONE LITHIUMBATTERY MARKET PROJECTIONS BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 380PORTABLE TOOL LITHIUM BATTERIES 380Portable Tool Lithium Battery Market Summary 382TABLE 75 PORTABLE TOOLS DRIVING FORCES AND MARKET DEVELOPMENTS 382TABLE 76 PORTABLE TOOL LITHIUM BATTERY DRIVING FORCES AND MARKETDEVELOPMENTS 383TABLE 77 GLOBAL PORTABLE TOOL LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET PROJECTIONS BYTYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 384TABLE 78 GLOBAL PORTABLE TOOL LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET PROJECTIONS BYREGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 384OTHER PORTABLE PRODUCT LITHIUM BATTERIES 384Portable Toy and Novelty Lithium Batteries 384TABLE 79 PORTABLE TOY AND NOVELTY DRIVING FORCES AND MARKETDEVELOPMENTS 387Portable Entertainment Product Lithium Batteries 387TABLE 80 PORTABLE ENTERTAINMENT DRIVING FORCES AND MARKETDEVELOPMENTS 388Portable Scientific Product Lithium Batteries 389TABLE 81 PORTABLE SCIENTIFIC PRODUCT DRIVING FORCES AND MARKETDEVELOPMENTS 390Digital Video and Still Camera Lithium Batteries 391TABLE 82 DIGITAL VIDEO AND STILL CAMERA DRIVING FORCES AND MARKETDEVELOPMENTS 392Other Portable Product Lithium Battery Market Prediction 393TABLE 83 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR OTHER PORTABLE PRODUCT LITHIUMBATTERIES BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 393TABLE 84 GLOBAL PORTABLE MARKET FORECAST FOR OTHER PORTABLE PRODUCTLITHIUM BATTERIES BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 393MEDICAL PRODUCT LITHIUM BATTERIES 393TABLE 85 PORTABLE MEDICAL PRODUCT DRIVING FORCES AND MARKETDEVELOPMENTS 396MEDICAL PRODUCT LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET SUMMARY 397TABLE 86 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR MEDICAL LITHIUM BATTERIES BY TYPE,THROUGH 2018 397TABLE 87 GLOBAL PORTABLE MARKET FORECAST FOR MEDICAL LITHIUMBATTERIES BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 397STATIONARY APPLICATION LITHIUM BATTERIES 397COMPUTER MEMORY PRESERVATION 398Computer Memory Preservation Lithium Battery Market Summary 398TABLE 88 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR COMPUTER MEMORY PRESERVATIONLITHIUM BATTERIES BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 398TABLE 89 GLOBAL PORTABLE MARKET FORECAST FOR COMPUTER MEMORYPRESERVATION LITHIUM BATTERIES BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 398UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY BATTERIES 399UPS Lithium Battery Market Summary 399TABLE 90 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR UPS LITHIUM BATTERIES BY TYPE,THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 399TABLE 91 GLOBAL PORTABLE MARKET FORECAST FOR UPS LITHIUM BATTERIES BYREGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 400EMERGENCY LIGHTING LITHIUM BATTERIES 400Emergency Lighting Lithium Battery Market Summary 401TABLE 92 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR EMERGENCY LIGHTING LITHIUMBATTERIES BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 401TABLE 93 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR EMERGENCY LIGHTING LITHIUMBATTERIES BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 401REMOTE POWER AND ALTERNATIVE POWER STORAGE LITHIUM BATTERIES 402Solar 403TABLE 94 TECHNOLOGIES FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER STORAGE 408Wind 410Tidal and Wave 413Geothermal 414Remote Power and Alternative Energy Lithium Battery MarketSummary 415TABLE 95 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR REMOTE AND ALTERNATIVE ENERGYSTORAGE LITHIUM BATTERIES BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 415TABLE 96 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR REMOTE AND ALTERNATIVE ENERGYSTORAGE LITHIUM BATTERIES BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 415UTILITY LOAD LEVELING 415TABLE 97 LOAD LEVELING AND PEAK SHIFTING APPROACHES 417TABLE 98 POWER STORAGE FUNCTIONALITY 420Utility Load-leveling Lithium Battery Market Summary 420TABLE 99 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR LOAD LEVELING LITHIUM BATTERIES BYTYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 420TABLE 100 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR LOAD LEVELING LITHIUM BATTERIESBY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 421MILITARY/AEROSPACE LITHIUM BATTERIES 421PORTABLE MILITARY PRODUCT LITHIUM BATTERIES 421TABLE 101 MILITARY/AEROSPACE PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATIONS 422DEVELOPMENTAL MILITARY LITHIUM BATTERIES 423Developmental Military Lithium Battery Market Summary 424Military Electric Vehicles Scenario 424Battery-Powered Fighting Vehicle Scenario 425Military Automated Factory Scenario 428Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) Revival Scenario 428AVIATION LITHIUM BATTERIES 429MILITARY LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET SUMMARY 430TABLE 102 PORTABLE MILITARY PRODUCT DRIVING FORCES AND MARKETDEVELOPMENTS 431TABLE 103 PORTABLE MILITARY PRODUCT BATTERIES DRIVING FORCES ANDMARKET DEVELOPMENTS 432TABLE 104 GLOBAL PORTABLE MILITARY PRODUCT LITHIUM BATTERY MARKET BYTECHNOLOGY, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 432TABLE 105 GLOBAL PORTABLE MILITARY PRODUCT LITHIUM BATTERY MARKETPROJECTIONS BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 432Developmental Military Lithium Battery Market Prediction 433TABLE 106 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR DEVELOPMENTAL MILITARY LITHIUMBATTERIES BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 433TABLE 107 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR DEVELOPMENTAL MILITARY LITHIUMBATTERIES BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 433Aviation Battery Market Summary 433TABLE 108 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR AVIATION LITHIUM BATTERIES BYTYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 434TABLE 109 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR AVIATION LITHIUM BATTERIES BYREGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 434AUTOMOTIVE AND MOTIVE POWER LITHIUM BATTERIES 434INDUSTRIAL VEHICLE (TRACTION) LITHIUM BATTERIES 434Traction Lithium Battery Market Summary 435TABLE 110 MOTIVE/TRACTION BATTERY DRIVING FORCES AND MARKETDEVELOPMENTS 436TABLE 111 CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC MOTIVE/TRACTIONBATTERY SCENARIOS 437TABLE 112 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR TRACTION LITHIUM BATTERIES BYTYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 438TABLE 113 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR TRACTION LITHIUM BATTERIES BYREGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 438HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE LITHIUM BATTERIES 439HEV Lithium Battery Market Summary 439TABLE 114 HEV AND HEV BATTERY DRIVING FORCES AND MARKETDEVELOPMENTS 439TABLE 115 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR HEV LITHIUM BATTERIES BY TYPE,THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 440TABLE 116 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR HEV LITHIUM BATTERIES BY REGION,THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 440PLUG-IN VEHICLE LITHIUM BATTERIES 441HEV AND EV MARKET DRIVERS 445Pollution Abatement 445TABLE 117 PROJECTED ANNUAL GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS FROMPHEVS IN THE YEAR 2050 (MILLION MT) 447TABLE 118 PEAK NEW VEHICLE MARKET SHARE FOR THE THREE PHEV ADOPTIONSCENARIOS, 2010 (%) 448Electric Utility Efficiency 448Promotion of Domestic Energy Sources 449Maintaining Technological Competitiveness 449Plug-in Vehicle Lithium Battery Market Summary 450TABLE 119 PHEV AND EV BATTERY DRIVING FORCES AND MARKET DEVELOPMENTS 450TABLE 120 CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC PHEV AND EV SCENARIOS 451TABLE 121 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR PLUG-IN VEHICLE LITHIUM BATTERIESBY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 453TABLE 122 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR PLUG-IN VEHICLE LITHIUM BATTERIESBY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 453AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY LITHIUM BATTERIES 453Automotive Security Lithium Battery Market Summary 453TABLE 123 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY LITHIUMBATTERIES BY TYPE, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 454TABLE 124 GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR AUTOMOTIVE SECURITY LITHIUMBATTERIES BY REGION, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 454

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FORECAST FOR LITHIUM BATTERY SALES,

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 9

TABLE 1 PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY TYPES 12

TABLE 2 PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPOSITIONS 14

TABLE 3 CONSUMER PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATIONS 15

TABLE 4 INDUSTRIAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATIONS 16

TABLE 5 MILITARY/AEROSPACE PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY APPLICATIONS 17

TABLE 6 PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPANIES 22

TABLE 7 PRIMARY LITHIUM MARKET SUMMARY 33

TABLE 8 GLOBAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY VOLUME AND VALUE, 2013 (MILLIONS) 35

TABLE 9 PROJECTED GLOBAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY VALUE BY MARKET,

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 36

TABLE 10 PROJECTED GLOBAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY VALUE BY TECHNOLOGY,

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 37

TABLE 11 PROJECTED GLOBAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY VALUE BY REGION,

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 37

TABLE 12 SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY TYPES 38

TABLE 13 SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPOSITIONS 40

TABLE 14 SMART BATTERY SYSTEM STAKEHOLDERS 49

TABLE 15 HIGH-TEMPERATURE LITHIUM-IRON SULFIDE BATTERY R &D 51

TABLE 16 THIN-FILM MICRO-BATTERY COMPANIES 56

TABLE 17 SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY COMPANIES 59

TABLE 18 A123 BATTERY COMPARED TO OTHER HIGH-CAPACITY BATTERY SYSTEMS 62

TABLE 19 A123 BATTERY PULSE DURATION AND POWER DENSITY 62

TABLE 20 LITHIUM BATTERY CATHODE MATERIALS 98

TABLE 21 LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTE MATERIALS 99

TABLE 22 LITHIUM BATTERY SEPARATOR MATERIALS 101

TABLE 23 LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTRODE MATERIAL COMPANIES 102

TABLE 24 LITHIUM MINERALS AND BRINE: ESTIMATED WORLD PRODUCTION BY

COUNTRY, 2002-2006 (METRIC TONS)1, 2 157

TABLE 25 LITHIUM MINERALS AND BRINE: ESTIMATED WORLD PRODUCTION BY

COUNTRY, 2007-2011 (METRIC TONS) 158

TABLE 26 LITHIUM PRODUCERS 160

TABLE 27 LITHIUM COMPOUND COMPANIES 164

TABLE 28 U.S. LITHIUM CONSUMPTION, 1994-2012 (METRIC TONS OF CONTAINED

LITHIUM) 165

TABLE 29 GLOBAL LITHIUM MARKETS, 2012 (%) 166

TABLE 30 MANGANESE DIOXIDE COMPANIES 170

TABLE 31 COBALT COMPOUND COMPANIES 171

TABLE 32 GLOBAL COBALT MARKETS (%) 172

TABLE 33 U.S. COBALT CONSUMPTION, 1994-2012 (MT OF COBALT CONTENT) 172

TABLE 34 COBALT PRODUCTION AND RESERVES BY COUNTRY, 2011 AND 2012 (MT

OF COBALT CONTENT) 173

TABLE 35 HISTORIC GLOBAL COBALT PRICES, 1991-2006 ($/LB) 174

TABLE 36 VANADIUM COMPOUND COMPANIES 176

TABLE 37 CARBON COMPOUND COMPANIES 178

TABLE 38 FULLERENE COMPANIES 180

TABLE 39 CONDUCTIVE POLYMER BATTERY ENERGY DENSITIES 182

TABLE 40 HALOGEN BATTERY APPLICATIONS 183

TABLE 41 HALOGEN COMPOUND COMPANIES 184

TABLE 42 LITHIUM CONTAINING BATTERY ELECTROLYTE MATERIALS 185

TABLE 43 LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTE MATERIAL COMPANIES 186

TABLE 44 BATTERY SEPARATOR COMPANIES 189

TABLE 45 PROJECTED GLOBAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY ACTIVE ELEMENT VALUE,

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 196

TABLE 46 PROJECTED GLOBAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTE VALUE,

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 197

TABLE 47 PROJECTED GLOBAL PRIMARY LITHIUM BATTERY SEPARATOR VALUE,

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 197

TABLE 48 PROJECTED SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY ACTIVE ELEMENT VALUE,

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 198

TABLE 49 PROJECTED GLOBAL SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY ELECTROLYTE VALUE,

THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 198

TABLE 50 PROJECTED GLOBAL SECONDARY LITHIUM BATTERY SEPARATOR VALUE,<br

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