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2014

Roskill: Activated Carbon Could See World Consumption Double in Four Years

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LONDON, March 19, 2013 /PRNewswire/ --

Activated Carbon: Global Industry Markets and Outlook, 2013 (9th Edition)

Activated carbon markets are on the brink of an enormous change. The next four years could see world consumption almost double according to a new report from Roskill. Enough new production capacity should be in place by 2017 to meet new demand, but the potential exists for a shortfall to develop. The report quantifies Roskill's supply and demand predictions to 2017.

A major driver of growth in the market is new mercury control legislation. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS) was signed on 16 December 2011 and is designed to reduce mercury, other metal and acid gas emissions from coal- and oil-fired power plants. This long-anticipated rule finally became effective on 16 April 2012. The initial compliance deadline is three years after the effective date, or 16 April 2015. The power plant standard, and the cement and industrial boiler mercury control standards that will accompany it, are together expected to increase the North American market for powdered activated carbon by approximately 300,000tpy before 2017. The standard coincides with the US EPA Disinfection By-Products (DBP) Rule, which is expected to increase the US market for granular activated carbon in water treatment by at least an additional 35,000tpy by 2017.  

On 19 January 2013, international negotiators also concluded a new global mercury control treaty, which will be signed in Japan in October 2013. The treaty includes commitments to undertake measures that will reduce airborne mercury emissions. Most of the steps outlined in the treaty will be taken by 2020 by the 140 UN member countries involved. As a tribute to thousands of Japanese victims of the Minamata mercury pollution tragedy of the last century, the treaty will be named the Minamata Convention on Mercury.

Activated carbon injection systems are the dominant control technology to address mercury emissions in 2013. The global mercury control treaty to be signed in October 2013 is expected to prompt new mercury control legislation in other UN member countries. Demand for activated carbon is expected to increase further in response to these new rules over the following five year period, 2017 to 2022. Increasingly stringent environmental regulations in the European Union, China and India are also expected to raise demand for activated carbon to 2017. Roskill's report segments consumption forecasts by geography and by end-use.  

Activated carbon prices increased steadily during the five year period 2007 to 2012 and have never been higher. The initial increase coincided with the almost simultaneous imposition of import duties by the US government and lifting of export incentives by the Chinese government, but it was perpetuated by a number of other factors described in the report. The next five year period, 2012 to 2017, is expected to see prices rise again.  

Activated carbon is a unique and effective agent for purification and for isolation and recovery of trace materials. It can be thought of as "space enclosed by carbon atoms". A single gramme of activated carbon makes over 1,200m2 (or three tennis courts) of surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.

These unique properties make activated carbon suitable for a wide range of gas- and liquid-based applications. Roskill details more than 65 individual end-uses in its 2013 analysis. These range from nuclear protection clothing to cigarette filters, and from gold mining to pharmaceuticals.

Many of the major sources of demand for activated carbon are a response to legislation. In view of the upcoming increases in demand in response to MATS, producers have announced a number of new projects, which are described in detail in Roskill's report, with predictions given for future supply. In June 2012, shortly after the MATS rule became effective, it was announced that Cabot Corporation, a global speciality chemicals and performance materials company headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts, had entered into an agreement to acquire Norit NV of the Netherlands for a purchase price of US$1.1Bn. Founded in 1918, Norit is the world's largest producer of activated carbon. The acquisition was finalised on 31 July 2012, and the acquired business was organised as a new business segment of Cabot; Purification Solutions.

Raw materials' availability is an issue generally for this industry with the ratio of raw material to finished activated carbon product approaching 3:1. Coconut shell-based producers have been plagued by erratic coconut shell charcoal availability, while potential metallurgical coal shortages could continue to affect activated carbon production in China. Activated carbon is a by-product, which means that coal (or coconut, or wood) producers do not make production decisions based on the market for activated carbon in isolation. During 2012 activated carbon prices and producer share prices achieved record highs. In this report, Roskill examines future supply and demand trends to see if those highs will continue.

Activated Carbon: Global industry markets and outlook, 9th Edition, 2013 is available at £3,500 / US$5,800 / €4,600 from Roskill Information Services Ltd, 54 Russell Road, London SW19 1QL ENGLAND. Tel: +44-20-8417-0087. Fax +44-20-8417-1308, Email: info@roskill.co.uk. Web: http://www.roskill.com/reports/industrial-minerals

Note to editors

The report contains 309 pages, 141 tables and 34 figures. It provides a detailed review of the industry, with subsections on the activities of the leading producing companies. It also analyses consumption, trade and prices.

Table of Contents

    Page

1.    Summary    1

2.    Introduction, properties and specifications for activated carbon    7

2.1    Introduction to activated carbon    7

2.2    Properties of activated carbon    8

2.2.1    Adsorption properties of activated carbon    9

2.2.2    Other physical properties of activated carbon    12

2.2.3    Impurities in activated carbon    13

2.2.4    Packaging of activated carbon    14

2.3    Specifications for activated carbon    14

3.    Processing of activated carbon    17

3.1    Raw materials for activated carbon production    17

3.1.1    Coal-based activated carbon    18

3.1.1.1    Coal-based activated carbon as a by-product of mineral sands

    processing    19

3.1.2    Wood-based activated carbon    19

3.1.3    Coconut shell-based activated carbon    20

3.2    Processing of activated carbon    21

3.2.1    Steam activation of activated carbon    25

3.2.2    Chemical activation of activated carbon    26

3.2.3    Impregnation of activated carbon    27

3.2.4    Catalytic activated carbon    28

3.2.5    Activated carbon fibre    28

3.3    Forms of activated carbon    29

3.3.1    Powdered activated carbon    29

3.3.2    Granular activated carbon    30

3.3.3    Pelletised (extruded) activated carbon    30

3.3.4    Activated carbon fibre    30

3.4    Regeneration and reactivation of activated carbon    31

3.4.1    Thermal reactivation process    33

3.4.2    Steam regeneration process    34

3.4.3    Chemical regeneration process    34

3.4.4    New reactivation technologies    34

4.    World production of activated carbon    35

4.1    Production capacity for activated carbon by company    37

4.2    Production of activated carbon by country    47

4.3    Regeneration capacity for activated carbon by company    48

4.4    Future trends in production of activated carbon    52

5.    Review of activated carbon producing countries    56

5.1    Argentina    56

5.2    Australia    56

5.2.1    Activated Carbon Technologies    57

5.2.2    Pacific Edge Holdings    58

5.2.3    The Environmental Group    59

5.2.4    Tronox Ltd    59

5.3    Austria    60

5.4    Belgium    60

5.4.1    Chemviron Carbon    60

5.4.2    Desotec Activated Carbon    61

5.5    Brazil    61

5.5.1    Brascarbo Agroindustrial (Grupo Clarimex)    61

5.5.2    Indústrias Químicas Carbomafra    62

5.6    Canada    62

5.6.1    A.C. Carbone Canada    63

5.6.2    Cabot/Sherritt Coal    63

5.7    China    63

5.7.1    Production of activated carbon in China    64

5.7.2    Producers of activated carbon in China    66

5.7.2.1    Anshan Sinocarb Active Carbon Fibers    69

5.7.2.2    Beijing Haijian Jiechang Environmental Protection Chemicals    69

5.7.2.3    Beijing Pacific Activated Carbon    69

5.7.2.4    Bluesky Purification Material    69

5.7.2.5    Datong Carbon    69

5.7.2.6    Datong Coal Mine Group    70

5.7.2.7    Datong Fenghua Activated Carbon    70

5.7.2.8    Datong Huibao Active Carbon    71

5.7.2.9    Datong Municipal Yunguang Activated Carbon    71

5.7.2.10    Datong Weidu Activated Carbon Plant    71

5.7.2.11    Fujian Yuanli Activated Carbon Industries    71

5.7.2.12    Fuzhou Yihuan Carbon    71

5.7.2.13    Hangzhou Xingyu Carbon (formerly Hengxing Activated Carbon)    72

5.7.2.14    Huairen Huanyi Purification Materials    72

5.7.2.15    Huaiyushan Activated Carbon Group    72

5.7.2.16    Ebian Huatai Activated Carbon    73

5.7.2.17    Huaxin Activated Carbon Plant    73

5.7.2.18    Fujian Zhixing Activated Carbon    73

5.7.2.19    JingMao Activated Carbon    74

5.7.2.20    Zhejiang Xingdia Chemical    74

5.7.2.21    Kaihua Xinghua Chemical Plant    75

5.7.2.22    Kuraray Chemical Environmental Industry    75

5.7.2.23    Longyan Wanan Activated Carbon and Longyan Ronghua Carbon    75

5.7.2.24    Mindong Lianyi Group    75

5.7.2.25    Nantong Sutong Carbon Fibre    76

5.7.2.26    Ningxia Blue-White-Black Activated Carbon    76

5.7.2.27    Ningxia Fengyuan Activated Carbon    76

5.7.2.28    Ningxia Guanghua-Cherishment Activated Carbon    77

5.7.2.29    Ningxia Henghui Activated Carbon    77

5.7.2.30    Ningxia Huahui Activated Carbon    77

5.7.2.31    Ningxia Taixi Activated Carbon    78

5.7.2.32    Ningxia Xingsheng Coal and Activated Carbon    78

5.7.2.33    Shanghai Mebao Activated Carbon    78

5.7.2.34    Shanghai Xingchang Activated Carbon    78

5.7.2.35    Shanxi Xinhua Chemical    79

5.7.2.36    Shanxi Zuoyun Yunpeng Coal Chemistry    79

5.7.2.37    Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry Group    79

5.7.2.38    Taining Jinhu Carbon    79

5.7.2.39    Tianchang (Tianjin) Activated Carbon    80

5.7.2.40    Xuanzhong Chemical Industry    80

5.7.2.41    Zhuxi Activated Carbon    80

5.7.3    Trade in activated carbon in China    81

5.8    Czech Republic    82

5.9    Denmark    82

5.10    Finland    82

5.11    France    83

5.11.1    Carbio 12    83

5.11.2    Ceca    83

5.11.3    Jacobi Carbons - Pica    84

5.12    Germany    85

5.12.1    AdFis Systems (formerly German Carbon Teterow)    85

5.12.2    CarboTech Activated Carbon    86

5.12.3    CPL Carbon Link    86

5.12.4    Donau Carbon    86

5.12.5    Jacobi Carbons (Europe)    87

5.12.6    Silcarbon Aktivkohle    87

5.13    India    88

5.13.1    Producers of activated carbon in India    89

5.13.1.1    Active Carbon    91

5.13.1.2    Active Char Products    91

5.13.1.3    Agri Carbon    92

5.13.1.4    Coco Carbon Activators    92

5.13.1.5    Core Carbons    92

5.13.1.6    Ebe Liza Enterprises    93

5.13.1.7    Gowrishankar Chemicals    93

5.13.1.8    HEG    93

5.13.1.9    Hytech Carbons    93

5.13.1.10    Indo German Carbons    94

5.13.1.11    Industrial Carbons    95

5.13.1.12    Jacobi Carbons India    95

5.13.1.13    Kalpaka Chemicals    95

5.13.1.14    Kan-Carbon    95

5.13.1.15    Kavia Carbons    95

5.13.1.16    Macro Carbons    96

5.13.1.17    M/S Adsorbent Carbons    96

5.13.1.18    Narbada Valley Chemicals    96

5.13.1.19    Raj Carbons    96

5.13.1.20    Unique Carbon & Chemicals    96

5.13.1.21    Western Chemicals    97

5.14    Indonesia    97

5.14.1    Producers of activated carbon in Indonesia    97

5.14.1.1    Green Carbon    99

5.14.1.2    Intan Prima    100

5.14.1.3    PT AIMTOPindo Nuansa Kimia    100

5.14.1.4    PT Daiti Carbon Nusantera    101

5.14.1.5    PT Eratechubudhi Sadhana    101

5.14.1.6    PT Ikaindo Karbonik    101

5.14.1.7    PT Indokarbon Prima Jaya    101

5.14.1.8    PT Karbon Prima Sentosa Abadi    101

5.14.1.9    PT Lilingga Lo Bongo Lestari    102

5.14.1.10    PT Mapalus    102

5.14.1.11    PT Nusagri    102

5.14.1.12    PT Tanso Putra Asia    103

5.14.1.13    PT UCI UTAMA    103

5.14.1.14    Purnomo Indonesia    103

5.14.1.15    Singapore CSC Activated Carbon    103

5.15    Italy    103

5.16    Japan    104

5.16.1    Producers of activated carbon in Japan    106

5.16.1.1    Calgon Carbon Japan    106

5.16.1.2    Futamura Chemical Industry    107

5.16.1.3    Hokuetsu Carbon Industry    107

5.16.1.4    Kansai Coke & Chemicals    108

5.16.1.5    Kuraray Chemical    108

5.16.1.6    Kureha Carbon Products    109

5.16.1.7    Osaka Gas    110

5.16.1.8    Serachem    111

5.16.1.9    Tsurumi Coal    111

5.17    South Korea    111

5.17.1    Producers of activated carbon in South Korea    111

5.18    Malaysia    112

5.18.1    Producers of activated carbon in Malaysia    113

5.18.1.1    Bravo Green    113

5.18.1.2    Century Chemical Works    113

5.18.1.3    China Activated Carbon Industries    114

5.18.1.4    Effigen    114

5.18.1.5    Enviro Carbon    114

5.18.1.6    KD Technology    114

5.18.1.7    Kekwa Indah    115

5.18.1.8    Laju Carbon Products    115

5.18.1.9    M-Trex Activated Carbon    116

5.18.1.10    Pacific Activated Carbon    116

5.18.1.11    Other producers in Malaysia    116

5.19    Mexico    116

5.19.1    Producers of activated carbon in Mexico    117

5.19.1.1    Apelsa    117

5.19.1.2    Carbon Resources    117

5.19.1.3    Clarimex    117

5.19.1.4    Carbotecnica    118

5.20    Netherlands    119

5.20.1    Cabot Corporation    120

5.21    Philippines    123

5.21.1    Producers of activated carbon in the Philippines    124

5.21.1.1    Cenapro Chemical    125

5.21.1.2    Davao Central Chemical    125

5.21.1.3    Donau Carbon    125

5.21.1.4    Industrofield Export Trading    126

5.21.1.5    Mapecon Green Charcoal Philippines    126

5.21.1.6    Pacific Activated Carbon    126

5.21.1.7    Philippine-Japan Active Carbon    127

5.21.1.8    Premium A.C.    127

5.21.1.9    Other producers in the Philippines    127

5.22    Russia    128

5.22.1    Production of activated carbon in Russia    128

5.22.2    Producers of activated carbon in Russia    129

5.22.2.1    JSC Amzinsky Sawmill    129

5.22.2.2    LLC Antaliks    129

5.22.2.3    JSC Electrostal Chemical-Mechanical Plant    129

5.22.2.4    PFK Karbon    130

5.22.2.5    PJSC Karbonika-F    130

5.22.2.6    LLC Priladozhsky Sorbent Plant    130

5.22.2.7    JSC Sorbent    131

5.22.2.8    OOO Tekhnosorb    133

5.22.2.9    PJSC Tyumen Pyrolysis Plant    133

5.22.2.10    JSC Zarya    133

5.22.2.11    Potential activated carbon projects in Russia    134

5.22.3    Trade in activated carbon in Russia    134

5.23    Sri Lanka    135

5.23.1    Processing of activated carbon in Sri Lanka    135

5.23.2    Production of activated carbon in Sri Lanka    136

5.23.2.1    Bieco Link Carbons    137

5.23.2.2    Haycarb Group    137

5.23.2.3    Jacobi Carbons    140

5.23.2.4    J.B. Carbon Activators    140

5.23.2.5    Newco Carbons    140

5.23.2.6    Prime Carbons Lanka    140

5.24    Sweden    140

5.25    Taiwan    141

5.26    Thailand    142

5.26.1    Producers of activated carbon in Thailand    143

5.26.1.1    C. Gigantic Carbon and Calgon Carbon (Thailand) joint venture    143

5.26.1.2    Carbokarn Thailand    143

5.26.1.3    Tanawin    144

5.27    UK    144

5.27.1    Producers of activated carbon in the UK    144

5.27.1.1    Brimac Environmental Services    145

5.27.1.2    Cabot Corporation (Norit UK)    145

5.27.1.3    Chemviron Carbon    146

5.27.1.4    Chemviron Carbon Cloth Division (CCCD)    148

5.27.1.5    CPL Carbon Link    149

5.27.1.6    Eurocarb    149

5.27.1.7    MAST Carbon Advanced Products    150

5.27.1.8    Thames Water    150

5.28    Ukraine    150

5.29    USA    151

5.29.1    Production of activated carbon in the USA    152

5.29.2    Producers of activated carbon in the USA    153

5.29.2.1    ADA Carbon Solutions    155

5.29.2.2    AgriTecSorbents    157

5.29.2.3    Asbury Carbons    158

5.29.2.4    Big Island Carbon    158

5.29.2.5    Cabot Corporation (formerly Norit)    159

5.29.2.6    Cal Pacific Carbon    160

5.29.2.7    Calgon Carbon    160

5.29.2.8    California Carbon    171

5.29.2.9    Cameron Great Lakes    172

5.29.2.10    Carbochem    172

5.29.2.11    Carbon Activated    172

5.29.2.12    Carbon Resources    172

5.29.2.13    Greater Cincinnati Water Works    174

5.29.2.14    Jacobi Carbons Reactivation Services    174

5.29.2.15    MeadWestvaco    174

5.29.2.16    Siemens Industry    176

5.29.2.17    Albemarle    177

5.29.3    Trade in activated carbon in the USA    178

5.30    Uzbekistan    180

5.31    Vanuatu    180

5.32    Vietnam    181

6.    World consumption of activated carbon    183

6.1    Future trends in demand for activated carbon    186

7.    Liquid-phase uses for activated carbon    194

7.1    Use of activated carbon in water treatment    195

7.1.1    Use of activated carbon in drinking water treatment    195

7.1.1.1    Granular activated carbon in drinking water treatment    197

7.1.1.2    Powdered activated carbon in drinking water treatment    199

7.1.2    Use of activated carbon in wastewater treatment    200

7.1.2.1    Granular activated carbon in wastewater treatment    201

7.1.2.2    Powdered activated carbon in wastewater treatment    202

7.1.3    Use of activated carbon in groundwater/leachate remediation    203

7.1.4    Use of activated carbon in process water treatment    205

7.1.5    Use of activated carbon in medical water treatment    206

7.1.6    Use of activated carbon in service water treatment    207

7.1.7    Use of activated carbon in ultra-pure water treatment    207

7.1.8    Use of activated carbon in domestic water filters    207

7.1.9    Use of activated carbon in aquaria water treatment    208

7.1.10    Use of activated carbon in swimming pool water treatment    208

7.1.11    Grades of activated carbon used in water treatment    208

7.1.12    Trends in demand for activated carbon in water treatment    210

7.2    Use of activated carbon in food and beverage processing    216

7.2.1    Cane sugar refining    217

7.2.2    Sweetener production    220

7.2.3    Citric acid production    223

7.2.4    Alcoholic beverage production    223

7.2.5    Fruit juice purification    227

7.2.6    Vegetable oil refining    227

7.2.7    Food additives production    232

7.2.8    Glycerine production    232

7.2.9    Carbon dioxide removal    232

7.2.10    Decaffeination    232

7.2.11    Process water treatment    233

7.2.12    Trends in demand for activated carbon in food and beverage

    processing    233

7.3    Use of activated carbon in gold recovery    234

7.3.1    Carbon-in-pulp process    234

7.3.2    Carbon-in-leach process    236

7.3.3    Carbon-in-column process    237

7.3.4    Gold recovery from activated carbon    238

7.3.5    Regeneration of activated carbon    239

7.3.6    Cyanide management    240

7.3.7    Specifications for activated carbon used in gold recovery    241

7.3.8    Trends in demand for activated carbon in gold recovery    242

7.4    Use of activated carbon in pharmaceutical and medical markets    245

7.5    Use of activated carbon in chemical markets    247

8.    Gas-phase uses for activated carbon    250

8.1    Use of activated carbon in air treatment    251

8.1.1    Incinerator flue gas treatment    251

8.1.2    Mercury control from coal-fired power plants    253

8.1.2.1    Mercury removal using activated carbon    254

8.1.2.2    Specifications for activated carbon used in mercury removal    256

8.1.2.3    Demand for activated carbon in mercury removal    258

8.1.3    VOC removal    259

8.1.4    Odour control    261

8.1.5    Groundwater remediation    262

8.1.6    Hydrocarbon vapour recovery    263

8.1.7    Toxic industrial chemical removal    263

8.1.7.1    DeSOx/DeNOx process    264

8.2    Use of activated carbon in industrial processes    264

8.2.1    Process gas purification    264

8.2.2    Mercury removal from natural gas    265

8.2.3    Gas desulphurisation    267

8.2.4    Pressure swing adsorption process    267

8.2.5    Gas storage and delivery    268

8.2.6    Catalysts    269

8.2.7    Fuel cells    271

8.2.8    Carbon dioxide purification    271

8.2.9    Chloralkali production    272

8.2.10    Compressed gas    272

8.2.11    Advanced batteries    272

8.2.12    Ultracapacitors    273

8.3    Use of activated carbon in ambient air treatment    274

8.3.1    Manufacturing plants    274

8.3.2    Sensitive buildings    275

8.3.3    Public spaces    275

8.3.4    Cigarette filters    276

8.3.5    Household odours    276

8.3.6    Fruit storage    276

8.3.7    Jewellery protection    277

8.3.8    Cat litter    277

8.3.9    Vehicle cabin air    277

8.3.10    Automotive emissions    277

8.3.10.1    Vehicle canisters    278

8.3.10.2    ORVR canisters    279

8.3.10.3    Air induction systems    279

8.3.10.4    Hybrid electric vehicles and gasoline direct injected engines    280

8.4    Use of activated carbon in personnel protection    280

8.4.1    Protection from toxic gases    280

8.4.2    Consumer protection    281

8.4.3    Nuclear protection    281

8.4.4    Military clothing    282

9.    International trade in activated carbon    283

9.1    Exports of activated carbon    285

9.1.1    Exports of activated carbon from China    291

9.1.2    Exports of activated carbon from other countries    293

9.2    Imports of activated carbon    294

9.2.1    Imports of activated carbon by Japan    296

9.2.2    Imports of activated carbon by other countries    297

10.    Price trends for activated carbon    300


List of Tables

    Page

Table 1: World: Activated carbon consumption by country/region, 2007 to 2017     1

Table 2: World: Activated carbon production capacity by country/region, 2007 to 2017     1

Table 3: Key properties of the main types of activated carbon    8

Table 4: Activated carbon properties    12

Table 5: US mesh sizes    13

Table 6: Impurities in activated carbon    14

Table 7: Specifications for selected powdered activated carbons    15

Table 8: Specifications for selected granular activated carbons    15

Table 9: Specifications for pelletised activated carbon    16

Table 10: Specifications for regenerated activated carbon    16

Table 11: Specifications for KoTHmex® activated carbon fibre    16

Table 12: Fixed carbon content of activated carbon raw materials     17

Table 13: Comparison of properties of activated carbon by raw material    18

Table 14: Specifications for coal processed in China    18

Table 15: Comparison of inorganic elements in typical unwashed and acid-washed activated carbons produced by Norit    25

Table 16: Contaminants removed by impregnated activated carbon    27

Table 17: World: Estimated production capacity for activated carbon by leading producing country, 2012     36

Table 18: World: Leading producers of activated carbon, 2012     38

Table 19: World: Estimated production capacity for activated carbon by producer,

    2012     43

Table 20: Japan, Russia and the USA: Reported production of activated carbon,

    2000 to 2010     48

Table 21: Calgon Carbon: Expansion in world reactivation capacity, 2012     49

Table 22: World: Estimated regeneration capacity for activated carbon operated by producers and service companies, 2012     50

Table 23: World: Potential expansion in production capacity for activated carbon by producer, 2013 to 2017     55

Table 24: ACT: Grades of activated carbon    58

Table 25: Indústrias Químicas Carbomafra: Grades of activated carbon    62

Table 26: China: Specifications for unprocessed coal    64

Table 27: China: Typical specifications for coal-based activated carbons    65

Table 28: China: Typical specifications for nut shell-based activated carbons    65

Table 29: China: Producers of activated carbon, 2012     67

Table 30: Kaihua Xingda Chemical: Grades of activated carbon    74

Table 31: Ceca: Estimated production capacity for activated carbon by grade, 2013     84

Table 32: Pica: Estimated production capacity for activated carbon by plant, 2012     84

Table 33: Jacobi Carbons: Pica grades of activated carbon    85

Table 34: Donau Carbon: Grades of activated carbon    87

Table 35: India: Producers of activated carbon    90

Table 36: Core Carbons: Specifications for activated carbon    92

Table 37: IGCL: Grades of activated carbon    94

Table 38: Indonesia: Leading producers of activated carbon    98

Table 39: Indonesia: Activated carbon operations    98

Table 40: Intan Prima: Grades of activated carbon    100

Table 41: Japan: Production and imports of activated carbon, FY 2000 to 2011     105

Table 42: Japan: Leading producers of activated carbon, 2012     106

Table 43: Kuraray Chemical: Activated carbon operations, 2012     108

Table 44: Kureha Carbon Products: Properties of BAC activated carbon    110

Table 45: Osaka Gas: Activated carbon operations    110

Table 46: Shin Kwang Chemical Industry: Production capacity for activated carbon

    by grade, 2012     112

Table 47: Malaysia: Leading producers of activated carbon    113

Table 48: Laju Carbon Products: Grades of activated carbon    115

Table 49: Mexico: Leading producers of activated carbon, 2012    117

Table 50: Netherlands: Trade in activated carbon, 2010 to 2012    119

Table 51: Cabot Corporation Purification Solutions segment (formerly Norit):

    Activated carbon operations    121

Table 52: Norit: Sales volume of activated carbon (unaudited), 2007 to 2011     122

Table 53: Philippines: Exports of activated carbon and coconut shell charcoal,

    2000 to 2012     124

Table 54: Philippines: Leading producers of activated carbon, 2012     125

Table 55: PJAC: Specifications for activated carbon    127

Table 56: Electrostal Chemical-Mechanical Plant: Grades of activated carbon    130

Table 57: Sorbent: Production of activated carbon, 1997 to 2006     131

Table 58: Sorbent: Grades of activated carbon    132

Table 59: Tekhnosorb: Grades of activated carbon    133

Table 60: Russia: Imports of activated carbon by country of origin, 2007 to 2011     135

Table 61: Sri Lanka: Estimated production capacity for activated carbon by

    producer, 2012     137

Table 62: Haycarb: Activated carbon operations, 2012     138

Table 63: Haycarb: Grades of activated carbon    139

Table 64: Jacobi Carbons: Grades of activated carbon    141

Table 65: Taiwan Carbon Technology: Specifications for activated carbon fibre    142

Table 66: UK: Trade in activated carbon, 2008 to 2012     144

Table 67: UK: Estimated production capacity for activated carbon by producer,

    2012     145

Table 68: Sutcliffe Speakman: Grades of activated carbon    147

Table 69: Charcoal Cloth International: Grades of activated carbon cloth    148

Table 70: Eurocarb: Grades of activated carbon1    149

Table 71: USA: Estimated production capacity for activated carbon by producer,

    2012     154

Table 72: Calgon Carbon: Net sales by segment, 2003 to 2012     162

Table 73: Calgon Carbon: Activated carbon operations worldwide, 2012    165

Table 74: Calgon Carbon: Selected grades of activated carbon    170

Table 75: Carbon Resources: Grades of activated carbon    173

Table 76: MeadWestvaco: Grades of activated carbon    175

Table 77: Siemens Industry: Activated carbon services    176

Table 78: USA: Net imports of activated carbon, 2001 to 2012     178

Table 79: USA: Imports of activated carbon by country of origin, 2008 to 2011    179

Table 80: Japan and the USA: Estimated consumption of activated carbon, 2000

    to 2012     184

Table 81: USA: Activated carbon consumption by end use in 1997, 2002, 2007,

    2012 and 2017     186

Table 82: EPA Mercury and Air Toxics Standard and other EPA rules    190

Table 83: World: Forecast demand for activated carbon, 2007, 2012 and 2017     193

Table 84: Main features of water treatment using powdered activated carbon

    (PAC) and granular activated carbon (GAC)    196

Table 85: Typical parameters for municipal water treatment using AquaSorb® 2000 activated carbon produced by Jacobi Carbons    198

Table 86: Main applications for activated carbon in industrial wastewater treatment    200

Table 87: Typical parameters for effluent water treatment using AquaSorb® 1000 granular activated carbon produced by Jacobi Carbons    202

Table 88: Specifications for activated carbon liquid-phase adsorption systems for groundwater remediation produced by TIGG    205

Table 89: Typical parameters for process water treatment using AquaSorb® CS activated carbon produced by Jacobi Carbons    206

Table 90: Specifications for Filtrasorb® granular activated carbon for water

    treatment produced by Calgon Carbon    210

Table 91: Specifications for AquaCarb® activated carbon for water treatment

    produced by Siemens Industry    210

Table 92: World: WHO, EU and US parameters for maximum levels of water

    pollutants, 2013    211

Table 93: USA: Estimated consumption of activated carbon in water treatment,

    1997, 2002, 2007 and 2012     212

Table 94: World: Centrifugal sugar production, 2007/08 to 2012/13     218

Table 95: Properties of CANECAL® granular activated carbon for sugar

    decolourisation produced by Chemviron (Calgon Carbon)    219

Table 96: Typical parameters for glucose decolourisation using ColorSorb®

    activated carbon produced by Jacobi Carbons    221

Table 97: USA: Shipments of corn sweeteners for domestic food and beverage use, 2000 to 2011    222

Table 98: Specifications for activated carbon for beverage filtration supplied by

    Cameron Carbon    224

Table 99: World: Production of wine by country, 2002, 2007, 2012 and 2017    225

Table 100: World: Leading producers of beer, 2002, 2007, 2012 and 2017     226

Table 101: Specifications for DARCO® KB-WJ activated carbon for decolourisation

      purification supplied by Norit Americas (Cabot Corporation)    227

Table 102: Specifications for GA SERIES activated carbon for edible oil purification

      supplied by Jiangxi Sinobase Juston    228

Table 103: World: Leading producers of vegetable oils, 2002, 2007, 2012 and 2017     229

Table 104: Typical CIP design parameters using GoldSorb® activated carbon

      produced by Jacobi Carbons    235

Table 105: Typical CIL design parameters using GoldSorb® activated carbon

      produced by Jacobi Carbons    237

Table 106: Typical CIC design parameters using GoldSorb® activated carbon

      produced by Jacobi Carbons    238

Table 107: Typical operating conditions for Zadra and AARL processes    239

Table 108: Specifications for GCC612 and GCE816 activated carbon produced by

      IndoCarb for gold recovery    242

Table 109: Specifications for GoldSorb® activated carbon produced by Jacobi

      Carbons for gold recovery    242

Table 110: World: Leading gold mine producers, 2007 and 2011    244

Table 111: Properties of NORIT® GAC 1240 PLUS ultra-purity activated carbon for

      pharmaceutical applications    246

Table 112: Properties of NORIT® A SUPRA USP Pharmacopeia-grade activated

      carbon for pharmaceutical applications    247

Table 113: Typical parameters for purified phosphoric acid production using

      ColorSorb® H200 granular activated carbon produced by Jacobi

      Carbons    249

Table 114: Typical parameters for flue gas treatment using DioxSorb® powdered

      activated carbon produced by Jacobi Carbons    252

Table 115: Properties of DioxSorb® activated carbon for flue gas treatment

      produced by Jacobi Carbons    253

Table 116: Properties of DARCO® activated carbon for flue gas treatment

      produced by Norit Americas    253

Table 117: Specifications for powdered activated carbon for flue gas mercury

      removal produced by Norit Americas    257

Table 118: Typical parameters for solvent recovery using EcoSorb® BX-Plus

      activated carbon produced by Jacobi Carbons    261

Table 119: Properties of SORBONORIT® activated carbon for solvent recovery

      produced by Norit Americas    261

Table 120: Typical parameters for hydrogen sulphide control using AddSorb® VA3

      produced by Jacobi Carbons    262

Table 121: Use of activated carbon in process gas purification    264

Table 122: Typical parameters for process gas purification using EcoSorb®

      activated carbon produced by Jacobi Carbons    265

Table 123: Typical parameters for mercury removal from natural gas using

      AddSorb® VQ1 produced by Jacobi Carbons    267

Table 124: Typical specifications for activated carbon used in PSA processes    268

Table 125: Uses for Merox catalysts    270

Table 126: Comparison of ultracapacitors, electrostatic capacitors and batteries    273

Table 127: Typical parameters for industrial air treatment using EcoSorb® GXB

      activated carbon produced by Jacobi Carbons    275

Table 128: Specifications for IndoCarb CF range activated carbons for cigarette

      filters    276

Table 129: World: Automotive fuel vapour regulations by region and country, 2010    278

Table 130: World: Recorded trade in activated carbon, 2002 to 2011     285

Table 131: World: Exports of activated carbon by region and country, 2002 to 2011     287

Table 132: World: Major reported trade flows of activated carbon exports, 2010     289

Table 133: World: Major reported trade flows of activated carbon exports, 2011     290

Table 134: USA: US Department of Commerce weight averaged dumping

      margins, 2012     292

Table 135: USA: US Department of Commerce final dumping margins: period of

      review April 2010 to March 2011 (US$/kg)    293

Table 136: World: Reported imports of activated carbon by region and country,

      2002 to 2011     295

Table 137: World: Major reported trade flows of activated carbon imports, 2010     298

Table 138: World: Major reported trade flows of activated carbon imports, 2011     299

Table 139: Average values of activated carbon imported into Japan, the USA,

      South Korea and Belgium by country of origin, 2007 and 2012     305

Table 140: Average values of activated carbon exported from China by country of

      destination, 2003 to 2012     306

Table 141: Selected activated carbon prices quoted in early 2013     309


List of Figures

Figure 1: World: Consumption of activated carbon, 1997 to 2017     2

Figure 2: China: Exports of activated carbon to Japan compared to average value of exports, 1995 to 2012    4

Figure 3: Stages in the production of activated carbon from coconut shells    22

Figure 4: Stages in the production of activated carbon from coal    24

Figure 5: World: Production capacity for activated carbon by leading producing

    country, 2012     36

Figure 6: World: Leading producers of coconuts by country, 2010     54

Figure 7: India: Exports of activated carbon, 2000 to 2012     89

Figure 8: Netherlands: Exports of activated carbon by region of destination, 2012     122

Figure 9: USA: Activated carbon production capacity by producer, 2012     154

Figure 10: Calgon Carbon: Net sales by country, 2011     163

Figure 11: Calgon Carbon: Net sales by end-use, 2011     163

Figure 12: USA: Imports of activated carbon by country of origin, 2012     179

Figure 13: Vietnam: Exports of activated carbon by major country, 2002 to 2011     182

Figure 14: World: Estimated consumption of activated carbon by leading

     consuming country, 2012     183

Figure 15: China: Urban wastewater treatment, 2005 to 2017     215

Figure 16: World: Production of centrifugal sugar by leading producing country,

     2012/13     218

Figure 17: World: Regional production of wine, 2007 and 2011    225

Figure 18: World: Regional production of beer, 2011    226

Figure 19: Carbon-in-pulp process    235

Figure 20: World: Mine production of gold by country, 2011     243

Figure 21: Mercury removal from power plant flue gas using activated carbon    256

Figure 22: Mercury removal from natural gas using activated carbon    266

Figure 23: World: Difference between reported exports and imports of activated

     carbon, 2002 to 2012    285

Figure 24: World: Reported exports of activated carbon, 2000 to 2012    286

Figure 25: World: Exports of activated carbon by major country, 2002 to 2012    286

Figure 26: China: Exports of activated carbon by region of destination, 2007

     to 2012     291

Figure 27: World: Reported imports of activated carbon by major country, 2000

     to 2012     294

Figure 28: Japan: Imports of activated carbon by main country, 1994 to 2012     297

Figure 29: USA: Imports of steam-activated carbon from China, 2003 to 2011     301

Figure 30: USA: Value of imports of steam-activated carbon from China, 2003

     to 2011     301

Figure 31: Average values of activated carbon imported into the USA by leading

     country of origin, 2002 to 2012     306

Figure 32: China: Exports of activated carbon to the rest of the world compared to

     average value of exports, 1995 to 2012    307

Figure 33: China: Exports of activated carbon to the USA compared to average

     value of exports, 1995 to 2012    307

Figure 34: Average values of activated carbon exported from China by leading

     country of destination, 2002 to 2012     308

For further information on this report, please contact Kerry Satterthwaite, kerry@roskill.co.uk or +44(0)20-8417-0087.

SOURCE Roskill Information Services



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