LONDON, February 1, 2012 /PRNewswire/ --
Manganese: Global industry markets and outlook, 2012 (12th Edition)
At the end of 2011, market conditions for manganese products were relatively weak, with a large stockpile of ore at Chinese ports, and poor demand for steel long products. Underlying these factors specific to manganese were low business confidence and economic uncertainty, particularly in Europe and the USA, arising in part from the Eurozone debt crisis.
In the longer term, the direction of manganese prices will depend on a combination of economic growth in the industrialised world, and continued expansion of industrialising and emerging economies in Asia and South America. Recovery, particularly of the construction industries in Europe and North America, could lead to a firming of manganese ferroalloy prices in 2013 and beyond. This, coupled with continued infrastructural growth in China, India and elsewhere in Asia, should result in secure markets and rising prices for manganese. Expansion of Asian automobile industries will also stimulate manganese prices.
Steel production to remain primary use for manganese
Used to impart strength and remove sulphur, the use of manganese in the production of steel will remain the largest end-use. In 2010-11, approximately 90% of total manganese consumption was within the steel industry.
Manganese is an essential constituent in iron and steel and has no satisfactory substitute in this application. In 2011, the unit consumption was 8kg Mn/t of steel, although changes in steelmaking processes and practices have gradually reduced the intensity of use. Over the next five years, the rise in steel production will lead to an increase in manganese consumption, with an annual average growth rate of 6% over the next five years, with China and India providing the main impetus for this growth.
Although steel production will remain the largest end-use for manganese, other areas of growth are of interest.
Global demand for manganese in batteries has been relatively stable at about 300ktpy. This has mainly been accounted for by zinc and alkaline primary batteries, but demand for manganese in rechargeable batteries has risen in recent years. Demand for manganese for primary batteries is likely to show some growth, particularly for lithium and alkaline batteries in China and south Asian countries. But in Japan, Europe and North America future demand for manganese in primary batteries is likely to be relatively flat, whereas use of manganese for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries) secondary batteries will rise strongly.
Overall, total demand for manganese is expected to increase by around 6% per year over the next five years.
New capacity will enter the market to supply ever growing appetites
As demand for manganese continues rising, new supply will be required to enter the market to satisfy requirements. Some 10Mtpy (gross weight ore) of new manganese mining capacity is planned, mainly in South Africa where three mining projects with a total output of 6.3Mtpy of saleable ore or sinter are planned. The first on stream is likely to be the 2.4Mtpy Kalagadi project.
About 2.3Mtpy of manganese ferroalloy (including Mn-rich slag) projects were being planned in 2011. The largest of these was the 320ktpy Kalagadi installation, which is scheduled to start up in the second half of 2012 at Coega in the Eastern Cape of South Africa.
In China the electrolytic manganese metal (EMM) industry is being restructured which will result in fewer, larger operations. Some 30 EMM producers with capacities of more than 30ktpy are scheduled to be built from 2011 to 2015. Since 2004, some 450ktpy of small scale EMM capacity has been eliminated in an effort to modernise the industry.
Power restrictions and a return of global economic growth will provide impetus for manganese prices
At the end of 2011, market conditions for manganese products were relatively weak, with a large stockpile of ore at Chinese ports, and the restart of silicomanganese smelters in China as power restrictions were eased.
In the coming years, the direction of manganese prices will depend on a combination of economic growth in the industrialised world, and continued expansion of industrialising and emerging economies in Asia and South America. Recovery, particularly of the construction industries in Europe and North America, could lead to a firming of manganese ferroalloy prices in 2013 and beyond.
Existing and projected manganese ferroalloy capacity in the main producing countries (China, India, South Africa, Ukraine and Norway) appears adequate in the medium term, but recurring power restrictions and industry restructuring in China could lead to further short term supply limitations. However, prices are on the whole expected to increase from 2011 levels, potentially rising by around 20% over the next five years.
Note to editors
The report contains 308 pages, 162 tables and 86 figures. It provides a detailed review of the industry, with subsections on the activities of the leading producing companies. It also analyses consumption, trade and prices.
Summary 1.1 Production and new projects 1.2 Consumption 1.3 Prices 2 History, properties, occurrence and resources of manganese 2.1 History 2.2 Properties of manganese 2.3 Occurrence of manganese 2.3.1 Manganese minerals 2.3.2 Types of manganese deposits 2.4 Global manganese resources 2.4.1 Ocean nodules 3 Mining, processing and refining of manganese 3.1 Manganese ore mining 3.2 Manganese ore processing 3.2.1 Manganese ore production costs 3.3 Manganese smelting and refining 3.3.1 Manganese ferroalloys 184.108.40.206 High-carbon ferromanganese 220.127.116.11 Medium-carbon and low-carbon (refined) ferromanganese 18.104.22.168 Silicomanganese 22.214.171.124 Manganese ferroalloy production costs 3.3.2 Electrolytic manganese metal (EMM) 3.3.3 Manganese dioxide 3.3.4 Manganese chemicals 3.3.5 Manganese recycling 4 Overview of world manganese production 4.1 World mine production of manganese 4.1.1 Production of manganese ore (gross weight) 4.1.2 Production of manganese ore (manganese content) 4.1.3 Manganese mining companies 4.2 Production of manganese ferroalloys 4.2.1 Producers of manganese ferroalloys 4.3 Production of manganese metal 4.4 Production of electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) 4.5 New manganese mining, ferroalloy and EMM projects 5 Manganese mining and processing by country 5.1 Argentina 5.2 Australia 5.2.1 Manganese resources 5.2.2 Producers of manganese ore in Australia 126.96.36.199 Groote Eylandt Mining Co. Pty. Ltd. (Gemco) 188.8.131.52 Consolidated Minerals Ltd. (Consmin) 184.108.40.206 OM Holdings Ltd. (OMH) 220.127.116.11 Process Minerals International (PMI) 18.104.22.168 Hancock Prospecting/PMI - Nicholas Downs 5.2.3 Manganese exploration projects 22.214.171.124 Ant Hill - Auvex Resources/Mesa Minerals 126.96.36.199 Shaw River Manganese 188.8.131.52 Spitfire Resources 184.108.40.206 Jupiter Mines 220.127.116.11 Montezuma Mining Company 18.104.22.168 Other manganese exploration projects 5.2.4 Manganese processing in Australia 22.214.171.124 Tasmanian Electro-Metallurgical Co. Pty. Ltd. (Temco) 5.3 Austria 5.4 Bahrain 5.5 Belgium 5.6 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5.7 Brazil 5.7.1 Resources 5.7.2 Producers of manganese ore in Brazil 126.96.36.199 Vale SA 188.8.131.52 Mineração Buritirama SA 184.108.40.206 Ribeirão Manganese project 5.7.3 Producers of manganese ferroalloys in Brazil 220.127.116.11 Vale Manganês 18.104.22.168 Other producers 5.8 Bulgaria 5.8.1 Euromangan AD 5.9 Burkina Faso 5.1 Canada 5.10.1 Buchans Minerals 5.10.2 Other manganese properties 5.11 Chile 5.12 China 5.12.1 Resources 5.12.2 Mining 22.214.171.124 CITIC Dameng Mining Industries 126.96.36.199 Hubei Changyang Hongxin Industry Group 188.8.131.52 Yunnan Wenshan Dounan Manganese 5.12.3 Production of manganese ferroalloys 5.12.4 Production of manganese metal 5.12.5 Production of manganese dioxide 5.13 Congo 5.14 Costa Rica 5.15 Egypt 5.16 France 5.16.1 Eramet Comilog Manganese 5.16.2 Vale Manganèse France 5.17 Gabon 184.108.40.206 Compagnie Minière de l'Ogooué (Comilog) 220.127.116.11 Manganese exploration projects 5.18 Georgia 5.18.1 Georgian Manganese LLC 5.19 Germany 5.2 Ghana 5.20.1 Ghana Manganese Company 5.20.2 Shaw River Manganese - Butre Project 5.21 Greece 5.22 Guyana 5.23 Hungary 5.24 India 5.24.1 Resources 5.24.2 Mine production 18.104.22.168 MOIL 22.214.171.124 Tata Iron & Steel 126.96.36.199 Sandur Manganese and Iron Ore Ltd. (Sandur) 188.8.131.52 Mangilall Rungta 184.108.40.206 Orissa Mining Corp 220.127.116.11 Orissa Manganese & Minerals 5.24.3 Producers of manganese ferroalloys in India 18.104.22.168 Amit Ferro-Alloys & Steels 22.214.171.124 Baheti Metals and Ferroalloys Ltd. 126.96.36.199 Balasore Alloys 188.8.131.52 BMA Group 184.108.40.206 Chhattisgarh Electricity Co. Ltd. 220.127.116.11 Corporate Ispat Alloys Limited (CIAL) 18.104.22.168 Ferroalloys Corp. (Facor) 22.214.171.124 Hira Ferro Alloys Ltd. 126.96.36.199 Jindal Group 188.8.131.52 Karthik Alloys Ltd. 184.108.40.206 Maharashtra Elektrosmelt Ltd. (MEL) 220.127.116.11 MOIL 18.104.22.168 Nav Bharat Ventures Ltd. (NBV) 22.214.171.124 Rohit Ferro Tech 126.96.36.199 Sandur Manganese and Iron Ore Ltd. 188.8.131.52 Shree Ganesh Metalloy 184.108.40.206 Sova Ispat Group 220.127.116.11 Srinivasa Ferroalloys Ltd. 18.104.22.168 Tanushree Inspat 22.214.171.124 Tata Iron & Steel 126.96.36.199 Universal Ferro and Allied Chemicals Ltd. 5.25 Indonesia 5.26 Iran 5.26.1 Iran Manganese Mines 5.26.2 Manganese ferroalloy production 5.27 Italy 5.28 Ivory Coast 5.29 Japan 5.29.1 Producers of manganese ferroalloys in Japan 188.8.131.52 Chuo Denki Kogyo Co. Ltd. 184.108.40.206 Kobe Steel 220.127.116.11 Mizushima Ferroalloy Co. Ltd. 18.104.22.168 Nippon Denko 5.29.2 EMD production 5.3 Kazakhstan 5.30.1 Mining 22.214.171.124 Eurasian Natural Resources Corp (ENRC) 126.96.36.199 JSC Atasuruda 188.8.131.52 Alash 5.30.2 Production of manganese ferroalloys 184.108.40.206 Aksu ferroalloy plant 220.127.116.11 Temirtau Electrometallurgical Complex 18.104.22.168 Taraz Metallurgical Plant 22.214.171.124 ThyssenKrupp/Electro Manganese 5.31 South Korea 5.31.1 Dongbu Metal Co 5.31.2 Samjung P&A 5.31.3 Simpac Metalloy 5.32 Macedonia 5.33 Malaysia 5.34 Mexico 5.34.1 Minera Autlán 5.34.2 Eramet Mexico 5.34.3 Potential mine production 5.35 Morocco 5.36 Myanmar 5.37 Namibia 5.37.1 Purity Manganese 5.37.2 Shaw River - Otjozondu Manganese Project 5.38 Norway 5.38.1 Producers of manganese ferroalloys in Norway 126.96.36.199 Eramet A/S 188.8.131.52 Vale Manganese Norway AS 5.39 Paraguay 5.4 Peru 5.41 Poland 5.41.1 Producers of manganese ferroalloys in Poland 184.108.40.206 Huta Åaziska 220.127.116.11 Stalmag 5.42 Romania 5.43 Russia 5.43.1 Siberian Metallurgical Company 5.43.2 Other manganese mining projects 5.43.3 Producers of manganese ferroalloys 5.44 Saudi Arabia 5.45 Slovakia 5.45.1 Oravské Ferozliatinárske Závody (OFZ) 5.46 South Africa 5.46.1 Manganese resources 5.46.2 Production 18.104.22.168 Assmang Ltd. 22.214.171.124 Samancor Manganese 126.96.36.199 Transalloys 188.8.131.52 Mogale Alloys 184.108.40.206 United Manganese of Kalahari (UMK) 220.127.116.11 Kalagadi Manganese 18.104.22.168 Tshipi Manganese Mining 22.214.171.124 Other 5.46.3 Producers of manganese metal and chemicals 5.47 Spain 126.96.36.199 FerroAtlántica SA 5.48 Turkey 5.49 Ukraine 5.49.1 Privat Group 188.8.131.52 Mining 184.108.40.206 Manganese ferroalloys 5.49.2 Past producers of ore and ferroalloys 5.5 USA 5.50.1 Mining 5.50.2 Producers of manganese ferroalloys in the USA 220.127.116.11 Eramet Marietta 18.104.22.168 Felman Production Inc. 22.214.171.124 Bateman Mineral Recovery 5.50.3 EMD producers 126.96.36.199 Erachem Comilog 188.8.131.52 Eveready Battery Co. 184.108.40.206 Tronox Inc. 5.50.4 National Defense Stockpile 5.51 Venezuela 5.52 Vietnam 5.53 Zambia 6 Overview of world manganese consumption 6.1 Consumption of manganese ore 6.1.1 Consumption of manganese ore by product 6.2 Consumption of manganese ferroalloys 6.2.1 Consumption of manganese ferroalloys by use 6.3 Consumption of manganese metal (EMM) 6.3.1 Consumption of electrolytic manganese metal by use 7 Uses of manganese 7.1 Use of manganese in iron and steel production 7.1.1 Use of manganese in pig iron production 220.127.116.11 Pig iron production 7.1.2 Use of manganese in crude steel 18.104.22.168 Manganese ferroalloys used 22.214.171.124 Steelmaking processes 7.1.3 Crude steel production 7.1.4 Carbon steels 126.96.36.199 Transportation markets 188.8.131.52 Construction markets 184.108.40.206 Other markets for carbon steels 7.1.5 Alloy engineering steels 220.127.116.11 Full alloy steels 18.104.22.168 HSLA steels 7.1.6 Tool and high speed steels 22.214.171.124 Hot-work tool/die and valve steels 126.96.36.199 Cold-work tool steels 188.8.131.52 Carbon tool steels 7.1.7 Stainless steel 184.108.40.206 Types of stainless steel 220.127.116.11 Uses of stainless steel 18.104.22.168 Production of stainless steel 7.1.8 Use of manganese in cast iron 22.214.171.124 Production of cast irons 126.96.36.199 Metallurgy and applications of cast irons 7.2 Use of manganese in non-ferrous alloys 7.2.1 Aluminium alloys 7.2.2 Copper alloys 188.8.131.52 Other non-ferrous alloys 7.2.3 Superalloys 7.2.4 Other non-steel alloys 7.3 Use of manganese in batteries 7.3.1 Types of batteries 184.108.40.206 Primary batteries 220.127.116.11 Secondary (rechargeable) batteries 7.3.2 Production of batteries 7.4 Other uses for manganese 7.4.1 Colourants and pigments 18.104.22.168 Bricks and tiles 22.214.171.124 Frits 126.96.36.199 Glazes 188.8.131.52 Glass 184.108.40.206 Pigments 220.127.116.11 Tumbling media 7.4.2 Ferrites 7.4.3 Welding fluxes 7.4.4 Agriculture 18.104.22.168 Animal feeds 22.214.171.124 Fertilisers 7.4.5 Water treatment 126.96.36.199 Manganese ore 188.8.131.52 Potassium permanganate 7.4.6 Hydrometallurgy 184.108.40.206 Zinc processing 220.127.116.11 Uranium processing 18.104.22.168 Other uses 7.4.7 Fuel additives 7.4.8 Oxidising agents 7.4.9 Odour control 7.4.10 Catalysts 7.4.11 Sealants 7.4.12 Metal coating 7.4.13 Circuit boards 7.4.14 Sulphur dioxide removal 7.4.15 Hydroquinone production 7.4.16 Other minor uses 8 Outlook for manganese demand to 2016 8.1 Outlook for manganese demand in iron and steel 8.1.1 Outlook for manganese demand in stainless steel 8.2 Outlook for manganese demand in non-ferrous alloys 8.3 Outlook for manganese demand in batteries 9 Analysis of manganese international trade data 9.1 International trade in manganese ore 9.1.1 Exports 9.2 Imports 9.3 International trade in silicomanganese 9.3.1 Exports 9.3.2 Imports 9.4 International trade in high carbon ferromanganese 9.4.1 Exports 9.4.2 Imports 9.5 International trade in refined ferromanganese 9.5.1 Exports 9.5.2 Imports 9.6 International trade in manganese metal 9.6.1 Exports 9.6.2 Imports 9.7 International trade in manganese dioxide 9.7.1 Exports 9.7.2 Imports 10 Manganese marketing and prices 10.1 Prices of manganese ore and concentrates 10.2 Prices of manganese ferroalloys 10.3 Prices of manganese metal 10.4 Prices of manganese dioxide 10.5 Outlook for prices of manganese
Manganese: Global industry markets and outlook, 12th Edition, 2012 is available at £3300 / US$5400 / €4600 from Roskill Information Services Ltd, 54 Russell Road, London SW19 1QL ENGLAND. Tel: +44-20-8417-0087. Fax +44-20-8417-1308 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: http://www.roskill.com/manganese
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