Reportlinker Adds Quantum Dots: Technologies and Global Markets

NEW YORK, March 24, 2011 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Quantum Dots: Technologies and Global Markets

http://www.reportlinker.com/p0461667/Quantum-Dots-Technologies-and-Global-Markets.html

The global market for quantum dots (QDs) in 2010 was worth an estimated $67 million in revenues. This market is projected to grow over the next 5 years at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 59.3%, reaching almost $670 million by 2015, representing a tenfold increase.    

Optoelectronics represents one of the greatest market sectors. This area was launched in 2010 and is expected to increase at a 128.4% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) to reach a value of $310 million in 2015.

The established in the biomedical sector was valued at $48 million in 2010. This sector is expected to increase at a 30% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) to reach a value of $179 million in 2015. 

INTRODUCTION 

MOTIVATION

Among the many subsets of nanomaterials, quantum dots (QDs) are like no other. At dimensions typically below 10 nanometers (nm), nanocrystalline (nc) semiconductors (SC), metals, and magnetic materials can all exhibit extraordinary quantum confinement phenomenon.   Basically, at these dimensions, their physical size encroaches upon the fundamental quantum confinement dimensions of orbiting electrons that are uniquely prescribed by their atomic nucleus. Within the regime of these critical dimensions, QDs exhibit distinctly different behavior from their bulk form, which manifests itself, for example, in distinctly different optical, electronic, and magnetic properties. 

Today, scientists can precisely synthesize nanocrystalline materials at these critical dimensions and thereby systematically tune their quantum confining behavior.   As a result, there is currently enormous interest in exploiting and capitalizing on the unique properties exhibited by QD materials.   As a harbinger for future business developments, colloidal QD-bioconjugates are among the first wave of commercial product applications stimulating market interest.   Primarily, these have quickly established a niche market in the life sciences and biomedical communities, where they provide unrivalled cellular imaging and therapeutic detection capabilities.   Other promising prototype developments of SC QDs now on the commercial-horizon include: a new generation of flash memory devices; nanomaterial enhancements for improving the performance of flexible organic light-emitting diodes (LEDs), as well as solid-state white-LED lighting; and a core technology used in flexible solar panel coatings.

With these impending commercial developments and their enormous business potential, this report provides a timely assessment of quantum dot materials—where they currently are, and where they might be in the foreseeable future.

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES

The primary objective of this report is threefold: (1) to assess the current state-of-the-art in synthesizing QDs; (2) to identify the current market players seeking to exploit QD behavior; and (3) to evaluate actual or potential markets in terms of application, type, and projected market revenues.

SCOPE OF REPORT

Since their simultaneous discovery in Russia and the U.S. almost 30 years ago, SC QDs, until quite recently, have resided exclusively in the domain of solid state physics, where they have been fabricated using expensive and sophisticated molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) or chemical vapor deposition (CVD) equipment.   However, in a relatively short time frame this situation has changed dramatically with the recent commercial availability of colloidal QDs synthesized by less expensive wet-chemical processes. Practically, the availability of QDs in a colloidally dispersed form will help demystify these somewhat esoteric materials.   Most importantly, colloidal-QDs now provide access to a much broader audience, which promises to further widen their potential market exploitation.

Current and future applications of QDs impact a broad range of industrial markets.   These include, for example, biology and biomedicine; computing and memory; electronics and displays; optoelectronic devices such as LEDs, lighting, and lasers; optical components used in telecommunications; and security applications such as covert identification tagging or biowarfare detection sensors.

This report probes in considerable depth the early pioneers and champions in this field both in industry, government, and academic laboratories.   The most active organizations, promising technical applications, and developments realizable within the next 5 years, will all be highlighted. 

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report represents a major update of the BCC Research report (NAN027B) Quantum Dots: Technologies and Commercial Prospects, published in September 2008. The most significant revisions in the new edition include:

An extensive updated patent analysis (2008 to 2010)

An in-depth assessment of the unfolding commercial markets

Progress in the synthesis and commercial scaleup by QD producers

Updated company profiles of the producers and end users dictating market development

Updated 5-year market projection analysis of the emerging QD market

This is the third exclusive report to focus on QD nanomaterials from the perspective of their technology, applications, and future business prospects. Thus, this up-to-date technical assessment and business analysis should prove an especially valuable resource to individuals and organizations seeking more insight into the current status of QDs, their stand-alone capabilities within the spectrum of nanomaterials, and time-to-market commercial development. The report's comprehensive technical and business assessment on the current status of the QD-based industry should prove informative to nanomaterials manufacturers, investors seeking near-term commercialization opportunities, technologists confronted with nanomaterial device integration issues, and companies specifically interested in exploiting QDs in biological, biomedical, electronics, energy, optics, optoelectronics, and security applications.

METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report. This report is primarily derived from the enormous amount of patent and technical literature relating to QDs disclosed in the public domain.   In addition, complementary information has also been drawn from the business community, such as company investment news, company profiles, press releases, and personal telephone interviews with selected companies. 

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

John Oliver, the author of this report, is the founder of Innov8 Solutions, which provides advanced materials consultation services to various clients. He has more than 30 years of industrial research and development (R&D) experience in surface and colloid science, spanning a wide range of materials technology.  Primarily while working as a senior scientist at Xerox Research Centre of Canada, he developed an invaluable understanding in advanced materials used in digital printing technologies such as xerography and ink-jet printing.   In the past 10 years, following his involvements with the Alberta Research Council and several local universities, his interests have evolved into the realm of nanomaterials and microsystems device integration.   He has a Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from McGill University, a BSc degree in Chemistry from Surrey University, U.K. His publications include more than 40 peer-reviewed technical articles, 20 patents, and one technical book.

Between 2005 and 2009, he was the editor of BCC's bimonthly Nanoparticle News and has authored four previous BCC technical reports: Quantum Dots: Technical Status and Market Prospects (NAN027A, NANO27B); Carbon Nanotubes: Technologies and Commercial Prospects (NAN024C); and Carbon Nanotubes: Technologies and Global Markets (NANO24D).

Chapter- 1: INTRODUCTION

MOTIVATION 1

STUDY GOAL AND OBJECTIVES 1

SCOPE OF REPORT 2

INTENDED AUDIENCE 2

METHODOLOGY AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION 3

ANALYST CREDENTIALS 3

RELATED BCC REPORTS 3

BCC ONLINE SERVICES 4

DISCLAIMER 4

Chapter-2: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET REVENUE FOR QUANTUM DOTS IN PROMISING MARKET SECTORS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 6

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET REVENUE FOR QUANTUM DOTS IN PROMISING MARKET SECTORS, 2009–2015 ($ MILLIONS) 7

Chapter-3: TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

WHAT IS A QUANTUM DOT? 8

HISTORY OF QUANTUM DOTS 9

TABLE 1 CHRONOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF QDS: FROM RESEARCH CURIOSITY THROUGH COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT, 1960S-2010 9

PROPERTIES OF QUANTUM DOTS 10

FIGURE 1  LUMINESCENCE SIZE REGIMES FOR DIFFERENT SEMICONDUCTOR AND METAL QUANTUM DOTS 10

TABLE 2   COMPARISON OF EMISSION WAVELENGTH OF SC AND METAL NC QUANTUM DOTS AS A FUNCTION OF THEIR SIZE 11

TABLE 3   OTHER PROPERTIES OF COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOTS 12

QUANTUM DOT INDUSTRY 12

APPLICATIONS AND STRUCTURAL TYPES OF QUANTUM DOTS 13

BASIC STRUCTURES 14

TABLE 4   HIERARCHY AND VARIOUS TYPES OF QDS: BASIC STRUCTURES 14

COMPOSITE STRUCTURES 15

TABLE 5   HIERARCHY AND VARIOUS TYPES OF QDS: COMPOSITE STRUCTURES 15

COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS 15

TABLE 6 QD MATERIAL TYPES AND THEIR COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS 16

TABLE 7    KEY QUANTUM DOT TECHNOLOGIES AND APPLICATIONS 17

PATENT ANALYSIS 18

QUANTUM DOT PRODUCTION (SYNTHESIS) AND DEVICE ASSEMBLY 19

SYNTHESIS OF METAL CHALCOGENIDE QUANTUM DOTS 19

VAPOR PHASE 19

TABLE 8 QUANTUM DOT PRODUCTION METHODS: VAPOR PHASE 20

Aerosol Drop Method 20

Melt Atomization 21

Chemical Vapor Deposition 21

Physical Vapor Deposition 21

Molecular Beam Epitaxy 22

LIQUID PHASE ("WET" COLLOID CHEMISTRY) 22

TABLE 9 QUANTUM DOT PRODUCTION METHODS: LIQUID PHASE 23

Colloid 24

Batch Process 24

Continuous Flow 25

Precipitation 26

SOLID PHASE 27

TABLE 10 QUANTUM DOT PRODUCTION METHODS: SOLID PHASE 27

SYNTHESIS OF NANOCRYSTALLINE SILICON QDS 27

LIQUID PHASE SYNTHESIS 28

TABLE 11 VARIOUS METHODS USED FOR SI-NC SYNTHESIS 28

TABLE 11 (CONTINUED) 29

SOLID-PHASE SYNTHESIS 30

VAPOR-PHASE SYNTHESIS 31

SYNTHESIS OF NANOCRYSTALLINE METALS AND QDS 31

SYNTHESIS OF NANOCRYSTALLINE … (CONTINUED) 32

TABLE 12 VARIOUS SYNTHETIC METHODS AND PHOTOPHYSICAL BEHAVIOR OF METAL-NCS 33

SYNTHESIS OF CARBON QUANTUM DOTS 34

ASSEMBLY OF QUANTUM DOT STRUCTURES 35

TABLE 13 QUANTUM DOT STRUCTURE ASSEMBLY METHODS 36

LITHOGRAPHY 37

Conventional Top-Down Methods 37

Nanolithography 37

FILM FORMATION 38

Cast Film 39

Langmuir-Blodgett 39

Layer-by-Layer 39

Metamaterials 40

Biomolecular Self-Assembly 41

Photopatternable Arrays 42

OTHER TECHNIQUES 42

Digital Printing 42

Nanoporous Templates 43

Nanoporous Templates (Continued) 44

Chapter-4: PATENT ANALYSIS

RATIONALE AND METHODOLOGY 45

RATIONALE AND METHODOLOGY (CONTINUED) 46

U.S. PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE (USPTO) SEARCH 47

CHRONOLOGICAL GROWTH TRENDS IN USPTO ACTIVITY 47

FIGURE 2   U.S. QD PATENTS ISSUED, 1986–JUNE 29, 2010 (CUMULATIVE TOTAL: 3,124) 47

FIGURE 3 COMPARISON OF U.S. QD PATENTS ISSUED AND PENDING, 2001–2010* CUMULATIVE TOTAL: 2,881 (ISSUED); 7,225 (PENDING) 48

USPTO ACTIVITY CLASSIFIED BY INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION SECTOR 49

FIGURE 4 BREAKDOWN (%) FOR THE MAIN INDUSTRY/APPLICATION SECTORS EMERGING FROM QD-PATENTS ISSUED (2008–JUNE 29, 2010) (%) 49

FIGURE 4 (CONTINUED) 50

TABLE 14 INDUSTRIAL SECTORS AND EXEMPLARY APPLICATIONS EMERGING FROM ISSUED U.S. QD-PATENTS, 2008–2010 50

FIGURE 5 RELATIVE TRENDS IN INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION SECTORS FOR ISSUED U.S. QD-PATENTS FOR THE PERIOD, 1998–2010 (%) 51

FIGURE 6   U.S. VERSUS FOREIGN QD PATENTS ISSUED (2008–JUNE 29, 2010): CLASSIFIED BY APPLICATION SECTOR TOTALS: 905 (U.S.), 292 (FOREIGN) 52

FIGURE 6 (CONTINUED) 53

USPTO ACTIVITY: ASIAN, EUROPEAN, AND OTHER COUNTRIES 53

FIGURE 7 U.S. QD PATENTS ISSUED ASSIGNED TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES, FOR THE PERIOD 2008–JUNE 29, 2010 TOTALS: ASIA (173), EUROPE (92), ROW (24) 54

FIGURE 8 U.S. QD FILED PATENTS ASSSIGNED TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES, 2008–JULY 1, 2010 55

USPTO ACTIVITY: SMALL U.S. COMPANIES 55

TABLE 15 LEADING U.S. SMALL BUSINESSES GRANTED MUTIPLE PATENTS FOR QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2008–JULY 1, 2010 56

TABLE 16 OTHER U.S. SMALL BUSINESSES GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS FOR QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2008–JULY 1, 2010 57

USPTO ACTIVITY: LARGE U.S. COMPANIES 58

TABLE 17 LEADING U.S. LARGE BUSINESSES GRANTED MUTIPLE PATENTS IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2008–JULY 1, 2010 58

TABLE 17 (CONTINUED) 59

USPTO ACTIVITY: U.S. ACADEMIC, GOVERNMENT, OTHER INSTITUTIONS 59

TABLE 18 U.S. ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2008–JULY 1, 2010 60

TABLE 19 U.S. GOVERNMENT AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2008–JULY 1, 2010 61

USPTO ACTIVITY: ACCORDING TO FOREIGN OWNERSHIP 61

Asia 61

TABLE 20 LEADING JAPANESE ORGANIZATIONS GRANTED MULTIPLE PATENTS IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2008–JULY 1, 2010 62

TABLE 21 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS IN OTHER ASIAN COUNTRIES GRANTED PATENTS IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2005–2007 63

Europe 63

TABLE 22 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS IN EUROPE AND OTHER COUNTRIES GRANTED PATENTS IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2008–JULY 1, 2010 64

TABLE 22 (CONTINUED) 65

Rest of the World 65

TABLE 23 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS IN REST OF THE WORLD COUNTRIES GRANTED PATENTS IN QD-RELATED TECHNOLOGY, 2008–JULY 1, 2010 66

IMPACT OF GOVERNMENT FUNDED RESEARCH ON PATENT ACTIVITY 66

TABLE 24 MAJOR U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES FUNDING QD-BASED RESEARCH 67

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS & TECHNOLOGY (NIST) 67

NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION (NSF) 67

Chapter-5: INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS

QUANTUM DOT PRODUCERS 68

WET CHEMICAL-BASED SYNTHESIS 68

TABLE 25 CURRENT PRODUCERS OF COLLOIDAL QUANTUM DOTS (CQDS) 69

American Dye Source, Inc. 70

American Elements 71

Bayer Technology Services GmbH 72

Evident Technologies 73

Evident Technologies (Continued) 74

TABLE 26 EVIDENT TECHNOLOGIES QUANTUM DOT GRADES 75

TABLE 27 RECENT BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTS AT EVIDENT TECHNOLOGIES 76

TABLE 27 (CONTINUED) 77

Hanwha Nanotech Corporation 78

Innovalight, Inc. 78

Life Technologies Corporation 79

Life Technologies … (Continued) 80

Life Technologies … (Continued) 80

Life Technologies … (Continued) 81

Life Technologies … (Continued) 82

Melben 83

Nanoco Technologies, Ltd. 83

Nanoco Technologies, Ltd. (Continued) 84

Nanosquare Company Ltd. 85

NN-Labs, LLC 86

NN-Labs, LLC (Continued) 87

NN-Labs, LLC (Continued) 88

Ocean NanoTech LLC 89

PlasmaChem GmbH 90

QD Solution 90

Reade Advanced Materials 91

Selah Technologies, LLC 91

Vive Nano, Inc. 92

Vive Nano, Inc. (Continued) 93

Voxtel Inc. 94

SOLID STATE-BASED SYNTHESIS 95

TABLE 28 U.S. LARGE CORPORATIONS INTERESTED IN SOLID-STATE SYNTHESIS OF QDS BASED ON PATENT ANALYSIS, 2008–2010* 96

COMMERCIAL QD-BASED APPLICATION PLATFORMS 96

TABLE 29 PROPONENTS OF COMMERCIAL QD-BASED PRODUCT APPLICATION PLATFORMS 97

TABLE 29 (CONTINUED) 98

NANOSYS INC. 98

Nanosys Inc. (Continued) 99

Nanosys Inc. (Continued) 100

TABLE 30 NANOSYS' LATEST QD-FOCUSED BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTS 101

TABLE 31 NANOSYS' EARLIER NANOMATERIALS-BASED BUSINESS DEVELOPMENTS, 2005-2008 102

FOREIGN COMPETITION IN QUANTUM DOTS 102

WET CHEMICAL-BASED SYNTHESIS 103

SOLID-STATE–BASED SYNTHESIS 103

TABLE 32 LEADING ASIAN COMPANIES CURRENTLY DEVELOPING SOLID-STATE–BASED, QD-BASED DEVICES 103

TABLE 33 EUROPEAN AND OTHER FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS CURRENTLY INVOLVED IN COMMERCIALLY DEVELOPING SOLID-STATE QD–BASED DEVICES 104

DRIVING FORCES IMPACTING QD INDUSTRY 104

SPECIALTY AND POTENTIAL FOR COMMODITY QD APPLICATIONS 104

SOLAR ENERGY 105

IMPORTANT FACTORS NURTURING GROWTH 106

DEVICE FABRICATION 106

TOP-DOWN IN SITU LITHOGRAPHIC FABRICATION 106

BOTTOM-UP ASSEMBLY 107

Solid State Synthesis 107

Wet Colloid Synthesis 108

BUILDING OF QUANTUM DOT DEVICES 108

TABLE 34 PROCESS SYNTHESIS AND DEVICE FABRICATION PARADIGMS FOR COLLOIDAL-QDS 109

TABLE 35 RECENT DEVICE FABRICATION DEVELOPMENTS FOR COLLOIDAL-QDS 110

CHALLENGES AND ISSUES FACING THE QD INDUSTRY 110

TABLE 36 MAJOR ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FACING THE COLLOID QD INDUSTRY 111

NANOTOXICITY 111

TABLE 37 RECENT R&D STUDIES IN THE NANOTOXICOLOGY OF QD SYSTEMS 112

RoHS Directive 113

Non-toxic QD systems 113

TABLE 38 RECENT R&D IN NON-TOXIC QD SYSTEMS 114

PRODUCTION SCALE-UP OF QDS 114

Production Scale-up of QDs (Continued) 115

SURFACE CHEMICAL PASSIVATION 116

TRADE PRACTICES/REGULATORY ISSUES AND INFORMATION 116

REGULATORY ISSUES 116

TABLE 39 RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN NANOMATERIALS SAFETY AND IMPENDING REGULATION 117

Toxicity Studies 118

Environmental Studies 118

GREEN CHEMISTRY 119

EVOLUTIONARY STAGE OF INDUSTRY 119

COLLOIDAL QDS 119

Colloidal QDs versus Epitaxial QDs 120

Chapter-6: MARKETS BY APPLICATION

TABLE 40 COMMERCIALLY PROMISING SECTORS WITH FIRST-GENERATION OR PROTOTYPE QD-BASED PRODUCTS 121

BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIOMEDICINE 122

BIOTECHNOLOGY 123

BIOLABEL SYNTHESIS 123

TABLE 41 ADVANTAGES OF QUANTUM DOTS AS BIOLOGICAL LABELS 123

BIOLABEL SYNTHESIS (Continued) 124

TABLE 42 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED AND FILED ON QD BIOLABEL SYNTHESIS, 2001—2003 125

QD-TAGGED MICROBEADS 126

LIVE CELL IMAGING 126

Live Cell Imaging (Continued) 127

MOLECULAR SPECIES DIAGNOSIS/DETECTION 128

TABLE 43 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED AND FILED ON QD BIOTECHNOLOGY, MOLECULAR SPECIES DIAGNOSIS/DETECTION, 2001–2003 128

TABLE 43 (CONTINUED) 129

ANALYTICAL/INSTRUMENTS METHODS 129

TABLE 44 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED ON QD BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ANALYTICAL/INSTRUMENT METHODS, 2001–2003 129

TABLE 44 (CONTINUED) 130

SENSOR AND MICROARRAY APPLICATIONS 130

TABLE 45 U.S. PATENTS ISSUED ON QD-BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON SENSOR AND MICRO-ARRAY APPLICATIONS, 2001–2003 131

MORE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS 131

Commercial Organizations 131

TABLE 46 COMPANIES LEADING QD-BIOTECHNOLOGY/MEDICAL APPLICATIONS BASED ON U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY, 2005–2008 132

TABLE 46 (CONTINUED) 133

TABLE 47 COMPANIES LEADING QD-BIOTECHNOLOGY/MEDICAL APPLICATIONS BASED ON U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY, 2008–OCTOBER 28, 2010 133

TABLE 47 (CONTINUED) 134

Academic Organizations 134

TABLE 48 THE MOST ACTIVE UNIVERSITIES INVOLVED IN QD-BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ACCORDING TO U.S. PATENTS ISSUED, 2005–2007 135

TABLE 49 LEADING UNIVERSITIES AND HOSPITALS INVOLVED IN QD-BIO/MEDICAL APPLICATIONS ACCORDING TO U.S. PATENTS, 2008—OCTOBER 28, 2010 136

TABLE 49 (CONTINUED) 137

COMPANY PROFILES—BIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS 137

Affymetrix, Inc. 137

Amnis Corporation 138

Applera Corporation 138

Biocrystal Ltd. 139

Clinical Micro Sensors, Inc./Osmetech Molecular Diagnostics 140

Clontech Laboratories, Inc. 141

Genoptix, Inc. 141

Helicos BioSciences Corporation 142

Illumina, Inc. 142

Intel Corporation 143

Integrated Raman Bioanalyzer System 144

MEMS-Based Hydrodynamic Focusing 145

LI-COR Incorporated 145

Luminex Corporation 146

Nanosphere, Inc. 146

Pharmaceutical Product Development, Inc. 147

U.S. Genomics, Inc. 147

BIOMEDICINE 148

DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS 148

TABLE 50 QD MEDICAL APPLICATIONS DERIVED FROM U.S. PATENTS: 2000–2004 149

TABLE 50 (CONTINUED) 150

MORE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS 150

TABLE 51 QD MEDICAL APPLICATIONS DERIVED FROM U.S. PATENTS, 2005–2007 151

BIOPHARMACEUTICS 152

CANCER THERAPY AND DIAGNOSTICS 152

Cancer Therapy and Diagnostics (Continued) 153

DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS 154

Alverix, Inc. 154

Ventana Medical Systems, Inc. 155

DISEASE SCREENING 155

IMPLANTABLE DEVICES 156

Motorola Inc. 156

IntrinsiQ Materials, Ltd 157

SURGICAL AIDS 158

Medical Instrumentation 158

Spectros Corporation 158

Photodynamic Therapy 159

Light Sciences Oncology, Inc. 159

Teledyne Lighting & Display Products 160

ELECTRONICS 160

TABLE 52    NOVEL QD-BASED DEVICES AND APPLICATIONS IN ELECTRONICS 160

TABLE 52 (CONTINUED) 161

LIMITATIONS OF CONVENTIONAL ELECTRONIC DEVICE FABRICATION 161

Top-Down QD Electronic Device Assembly 162

TABLE 53 U.S. PATENT-BASED DEVELOPMENTS IN QD INTEGRATION USING CONVENTIONAL MICROELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, 1999–2004 162

TABLE 53 (CONTINUED) 163

TABLE 54 U.S. PATENT-BASED DEVELOPMENTS IN QD INTEGRATION USING CONVENTIONAL MICROELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, 2005–2007 164

Bottom-Up QD Electronic Device Assembly—Molecular Electronics 164

TABLE 55 U.S. PATENT-BASED DEVELOPMENTS IN QD INTEGRATION INTO UNCONVENTIONAL NANOELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, 1999–2003 165

TABLE 56 U.S. PATENT-BASED DEVELOPMENTS IN QD INTEGRATION USING UNCONVENTIONAL MICROELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, 2005–2007 166

TABLE 57 U.S. PATENT-BASED DEVELOPMENTS IN UNCONVENTIONAL QD-BASED MICROELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY, 2008–2010 167

QUANTUM COMPUTERS AND CRYPTOGRAPHY 167

Quantum Computing and Information Processing 167

Quantum Cryptography 168

Patent Activity in Quantum Computers and Quantum Cryptography 168

TABLE 58 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN QUANTUM COMPUTERS, 1999–2004 168

TABLE 58 (CONTINUED) 169

TABLE 59 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN QUANTUM COMPUTERS AND QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY, 2005–2007 170

TABLE 60 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN QUANTUM COMPUTERS AND QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY, 2008–2010 170

D-Wave Systems Inc. 171

LTX-Credence Corporation 172

MagiQ Technologies, Inc. 172

Qucor Pty. Ltd. 173

Toshiba Research Europe Ltd. 173

STORAGE/MEMORY DEVICES 174

TABLE 61 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN MEMORY DEVICES, 1999–2004 174

TABLE 61 (CONTINUED) 175

TABLE 62 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN MEMORY DEVICES, 2005–2007 175

TABLE 62 (CONTINUED) 176

TABLE 63 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN MEMORY DEVICES, 2008–2010 176

OPTOELECTRONICS 177

DISPLAYS 178

TABLE 64 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES, 2005–2007 178

TABLE 64 (CONTINUED) 179

TABLE 65 LATEST U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIESM, 2008–2010 179

3DIcon Corporation 180

Boeing Company 180

E Ink Corporation 181

Eastman Kodak Company 182

Goldeneye, Inc. 183

Imaging Systems Technology 183

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Cambridge, MA) 184

Microvision, Inc. 185

Prysm, Inc. 186

QD Vision, Inc. 186

TABLE 66 BENEFITS OF QD-LEDS OVER OTHER DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES 187

TABLE 67 LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN QD VISION'S SOLID STATE LIGHTING AND DISPLAY TECHNOLOGIES 188

Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology 189

Solexant Corporation 189

Superimaging, Inc. 190

FLEXIBLE DISPLAY INDUSTRY 191

TABLE 68 PROFILE OF SOME EMERGING FLEXIBLE DISPLAY MARKET PLAYERS 191

TABLE 68 (CONTINUED) 192

Complementary Fabrication Technology 192

Ink-jet Printing 192

Mist Deposition 192

LASERS 193

TABLE 69 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS 2005–2007 IN LASERS AND LASER DIODES AND RELATED DEVICES AMONG U.S. ORGANIZATIONS 194

TABLE 70 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN LASER DIODES AND RELATED DEVICES AMONG FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS, 2005–2007 194

TABLE 70 (CONTINUED) 195

TABLE 71 ORGANIZATIONS LEADING U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN LASER DIODES AND RELATED DEVICES, 2008–2010 196

Finisar Corporation 196

Innolume GmbH 197

TABLE 72 ADVANTAGES OF QD DIODE LASERS 198

Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH 199

QD Laser, Inc. 199

LEDS AND LIGHTING 200

TABLE 73 ROADMAP RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SSL-LED TECHNOLOGY/ LAMP TARGETS 201

TABLE 74 IMPORTANT PLAYERS IN GROWING WLED SSL INDUSTRY 202

TABLE 75 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN LEDS AND RELATED DEVICES AMONG U.S. ORGANIZATIONS, 2005–2007 203

TABLE 75 (CONTINUED) 204

TABLE 76 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN LEDS AND RELATED DEVICES AMONG FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS, 2005–2007 204

TABLE 76 (CONTINUED) 205

TABLE 77 ORGANIZATIONS LEADING U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN LEDS AND LIGHTING APPLICATIONS, 2008–2010 205

Avago Technologies Limited 206

Evident Technologies, Inc. 206

Global OLED Technology, LLC 207

Group IV Semiconductor Inc. 208

Kopin Corporation 209

Los Alamos National Laboratory 209

3M Company 210

3M Company (Continued) 211

Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH 212

Philips Lumileds Lighting Company 213

Sandia National Laboratories 214

TABLE 78 PROPERTY COMPARISON OF COLLOIDAL QDS AND CONVENTIONAL LED PHOSPHORS 215

Sandia National Laboratories (Continued) 216

Challenges Facing Solid-State LED Development 217

TABLE 79 COLLOIDAL QD-BASED SOLID STATE WHITE LIGHTING: ENABLING FEATURES AND FUTURE TECHNICAL CHALLENGES 217

TABLE 79 (CONTINUED) 218

YLX Corporation 218

OPTICAL COMPONENTS 218

BACKGROUND 218

PATENT ACTIVITY 219

TABLE 80 U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN OPTICAL COMPONENTS AND RELATED DEVICES, 1999–2004 220

MORE RECENT PATENT ACTIVITY 220

TABLE 81 RECENT U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN OPTICAL COMPONENTS, 2005–2008 221

TRACKDALE LTD. (U.K.) 222

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING 222

VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE AND LAMBDA INSTRUMENTS, INC. 223

LATEST PATENT ACTIVITY 223

TABLE 82 LEADING ORGANIZATIONS WITH U.S. PATENT-BASED QD DEVELOPMENTS IN OPTICAL COMPONENTS, 2008–2010 224

SECURITY 224

RATIONALE FOR QDS AS AN ENABLING TECHNOLOGY 224

QDs versus Organic Fluorescent Dyes 225

Market Drivers 225

Counterfeiting 226

ORGANIZATIONS EXPLOITING QD-BASED SECURITY TECHNOLOGY 226

TABLE 83 KEY ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN SECURITY APPLICATIONS OF QDS OR COMPETITIVE MARKING MATERIALS 227

MORE RECENT SECURITY APPLICATIONS DEVELOPMENTS 227

TABLE 84 QD SECURITY APPLICATIONS PATENTS, 2005–2008 228

TABLE 85 QD SECURITY APPLICATIONS PATENTS, 2008–2010 229

BioCrystal Ltd. 229

Center for Forensic Studies 230

Digimarc Corporation 230

Evident Technologies 231

Honeywell International Inc. 232

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 233

Nanosolutions GmbH 233

National Research Council of Canada 234

NCR Corporation 235

New Light Industries, Ltd. 235

Oxonica Inc/Nanoplex Technologies, Inc. 236

Oxonica Inc/Nanoplex … (Continued) 237

Life Technologies Corporation 238

Spectra Systems Corporation 239

Veritec, Inc. 240

BUSINESS PROGNOSIS OF THE SECURITY MARKET 240

TABLE 86 RECENT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES FOCUSING ON NEW SECURITY DEVELOPMENTS 241

Market Size 241

Digital Security Printing 241

DVDs 242

Counterfeit Drugs 242

SUSTAINABLE ENERGY 243

CHEMICAL REACTION ENERGY CONVERSION 243

SOLAR ENERGY 244

Organic Dye-Based Solar Cells 245

TABLE 87 ADVANTAGES OF FLEXIBLE POLYMER-BASED DESIGNS OVER CONVENTIONAL RIGID SOLAR CELL DESIGNS 245

Organic Dye-Based … (Continued) 246

Organic QD-Based Solar Cells 247

TABLE 88 SOME ADVANTAGES OF COLLOIDAL QDS OVER ORGANIC DYES USED IN PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR CELLS 247

Development of QD-Based Solar Cells 248

TABLE 89 EARLY PLAYERS INVOLVED IN PATENTING AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF QD-ENHANCED SOLAR CELLS 248

TABLE 89 (CONTINUED) 249

Agfa-Gevaert 249

Harvard University 249

Los Alamos National Laboratory 250

Lund University 250

Nanosys Inc. 251

National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 252

University of California 253

University of Idaho 254

University of Rochester 254

More Recent Developments 254

TABLE 90 MORE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS BY MAJOR PLAYERS INVOLVED IN QD SOLAR CELLS AND COMPETITIVE TECHNOLOGIES, 2005–2008 255

TABLE 90 (CONTINUED) 256

Current Developments 256

TABLE 91 LATEST DEVELOPMENTS BY ACADEMIC AND GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS IN QD SOLAR CELLS, 2008–2010 256

TABLE 91 (CONTINUED) 257

TABLE 92 U.S. PATENT ACTIVITY OF MAJOR COMMERCIAL PLAYERS INVOLVED IN QD-BASED SOLAR CELL APPLICATION, 2008–2010 257

TABLE 92 (CONTINUED) 258

THERMOELECTRIC ENERGY CONVERSION 258

TABLE 93 DEVELOPMENTS IN QD ENHANCEMENTS USED IN THERMOELECTRIC ENERGY (TE) CONVERSION, 2005–2008 259

TABLE 94 LATEST DEVELOPMENTS IN QD ENHANCEMENTS USED IN THERMOELECTRIC ENERGY (TE) CONVERSION, 2008–2010 260

Chapter-7: MARKET ANALYSIS

QD COMMERCIAL PRODUCERS 261

LEADING COLLOIDAL QD PRODUCERS 261

U.S. Producers 261

TABLE 95 LEADING U.S. COLLOIDAL QD PRODUCERS, CURRENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIOS, AND COMMERCIAL MARKET APPLICATIONS 262

U.S. Producers (Continued) 263

Foreign Producers 264

TABLE 96 FOREIGN COLLOIDAL QD PRODUCERS: CURRENT PRODUCT PORTFOLIO AND COMMERCIAL MARKET APPLICATIONS 264

COMPARISON WITH SOLID STATE SYNTHESIZED QDS 265

TABLE 97 LEADING PROPONENTS OF COMMERCIAL SOLID STATE QD-BASED PRODUCT APPLICATION PLATFORMS 266

MAJOR PRODUCTION CHALLENGES 266

TABLE 98 MAJOR CHALLENGES FACING COMMERCIAL QD PRODUCERS 267

TABLE 99 ANTICIPATED COMMERCIAL MARKET SECTORS FOR QUANTUM DOTS AND PRODUCT OFFERINGS,2010—2015 268

MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QDS IN BIOLOGY AND BIOMEDICINE 269

POTENTIAL MARKET SIZE 269

EVOLUTION OF NC MATERIALS IN BIOLOGICAL DETECTION 269

MORE RECENT DEVELOPMENTS 270

COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS FOR QDS IN BIOLOGY AND BIOMEDICINE 271

Crystalplex Nanotech 272

Cytodiagnostics, Inc. 272

Cytoptics Corporation 273

Fio Corporation 274

Lab21 Ltd/Selah Technologies, LLC 275

Life Technologies Corporation 275

Life Technologies … (Continued) 276

EMERGING MARKETS FOR SMALL NANOCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS 277

Standalone Bioconjugate-QD Materials Market 277

TABLE 100 PREDICTED REVENUE GROWTH FOR BIOCONJUGATE QDS, 2010–2015 ($ MILLIONS) 278

MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QDS IN MEMORY APPLICATIONS 278

TABLE 101 QD AND OTHER FUTURE NANOMATERIALS-BASED MEMORY ARCHITECTURES 279

FLASH, THE MEMORY OF CHOICE 280

Freescale Semiconductor Inc. 280

Freescale Semiconductor Inc. (Continued) 281

OTHER NEAR-TERM COMPETITIVE TECHNOLOGIES 282

Other Near-Term … (Continued) 283

PROJECTED GROWTH IN QD-BASED MEMORY MARKET 284

FIGURE 9 TOTAL WORLWIDE FLASH MEMORY REVENUE GROWTH PROJECTION 284

TABLE 102 PROJECTED MARKET REVENUES GENERATED BY FREESCALE'S QD-BASED MEMORY PRODUCTS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 284

HEWLETT-PACKARD 285

IBM 286

MICRON TECHNOLOGY INC. 287

NANOSYS INC. 287

Nanosys Inc. (Continued) 288

TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF BERLIN (GERMANY) 289

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES 289

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 290

Other Foreign Competition 290

MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QDS IN RIGID AND FLEXIBLE LED WHITE LIGHTING AND DISPLAYS 290

RIGID LED WHITE LIGHTING 291

TABLE 103 MAJOR ISSUES CONFRONTING THE IMPENDING USE OF QDS IN SSL WLED TECHNOLOGY 292

North American Interests 293

Foreign Interests 294

FLEXIBLE LED LIGHTING 295

Market Prediction in LED lighting 296

Rigid LED lighting 296

Flexible LED Lighting 297

TABLE 104 PROJECTED RIGID AND FLEXIBLE QD-LED LIGHTING REVENUES, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 297

RIGID AND FLEXIBLE DISPLAYS 297

TABLE 105 MAJOR PERFORMANCE ISSUES CONFRONTING OLED DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY AND POTENTIAL ENHANCEMENTS PROVIDED BY QDS 298

Rigid and Flexible Displays (Continued) 299

Rigid and Flexible Displays (Continued) 300

Rigid and Flexible Displays (Continued) 301

Market Prediction 302

Rigid Displays 302

LED Backlighting for Rigid Displays 302

LED Backlighting for Small Flexible Displays 302

TABLE 106 PROJECTED RIGID AND FLEXIBLE DISPLAY REVENUES GENERATED BY QD-BASED PRODUCTS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 303

MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QDS IN OPTICAL COMMUNICATION 304

DOPED FIBER OPTICS 304

LASERS 305

Finisar Corporation 305

Innolume GmbH 306

Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH 306

QD Laser, Inc. 306

OPTICAL COMPONENTS 307

Evident Technologies, Inc. 307

InVisage Technologies, Inc. 308

Siemens AG 309

Trackdale Ltd. 309

QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY 310

PROJECTED GROWTH FOR QDS IN OPTICAL PRODUCTS 310

Optical Telecommunications 311

Quantum Cryptography 311

Portable Laser Projectors 312

Cell Phone/Digital Camera Sensors 312

TABLE 107 PROJECTED REVENUES FOR QD-BASED OPTICAL TELECOMMUNICATION AND PORTABLE COMMUNICATION DEVICES, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 313

MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QDS IN SECURITY APPLICATIONS 313

TABLE 108 CLASSIFICATION OF COVERT QD SECURITY APPLICATIONS BY MARKET SECTOR 313

TABLE 108 (CONTINUED) 314

INITIAL COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS 315

Life Technologies Corporation 315

Voxtel Inc. 315

Xerox Corporation 316

PROJECTED GROWTH IN THE QD-BASED SECURITY MARKET 317

MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QDS IN SOLAR CELL TECHNOLOGY 317

INITIAL COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS 318

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: ADDRESSING MAJOR ISSUES 319

TABLE 109 MAJOR ISSUES CONFRONTING THE IMPENDING USE OF COLLOIDAL QDS IN SOLAR CELL TECHNOLOGY 320

IMPENDING COMMERCIAL QD-BASED SOLAR PRODUCTS 320

Cyrium Technologies, Inc. 320

Cyrium Technologies, Inc. (Continued) 321

Innovalight, Inc. 322

Innovalight, Inc. (Continued) 323

Natcore Technology, Inc. 324

QD Soleil, Inc. 325

QuantaSol Ltd. 326

Quantum PV 327

Shrink Nanotechnologies, Inc. 327

Spire Corporation 328

Solexant Corporation 329

Solterra Renewable Technologies 330

COMPLEMENTARY DEVELOPMENTS IMPACTING QD-SOLAR CELLS 331

TABLE 110 COMPLEMENTARY ACTIVITIES SHAPING COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENTS IN SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAICS 332

First-Generation: Bulk Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells 333

Second-Generation: Inorganic Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells 333

Third-Generation: Organic Thin Film Solar Cells 334

Third-Generation: … (Continued) 335

PROJECTED GROWTH IN THE QD-BASED SOLAR MARKET 336

Second-Generation: Inorganic Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells 336

Third-Generation: Organic Thin Film Solar Cells 337

TABLE 111 PROJECTED MARKET REVENUES GENERATED BY QD-BASED SECOND- AND THIRD-GENERATION SOLAR CELL PRODUCTS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 338

MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QDS IN OTHER ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES 339

HYDROGEN PRODUCTION 339

THERMOELECTRIC ENERGY CONVERSION 339

Thermoelectric Energy Conversion (Continued) 340

MARKET PROSPECTS FOR QDS IN OTHER PROMISING SECTORS 341

FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS 341

Flexible Electronics (Continued) 342

Chapter-8: APPENDIX: ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND UNITS

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 343

UNITS 344

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