Outlook Positive for Manganese Producers
LONDON, February 1, 2012 /PRNewswire/ --
Manganese: Global industry markets and outlook, 2012 (12th Edition)
At the end of 2011, market conditions for manganese products were relatively weak, with a large stockpile of ore at Chinese ports, and poor demand for steel long products. Underlying these factors specific to manganese were low business confidence and economic uncertainty, particularly in Europe and the USA, arising in part from the Eurozone debt crisis.
In the longer term, the direction of manganese prices will depend on a combination of economic growth in the industrialised world, and continued expansion of industrialising and emerging economies in Asia and South America. Recovery, particularly of the construction industries in Europe and North America, could lead to a firming of manganese ferroalloy prices in 2013 and beyond. This, coupled with continued infrastructural growth in China, India and elsewhere in Asia, should result in secure markets and rising prices for manganese. Expansion of Asian automobile industries will also stimulate manganese prices.
Steel production to remain primary use for manganese
Used to impart strength and remove sulphur, the use of manganese in the production of steel will remain the largest end-use. In 2010-11, approximately 90% of total manganese consumption was within the steel industry.
Manganese is an essential constituent in iron and steel and has no satisfactory substitute in this application. In 2011, the unit consumption was 8kg Mn/t of steel, although changes in steelmaking processes and practices have gradually reduced the intensity of use. Over the next five years, the rise in steel production will lead to an increase in manganese consumption, with an annual average growth rate of 6% over the next five years, with China and India providing the main impetus for this growth.
Although steel production will remain the largest end-use for manganese, other areas of growth are of interest.
Global demand for manganese in batteries has been relatively stable at about 300ktpy. This has mainly been accounted for by zinc and alkaline primary batteries, but demand for manganese in rechargeable batteries has risen in recent years. Demand for manganese for primary batteries is likely to show some growth, particularly for lithium and alkaline batteries in China and south Asian countries. But in Japan, Europe and North America future demand for manganese in primary batteries is likely to be relatively flat, whereas use of manganese for lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries) secondary batteries will rise strongly.
Overall, total demand for manganese is expected to increase by around 6% per year over the next five years.
New capacity will enter the market to supply ever growing appetites
As demand for manganese continues rising, new supply will be required to enter the market to satisfy requirements. Some 10Mtpy (gross weight ore) of new manganese mining capacity is planned, mainly in South Africa where three mining projects with a total output of 6.3Mtpy of saleable ore or sinter are planned. The first on stream is likely to be the 2.4Mtpy Kalagadi project.
About 2.3Mtpy of manganese ferroalloy (including Mn-rich slag) projects were being planned in 2011. The largest of these was the 320ktpy Kalagadi installation, which is scheduled to start up in the second half of 2012 at Coega in the Eastern Cape of South Africa.
In China the electrolytic manganese metal (EMM) industry is being restructured which will result in fewer, larger operations. Some 30 EMM producers with capacities of more than 30ktpy are scheduled to be built from 2011 to 2015. Since 2004, some 450ktpy of small scale EMM capacity has been eliminated in an effort to modernise the industry.
Power restrictions and a return of global economic growth will provide impetus for manganese prices
At the end of 2011, market conditions for manganese products were relatively weak, with a large stockpile of ore at Chinese ports, and the restart of silicomanganese smelters in China as power restrictions were eased.
In the coming years, the direction of manganese prices will depend on a combination of economic growth in the industrialised world, and continued expansion of industrialising and emerging economies in Asia and South America. Recovery, particularly of the construction industries in Europe and North America, could lead to a firming of manganese ferroalloy prices in 2013 and beyond.
Existing and projected manganese ferroalloy capacity in the main producing countries (China, India, South Africa, Ukraine and Norway) appears adequate in the medium term, but recurring power restrictions and industry restructuring in China could lead to further short term supply limitations. However, prices are on the whole expected to increase from 2011 levels, potentially rising by around 20% over the next five years.
Note to editors
The report contains 308 pages, 162 tables and 86 figures. It provides a detailed review of the industry, with subsections on the activities of the leading producing companies. It also analyses consumption, trade and prices.
Summary 1.1 Production and new projects 1.2 Consumption 1.3 Prices 2 History, properties, occurrence and resources of manganese 2.1 History 2.2 Properties of manganese 2.3 Occurrence of manganese 2.3.1 Manganese minerals 2.3.2 Types of manganese deposits 2.4 Global manganese resources 2.4.1 Ocean nodules 3 Mining, processing and refining of manganese 3.1 Manganese ore mining 3.2 Manganese ore processing 3.2.1 Manganese ore production costs 3.3 Manganese smelting and refining 3.3.1 Manganese ferroalloys 126.96.36.199 High-carbon ferromanganese 188.8.131.52 Medium-carbon and low-carbon (refined) ferromanganese 184.108.40.206 Silicomanganese 220.127.116.11 Manganese ferroalloy production costs 3.3.2 Electrolytic manganese metal (EMM) 3.3.3 Manganese dioxide 3.3.4 Manganese chemicals 3.3.5 Manganese recycling 4 Overview of world manganese production 4.1 World mine production of manganese 4.1.1 Production of manganese ore (gross weight) 4.1.2 Production of manganese ore (manganese content) 4.1.3 Manganese mining companies 4.2 Production of manganese ferroalloys 4.2.1 Producers of manganese ferroalloys 4.3 Production of manganese metal 4.4 Production of electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) 4.5 New manganese mining, ferroalloy and EMM projects 5 Manganese mining and processing by country 5.1 Argentina 5.2 Australia 5.2.1 Manganese resources 5.2.2 Producers of manganese ore in Australia 18.104.22.168 Groote Eylandt Mining Co. Pty. Ltd. (Gemco) 22.214.171.124 Consolidated Minerals Ltd. (Consmin) 126.96.36.199 OM Holdings Ltd. (OMH) 188.8.131.52 Process Minerals International (PMI) 184.108.40.206 Hancock Prospecting/PMI - Nicholas Downs 5.2.3 Manganese exploration projects 220.127.116.11 Ant Hill - Auvex Resources/Mesa Minerals 18.104.22.168 Shaw River Manganese 22.214.171.124 Spitfire Resources 126.96.36.199 Jupiter Mines 188.8.131.52 Montezuma Mining Company 184.108.40.206 Other manganese exploration projects 5.2.4 Manganese processing in Australia 220.127.116.11 Tasmanian Electro-Metallurgical Co. Pty. Ltd. (Temco) 5.3 Austria 5.4 Bahrain 5.5 Belgium 5.6 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5.7 Brazil 5.7.1 Resources 5.7.2 Producers of manganese ore in Brazil 18.104.22.168 Vale SA 22.214.171.124 Mineração Buritirama SA 126.96.36.199 Ribeirão Manganese project 5.7.3 Producers of manganese ferroalloys in Brazil 188.8.131.52 Vale Manganês 184.108.40.206 Other producers 5.8 Bulgaria 5.8.1 Euromangan AD 5.9 Burkina Faso 5.1 Canada 5.10.1 Buchans Minerals 5.10.2 Other manganese properties 5.11 Chile 5.12 China 5.12.1 Resources 5.12.2 Mining 220.127.116.11 CITIC Dameng Mining Industries 18.104.22.168 Hubei Changyang Hongxin Industry Group 22.214.171.124 Yunnan Wenshan Dounan Manganese 5.12.3 Production of manganese ferroalloys 5.12.4 Production of manganese metal 5.12.5 Production of manganese dioxide 5.13 Congo 5.14 Costa Rica 5.15 Egypt 5.16 France 5.16.1 Eramet Comilog Manganese 5.16.2 Vale Manganèse France 5.17 Gabon 126.96.36.199 Compagnie Minière de l'Ogooué (Comilog) 188.8.131.52 Manganese exploration projects 5.18 Georgia 5.18.1 Georgian Manganese LLC 5.19 Germany 5.2 Ghana 5.20.1 Ghana Manganese Company 5.20.2 Shaw River Manganese - Butre Project 5.21 Greece 5.22 Guyana 5.23 Hungary 5.24 India 5.24.1 Resources 5.24.2 Mine production 184.108.40.206 MOIL 220.127.116.11 Tata Iron & Steel 18.104.22.168 Sandur Manganese and Iron Ore Ltd. (Sandur) 22.214.171.124 Mangilall Rungta 126.96.36.199 Orissa Mining Corp 188.8.131.52 Orissa Manganese & Minerals 5.24.3 Producers of manganese ferroalloys in India 184.108.40.206 Amit Ferro-Alloys & Steels 220.127.116.11 Baheti Metals and Ferroalloys Ltd. 18.104.22.168 Balasore Alloys 22.214.171.124 BMA Group 126.96.36.199 Chhattisgarh Electricity Co. Ltd. 188.8.131.52 Corporate Ispat Alloys Limited (CIAL) 184.108.40.206 Ferroalloys Corp. (Facor) 220.127.116.11 Hira Ferro Alloys Ltd. 18.104.22.168 Jindal Group 22.214.171.124 Karthik Alloys Ltd. 126.96.36.199 Maharashtra Elektrosmelt Ltd. (MEL) 188.8.131.52 MOIL 184.108.40.206 Nav Bharat Ventures Ltd. (NBV) 220.127.116.11 Rohit Ferro Tech 18.104.22.168 Sandur Manganese and Iron Ore Ltd. 22.214.171.124 Shree Ganesh Metalloy 126.96.36.199 Sova Ispat Group 188.8.131.52 Srinivasa Ferroalloys Ltd. 184.108.40.206 Tanushree Inspat 220.127.116.11 Tata Iron & Steel 18.104.22.168 Universal Ferro and Allied Chemicals Ltd. 5.25 Indonesia 5.26 Iran 5.26.1 Iran Manganese Mines 5.26.2 Manganese ferroalloy production 5.27 Italy 5.28 Ivory Coast 5.29 Japan 5.29.1 Producers of manganese ferroalloys in Japan 22.214.171.124 Chuo Denki Kogyo Co. Ltd. 126.96.36.199 Kobe Steel 188.8.131.52 Mizushima Ferroalloy Co. Ltd. 184.108.40.206 Nippon Denko 5.29.2 EMD production 5.3 Kazakhstan 5.30.1 Mining 220.127.116.11 Eurasian Natural Resources Corp (ENRC) 18.104.22.168 JSC Atasuruda 22.214.171.124 Alash 5.30.2 Production of manganese ferroalloys 126.96.36.199 Aksu ferroalloy plant 188.8.131.52 Temirtau Electrometallurgical Complex 184.108.40.206 Taraz Metallurgical Plant 220.127.116.11 ThyssenKrupp/Electro Manganese 5.31 South Korea 5.31.1 Dongbu Metal Co 5.31.2 Samjung P&A 5.31.3 Simpac Metalloy 5.32 Macedonia 5.33 Malaysia 5.34 Mexico 5.34.1 Minera Autlán 5.34.2 Eramet Mexico 5.34.3 Potential mine production 5.35 Morocco 5.36 Myanmar 5.37 Namibia 5.37.1 Purity Manganese 5.37.2 Shaw River - Otjozondu Manganese Project 5.38 Norway 5.38.1 Producers of manganese ferroalloys in Norway 18.104.22.168 Eramet A/S 22.214.171.124 Vale Manganese Norway AS 5.39 Paraguay 5.4 Peru 5.41 Poland 5.41.1 Producers of manganese ferroalloys in Poland 126.96.36.199 Huta Åaziska 188.8.131.52 Stalmag 5.42 Romania 5.43 Russia 5.43.1 Siberian Metallurgical Company 5.43.2 Other manganese mining projects 5.43.3 Producers of manganese ferroalloys 5.44 Saudi Arabia 5.45 Slovakia 5.45.1 Oravské Ferozliatinárske Závody (OFZ) 5.46 South Africa 5.46.1 Manganese resources 5.46.2 Production 184.108.40.206 Assmang Ltd. 220.127.116.11 Samancor Manganese 18.104.22.168 Transalloys 22.214.171.124 Mogale Alloys 126.96.36.199 United Manganese of Kalahari (UMK) 188.8.131.52 Kalagadi Manganese 184.108.40.206 Tshipi Manganese Mining 220.127.116.11 Other 5.46.3 Producers of manganese metal and chemicals 5.47 Spain 18.104.22.168 FerroAtlántica SA 5.48 Turkey 5.49 Ukraine 5.49.1 Privat Group 22.214.171.124 Mining 126.96.36.199 Manganese ferroalloys 5.49.2 Past producers of ore and ferroalloys 5.5 USA 5.50.1 Mining 5.50.2 Producers of manganese ferroalloys in the USA 188.8.131.52 Eramet Marietta 184.108.40.206 Felman Production Inc. 220.127.116.11 Bateman Mineral Recovery 5.50.3 EMD producers 18.104.22.168 Erachem Comilog 22.214.171.124 Eveready Battery Co. 126.96.36.199 Tronox Inc. 5.50.4 National Defense Stockpile 5.51 Venezuela 5.52 Vietnam 5.53 Zambia 6 Overview of world manganese consumption 6.1 Consumption of manganese ore 6.1.1 Consumption of manganese ore by product 6.2 Consumption of manganese ferroalloys 6.2.1 Consumption of manganese ferroalloys by use 6.3 Consumption of manganese metal (EMM) 6.3.1 Consumption of electrolytic manganese metal by use 7 Uses of manganese 7.1 Use of manganese in iron and steel production 7.1.1 Use of manganese in pig iron production 188.8.131.52 Pig iron production 7.1.2 Use of manganese in crude steel 184.108.40.206 Manganese ferroalloys used 220.127.116.11 Steelmaking processes 7.1.3 Crude steel production 7.1.4 Carbon steels 18.104.22.168 Transportation markets 22.214.171.124 Construction markets 126.96.36.199 Other markets for carbon steels 7.1.5 Alloy engineering steels 188.8.131.52 Full alloy steels 184.108.40.206 HSLA steels 7.1.6 Tool and high speed steels 220.127.116.11 Hot-work tool/die and valve steels 18.104.22.168 Cold-work tool steels 22.214.171.124 Carbon tool steels 7.1.7 Stainless steel 126.96.36.199 Types of stainless steel 188.8.131.52 Uses of stainless steel 184.108.40.206 Production of stainless steel 7.1.8 Use of manganese in cast iron 220.127.116.11 Production of cast irons 18.104.22.168 Metallurgy and applications of cast irons 7.2 Use of manganese in non-ferrous alloys 7.2.1 Aluminium alloys 7.2.2 Copper alloys 22.214.171.124 Other non-ferrous alloys 7.2.3 Superalloys 7.2.4 Other non-steel alloys 7.3 Use of manganese in batteries 7.3.1 Types of batteries 126.96.36.199 Primary batteries 188.8.131.52 Secondary (rechargeable) batteries 7.3.2 Production of batteries 7.4 Other uses for manganese 7.4.1 Colourants and pigments 184.108.40.206 Bricks and tiles 220.127.116.11 Frits 18.104.22.168 Glazes 22.214.171.124 Glass 126.96.36.199 Pigments 188.8.131.52 Tumbling media 7.4.2 Ferrites 7.4.3 Welding fluxes 7.4.4 Agriculture 184.108.40.206 Animal feeds 220.127.116.11 Fertilisers 7.4.5 Water treatment 18.104.22.168 Manganese ore 22.214.171.124 Potassium permanganate 7.4.6 Hydrometallurgy 126.96.36.199 Zinc processing 188.8.131.52 Uranium processing 184.108.40.206 Other uses 7.4.7 Fuel additives 7.4.8 Oxidising agents 7.4.9 Odour control 7.4.10 Catalysts 7.4.11 Sealants 7.4.12 Metal coating 7.4.13 Circuit boards 7.4.14 Sulphur dioxide removal 7.4.15 Hydroquinone production 7.4.16 Other minor uses 8 Outlook for manganese demand to 2016 8.1 Outlook for manganese demand in iron and steel 8.1.1 Outlook for manganese demand in stainless steel 8.2 Outlook for manganese demand in non-ferrous alloys 8.3 Outlook for manganese demand in batteries 9 Analysis of manganese international trade data 9.1 International trade in manganese ore 9.1.1 Exports 9.2 Imports 9.3 International trade in silicomanganese 9.3.1 Exports 9.3.2 Imports 9.4 International trade in high carbon ferromanganese 9.4.1 Exports 9.4.2 Imports 9.5 International trade in refined ferromanganese 9.5.1 Exports 9.5.2 Imports 9.6 International trade in manganese metal 9.6.1 Exports 9.6.2 Imports 9.7 International trade in manganese dioxide 9.7.1 Exports 9.7.2 Imports 10 Manganese marketing and prices 10.1 Prices of manganese ore and concentrates 10.2 Prices of manganese ferroalloys 10.3 Prices of manganese metal 10.4 Prices of manganese dioxide 10.5 Outlook for prices of manganese
Manganese: Global industry markets and outlook, 12th Edition, 2012 is available at £3300 / US$5400 / €4600 from Roskill Information Services Ltd, 54 Russell Road, London SW19 1QL ENGLAND. Tel: +44-20-8417-0087. Fax +44-20-8417-1308 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: http://www.roskill.com/manganese
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