Roskill: Changing Market Demand Presents Opportunities for New Flake Graphite Supply

LONDON, October 29, 2012 /PRNewswire/ --

Natural & Synthetic Graphite: Global Industry Markets and Outlook (8th edition, 2012)

Demand for natural graphite is shifting from amorphous to flake and synthetic graphite, particularly for large flake and high-purity grades.  Emerging applications such as batteries and flexible graphite products are requiring higher performance and speciality products.  To meet these new challenges, flake graphite production will increase outside China as new capacity is brought on-line over the next five years.

New flake supply expected from Canada

Over 70 flake graphite projects are under development outside China, which in total have the potential to add 200,000tpy to global capacity by 2016.  Around a quarter of this capacity could be in Canada, where more than 40 flake graphite projects are being investigated, many at an early exploration stage. Other potential new sources include Australia, Brazil, and Sweden.

Amorphous recovery in China

World natural graphite production is growing and is now split into 55% flake and 45% amorphous output.  This latest report from Roskill details how China is still the world's largest producer of natural graphite, both amorphous and flake, representing 70% of supply in 2011. Production in China in 2012 is recovering from lower levels in 2011, as amorphous graphite mines come back on stream, following some closures and consolidation in Hunan.

Synthetic graphite output growing

Synthetic graphite production is also increasing for use in specialist applications. By 2011, production of primary synthetic graphite reached an estimated 1.5Mt. The largest tonnages come from the graphite electrode manufacturers, with eight major producers worldwide. Markets such as electrodes, recarburisers and shapes are all forecast to grow through to 2016. Carbon fibre, a high value market, is also expanding, as producers target the replacement of steel in aerospace and automotive applications.

Traditional markets and Li-ion batteries driving demand growth

Demand for natural flake graphite will continue to be driven by growth in refractories, which accounted for nearly 60% of flake consumption in 2011. Meanwhile, synthetic graphite consumption will rise on the back of increased electrode manufacture, which represents just over half of synthetic graphite demand by volume. Lithium-ion battery anodes are an emerging market that provides one of the few platforms for natural and synthetic graphite to compete.  Consumption of graphite in batteries is expected to grow rapidly at 10-12%py to 2016.

World pricing and trade led by China

For many years, China has led the way for international trade and pricing, as consumers looked to take advantage of competitively priced raw materials and this trend looks set to continue, at least in the short-term.  Chinese graphite prices are expected to soften going into 2013 following reduced demand from its main markets and lower than expected economic growth in China.  

In the longer term, Chinese export prices are expected to rise as the country continues to consolidate its natural graphite industry and adds value with domestically manufactured downstream products.  This may result in less material available for exports.  At the same time, rising costs of labour and environmental regulations, coupled with increasing mining overheads as more accessible reserves become exhausted, are adding to upward pricing pressures. This could result in consumers looking to purchase elsewhere and result in a shift in traditional purchasing patterns.

Natural & Synthetic Graphite: Global Industry Markets and Outlook, 8th Edition, 2012 is available at £3500 / US$5800 / €4600 from Roskill Information Services Ltd, 54 Russell Road, London SW19 1QL ENGLAND. Tel: +44-20-8417-0087. Fax +44-20-8417-1308   Email: info@roskill.co.uk   Web: http://www.roskill.com/graphite

ENDS

Note to editors

The report contains 413 pages, 194 tables and 120 figures.  It provides a detailed review of the industry, with subsections on the activities of the leading producing companies.  It also analyses consumption, trade and prices.

For further information on this report, please contact Alison Saxby (asaxby@roskill.co.uk).  To receive information on reports and other services, please contact Isobel Jarvis (isobel@roskill.co.uk).

Roskill is a London based and privately-owned company, with more than 40 years of experience of publishing reports on industrial minerals, steel alloys, and minor & light metals, including 40 different market reports and newsletters.  Roskill also offers specialised consultancy services.

Table of Contents

    Page

1.    Summary    1

1.1    Natural graphite production    1

1.2    Synthetic graphite production    2

1.3    Global graphite markets    2

1.3.1    Natural graphite markets    4

1.3.2    Synthetic graphite markets    6

1.4    Trade in natural graphite    7

1.5    Prices    8

2.    Geology and resources of natural graphite    9

2.1    Geology of natural graphite deposits    9

2.2    Reserves and resources of natural graphite    11

3.    Mining and processing of natural graphite    14

3.1    High-purity natural graphite    16

3.2    Micronised natural graphite    17

3.3    Spherical natural graphite    17

3.4    Expandable/expanded graphite    18

3.5    Graphene and graphite nanoflakes    19

3.5.1    Graphene    20

4.    Manufacture of synthetic graphite    24

5.    Review of world production of natural graphite    27

5.1    Structure of the natural graphite industry    31

5.2    Recycling of natural graphite    35

5.3    Future trends in world production of natural graphite    35

5.3.1    Short-term outlook    35

5.3.2    Long-term outlook    37

6.    Review of world production of synthetic graphite    38

7.    Review of world production and processing of natural graphite by

    country and company    41

7.1    Australia    41

7.1.1    Potential producers of natural graphite in Australia    41

7.1.1.1    Mega Graphite    41

7.1.1.2    Adelaide Prospecting    42

7.1.1.3    Archer Exploration    42

7.1.1.4    Buxton Resources    43

7.1.1.5    Lincoln Minerals    43

7.1.1.6    Monax Mining    43

7.1.1.7    Pinestar Gold    43

7.2    Austria    44

7.2.1    Producers of natural graphite in Austria    45

7.2.1.1    Grafitbergbau Kaisersberg    45

7.2.1.2    Graphitbergbau Mϋhldorf Mörth    46

7.3    Brazil    46

7.3.1    Producers of natural graphite in Brazil    48

7.3.1.1    Nacional de Grafite    48

7.3.1.2    Extrativa Metalquímica    49

7.3.1.3    Grafita    50

7.3.1.4    Others    50

7.3.2    Potential producers of natural graphite in Brazil    50

7.3.2.1    Magnesita Refratários    50

7.3.2.2    Others    51

7.4    Canada    51

7.4.1    Producers of natural graphite in Canada    52

7.4.1.1    Timcal Canada    52

7.4.1.2    Eagle Graphite    53

7.4.2    Potential producers of natural graphite in Canada    53

7.4.2.1    Northern Graphite    54

7.4.2.2    Focus Graphite    55

7.4.2.3    Ontario Graphite    56

7.4.2.4    Mega Graphite    57

7.4.2.5    Uragold Bay Resources    57

7.4.2.6    Fortune Graphite    58

7.4.2.7    Standard Graphite    58

7.4.2.8    Mason Graphite    59

7.4.3    Processors of natural graphite in Canada    59

7.4.3.1    Babco Industrial    59

7.5    China    59

7.5.1    Reserves and resources of natural graphite in China    60

7.5.2    Production of natural graphite in China    62

7.5.2.1    Production of flake graphite in China    63

7.5.2.2    Production of amorphous graphite in China    64

7.5.3    Processing of natural graphite in China    65

7.5.4    Trade of natural graphite in China    66

7.5.4.1    Exports of natural graphite from China    66

7.5.4.2    Imports of natural graphite to China    69

7.5.5    Producers and processors of natural graphite in China    70

7.5.5.1    South Graphite    74

7.5.5.2    China Graphite    74

7.5.5.3    Heilongjiang Aoyu Graphite Group    75

7.5.5.4    Jixi Liumao Graphite Resources    75

7.5.5.5    Qingdao Haida Graphite    76

7.5.5.6    Hunan Chenzhou Lutang Crystallitic Graphite & Carbon    76

7.5.5.7    Qingdao Hensen Graphite    76

7.5.5.8    Luobei Yixiang Graphite    77

7.5.5.9    Qingdao Heilong Graphite (Qingdao Black Dragon Graphite)    77

7.5.5.10    Qingdao Tiansheng Graphite    78

7.5.5.11    Changzhou Timcal Graphite    78

7.5.5.12    Chenzhou Global Graphite    78

7.5.5.13    China Carbon Graphite    79

7.5.5.14    China Sciences Hengda Graphite    79

7.5.5.15    Hunan Chenzhou Lutang Graphite Mine No.2 Plant    79

7.5.5.16    Jixi BIR Graphite    80

7.5.5.17    Jixi Hengnai Graphite    80

7.5.5.18    Jixi Jinyu Graphite    80

7.5.5.19    Jixi Tiansheng Non-metal Industry    80

7.5.5.20    Luoyang Guanqi Industrial & Trade    81

7.5.5.21    Luobei Qingdao Haida Graphite    81

7.5.5.22    Qingdao Graphite    81

7.5.5.23    Qingdao Guyu Graphite    81

7.5.5.24    Qingdao Henglide Graphite    82

7.5.5.25    Qingdao Haili Graphite Carbon    82

7.5.5.26    Qingdao Jinhui Graphite    82

7.5.5.27    Qingdao Kropfmühl Graphite    82

7.5.5.28    Qingdao Super Graphite    83

7.5.5.29    Qingdao Tianhe Graphite    83

7.5.5.30    Qingdao Tianzhuang Hengyuang Graphite    83

7.5.5.31    Qingdao Xinghe Graphite    84

7.5.5.32    Qingdao Yanxin Graphite    84

7.5.5.33    Qingdao Zhongdong Graphite    84

7.5.5.34    Timcal Jing Yuan Graphite (Baotou)    85

7.5.5.35    Xinghe Xinyi Graphite    85

7.5.5.36    Yichang Jinchang Graphite    85

7.6    Czech Republic    85

7.6.1    Processors of natural graphite in the Czech Republic    87

7.6.1.1    Graphite Týn    87

7.6.1.2    Koh-I-noor Grafit    87

7.7    Germany    87

7.7.1    Processors of natural graphite in Germany    88

7.7.1.1    Graphit Kropfmühl    88

7.7.1.2    Georg H. Luh    90

7.7.1.3    SGL Group - The Carbon Company    91

7.7.1.4    Others    91

7.8    Ghana    92

7.9    Greece    92

7.10    India    92

7.10.1    Reserves and resources of natural graphite in India    92

7.10.2    Production of natural graphite in india    94

7.10.3    Producers of natural graphite in India    95

7.10.3.1    Tamil Nadu Minerals    96

7.10.3.2    Agrawal Graphite Industries (AGI)    96

7.10.3.3    Chotanagpur Graphite Industries    97

7.10.3.4    Parijat Mining Industries    97

7.10.3.5    Pradhan Industries    97

7.10.3.6    Singhania Commercial    97

7.10.3.7    Others    98

7.10.4    Potential producers of natural graphite in India    98

7.10.4.1    Mega Graphite    98

7.10.5    Beneficiation of natural graphite in India    99

7.11    Italy    100

7.12    Japan    101

7.13    Kazakhstan    101

7.14    Korea, North    101

7.14.1    Producers of natural graphite in North Korea    103

7.15    Korea, South    103

7.16    Madagascar    104

7.16.1    Producers of natural graphite in Madagascar    105

7.16.1.1    Établissements Gallois    105

7.16.1.2    Others    105

7.16.2    Potential producers of natural graphite in Madagascar    106

7.16.2.1    StratMin Global Resources    106

7.16.2.2    Energizer Resources    106

7.16.2.3    Société Malgache du Graphite    106

7.17    Malawi    107

7.18    Mexico    107

7.18.1    Producers of natural graphite in Mexico    108

7.18.1.1    Grafitos Mexicanos    108

7.18.1.2    Grafito Superior    108

7.18.1.3    Processors of natural graphite in Mexico    108

7.19    Mozambique    109

7.19.1    Potential producers of natural graphite in Mozambique    109

7.19.1.1    Graphit Kropfmühl de Moçambique    109

7.19.1.2    Syrah Resources    110

7.19.1.3    Rockover Resources    110

7.20    Norway    110

7.20.1    Producers of natural graphite in Norway    110

7.20.1.1    Skaland Graphite    110

7.21    Peru    112

7.22    Poland    112

7.23    Romania    112

7.24    Russia    113

7.24.1    Producers of natural graphite in Russia    114

7.24.1.1    Krasnoyarsk Graphite Factory    114

7.24.1.2    Uralgraphite    114

7.24.2    Potential producers of natural graphite in Russia    115

7.24.2.1    Prominvest    115

7.25    Spain    115

7.26    South Africa    115

7.26.1    Potential production of natural graphite in South Africa    115

7.26.1.1    Jonkel Carbons    115

7.27    Sri Lanka    116

7.27.1    Producers of natural graphite in Sri Lanka    117

7.27.1.1    Bogala Graphite Lanka    117

7.27.1.2    Kahatagaha Graphite Lanka (KGLL)    118

7.27.1.3    Others    119

7.28    Sweden    119

7.28.1    Potential producers of natural graphite in Sweden    120

7.28.1.1    Flinders Resources    120

7.28.1.2    Talga Gold    120

7.28.2    Processors of natural graphite in Sweden    121

7.28.2.1    Minelco Group    121

7.29    Switzerland    121

7.29.1    Processors of natural graphite in Switzerland    121

7.29.1.1    Timcal Graphite & Carbon    121

7.30    Tanzania    122

7.30.1    Potential producers of natural graphite in Tanzania    122

7.31    Turkey    123

7.31.1    Producers of natural graphite in Turkey    123

7.31.1.1    Oysu Graphite Mining    123

7.32    Ukraine    124

7.32.1    Producers of natural graphite in Ukraine    124

7.32.1.1    Zavalyevsky (Zaval'evsky) Graphite Complex    124

7.33    United Kingdom    125

7.33.1    Processors of natural graphite in the UK    125

7.33.1.1    Branwell Graphite    125

7.33.1.2    James Durrans Group    126

7.33.1.3    Morgan Crucible    126

7.34    USA    126

7.34.1    Potential producers of natural graphite in the USA    128

7.34.1.1    Graphite One Resources    128

7.34.2    Processors of natural graphite in the USA    128

7.34.2.1    Asbury Carbons    128

7.34.2.2    GrafTech International    130

7.34.2.3    Graphite Technology    131

7.34.2.4    Poco Graphite    131

7.34.2.5    Superior Graphite    132

7.35    Uzbekistan    132

7.36    Vietnam    133

7.37    Zimbabwe    134

7.37.1    Producers of natural graphite in Zimbabwe    134

7.37.1.1    Zimbabwe German Graphite Mines    134

8.    International trade in natural graphite    135

8.1    Exports of natural graphite    136

8.1.1    Exports of natural graphite from China    142

8.1.2    Exports of natural graphite from other countries    143

8.1.3    Exports of flake natural graphite    143

8.1.3.1    Exports of flake natural graphite from China    144

8.1.4    Exports of non-flake natural graphite    145

8.1.4.1    Exports of non-flake natural graphite from China    146

8.2    Imports of natural graphite    147

9.    International trade in synthetic graphite    157

9.1    Exports of synthetic graphite    161

9.1.1    Impact of export controls on synthetic graphite trade    167

9.1.2    Trade flows of synthetic graphite from major exporting countries    167

9.2    Imports of synthetic graphite    178

9.2.1    Trade flows of synthetic graphite from major importing countries    184

10.    Consumption of natural and synthetic graphite    195

10.1    Apparent consumption of natural graphite    195

10.2    Apparent consumption of synthetic graphite    198

10.3    Consumption of graphite by country    199

10.3.1    Consumption of graphite in Brazil    199

10.3.2    Consumption of graphite in Canada    200

10.3.3    Consumption of graphite in China    200

10.3.4    Consumption of graphite in India    201

10.3.5    Consumption of graphite in Poland    202

10.3.6    Consumption of graphite in Russia    202

10.3.7    Consumption of graphite in the USA    203

10.3.7.1    Natural graphite    203

10.3.7.2    Synthetic graphite    208

11.    Forecast demand for natural and synthetic graphite    210

11.1    Forecast demand for natural graphite    210

11.2    Forecast demand for synthetic graphite    211

12.    End-uses for natural and synthetic graphite    213

13.    Specifications for natural and synthetic graphite by end-use    216

14.    Use of synthetic graphite in electrodes    219

14.1    Producers of synthetic graphite electrodes    220

14.1.1    GrafTech International    222

14.1.2    SGL Group - The Carbon Company    222

14.1.3    Beijing Fangda Carbon    223

14.1.4    Showa Denko    223

14.1.5    Tokai Carbon    223

14.1.6    Energoprom    224

14.1.7    Graphite India    224

14.1.8    HEG    225

14.2    Production of crude steel    225

14.2.1    Production of steel by process    227

14.2.2    Producers of crude steel    228

14.2.3    Consumption of synthetic graphite electrodes in steel production    229

14.3    Production of ferroalloys and silicon metal    232

14.4    Carbon arc light    233

15.    Use of natural and synthetic graphite in refractories    234

15.1    Types of refractories    234

15.1.1    Magnesia-carbon refractories    236

15.1.2    Alumina-magnesia-carbon refractories    237

15.1.3    Alumina-carbon refractories    238

15.1.4    Silicon carbide-graphite refractories    238

15.1.5    Graphite blocks    238

15.1.6    Graphite freeze linings    238

15.1.7    Crucibles    239

15.2    Production of refractories by region and country    240

15.2.1    Trends in the refractory industry    241

15.2.2    Production of refractories in Asia    242

15.2.2.1    Production of refractories in China    243

15.2.2.2    Production of refractories in Japan    246

15.2.2.3    Production of refractories in India    247

15.2.3    Production of refractories in Europe    248

15.2.3.1    Production of refractories in Spain    251

15.2.4    Production of refractories in South America    251

15.2.5    Production of refractories in the USA    252

15.3    Producers of graphite refractories    253

15.3.1    Argentina    256

15.3.2    Austria    256

15.3.3    Belgium    257

15.3.4    Brazil    257

15.3.5    China    258

15.3.6    Germany    262

15.3.7    India    263

15.3.8    Iran    265

15.3.9    Italy    265

15.3.10    Japan    266

15.3.11    South Korea    267

15.3.12    Mexico    267

15.3.13    Peru    267

15.3.14    Poland    268

15.3.15    Russia    268

15.3.16    Singapore    269

15.3.17    Slovakia    269

15.3.18    Spain    269

15.3.19    Taiwan    269

15.3.20    Turkey    270

15.3.21    Ukraine    270

15.3.22    UK    271

15.3.23    USA    271

15.4    Markets for refractories    272

15.5    Use of basic refractories in the iron and steel industry    273

15.5.1    Production of steel by process    273

15.5.1.1    Refractory consumption in basic oxygen furnaces (BOFs)    274

15.5.1.2    Refractory consumption in electric arc furnaces (EAFs)    276

15.5.1.3    Refractory consumption in secondary refining    276

15.5.1.4    Refractory consumption in continuous casting (concast)    278

15.6    Use of basic refractories in the non-ferrous metals industry    278

15.6.1    Production of non-ferrous metals    279

15.7    Consumption of graphite in refractories    281

15.7.1    US consumption of natural graphite in refractories    281

16.    Use of natural and synthetic graphite in recarburising    283

16.1    Use of recarburisers    283

16.2    Producers of synthetic graphite recarburisers    283

16.3    Trends in the use of recarburisers    284

16.3.1    US consumption of natural graphite in recarburisers    285

17.    Use of natural and synthetic graphite in lubricants    286

17.1    US consumption of natural graphite in lubricants    288

18.    Use of natural and synthetic graphite in graphite shapes    290

18.1    Producers of graphite shapes    292

18.1.1    SGL Group - The Carbon Company    292

18.1.2    GrafTech International    293

18.1.3    Mersen    294

18.1.4    Graphite India    295

18.1.5    Ibiden    295

18.1.6    POCO Graphite    295

18.1.7    SEC Carbon    296

18.1.8    Toyo Tanso    296

18.1.9    Other producers    296

19.    Use of natural and synthetic graphite in foundries    297

19.1    World production of castings    297

19.2    US consumption of natural graphite in foundries    300

20.    Use of natural and synthetic graphite in batteries    301

20.1    Production of batteries    304

20.2    Trends in the the use of different battery types in major applications    308

20.2.1    Portable consumer applications    308

20.2.2    Traditional automotive applications    309

20.2.3    Alternative energy automotive applications    312

20.2.4    Electric bicycles    317

20.2.5    Stationary applications    318

20.2.6    Other applications    319

20.2.7    Forecast demand for batteries    319

20.3    Use of graphite in lithium-ion batteries    321

20.3.1    Consumption of graphite in lithium-ion batteries    322

20.3.2    Producers of lithium-ion anode material    324

20.3.2.1    BTR Energy Materials    325

20.3.2.2    Carbon Tech    325

20.3.2.3    Changsha Hairong Electronic Materials    325

20.3.2.4    Chuo Denki Kogyo    326

20.3.2.5    Hitachi Chemical    326

20.3.2.6    Hitachi Powdered Metals    327

20.3.2.7    JFE Chemical    327

20.3.2.8    Kureha    327

20.3.2.9    Mitsubishi Chemical    328

20.3.2.10    Nippon Carbon    328

20.3.2.11    Nippon Power Graphite    328

20.3.2.12    Qingdao Dahua    328

20.3.2.13    Shanghai Shanshan    328

20.3.2.14    Showa Denko    329

20.3.2.15    Tokai Carbon    329

20.3.3    Production and demand for lithium-ion batteries    329

20.3.4    Forecast demand for graphite in lithium-ion batteries    331

20.4    Use of graphite in primary alkaline batteries    331

20.4.1    Consumption of graphite in primary alkaline batteries    332

20.5    Use of graphite in lead-acid batteries    333

20.5.1    Consumption of graphite in lead-acid batteries    334

20.6    Use of graphite in other battery types    335

20.7    Use of graphite in fuel cells    335

20.7.1    Consumption of graphite in fuel cells    337

21.    Use of natural and synthetic graphite in friction materials    339

21.1    Production of motor vehicles    341

21.1.1    US consumption of natural graphite in brake linings    344

21.2    End-uses for graphite shapes    346

21.2.1    Aerospace    347

21.2.2    Solar photovoltaic electricity    347

21.2.3    Electronics    348

21.2.4    Chemical processing    348

21.2.5    Bearings    348

21.2.6    Carbon brushes    349

21.2.7    Extrusion and furnace parts    349

21.2.8    Glass production    350

21.3    US consumption of natural graphite in carbon products    351

22.    Use of natural and synthetic graphite in other end-uses    352

22.1    Use of natural graphite in pencils    352

22.2    Use of natural and synthetic graphite in powder metallurgy    353

22.2.1    Markets for graphite in powder metallurgy    354

22.2.2    Natural graphite products used in powder metallurgy    354

22.2.3    Production of cemented carbides    357

22.2.3.1    Production of cemented carbides in China    357

22.2.3.2    Production of cemented carbides in the USA    358

22.2.3.3    Production of cemented carbide tools in Japan    358

22.2.3.4    Production of cemented carbides in Europe    359

22.2.4    US consumption of natural graphite in powder metallurgy    360

22.3    Use of natural and synthetic graphite in rubber    360

22.3.1    US consumption of natural graphite in rubber    361

22.4    Use of natural graphite in flexible graphite    361

22.4.1    Producers of flexible graphite    362

22.4.2    China    362

22.4.3    Germany    364

22.4.4    India    364

22.4.5    Japan    364

22.4.6    UK    365

22.4.7    USA    365

22.5    Use of natural and synthetic graphite in carbon-graphite foam    367

22.6    Use of natural graphite in paint    367

22.7    Use of natural and synthetic graphite in nuclear reactors    367

22.8    Use of synthetic graphite in synthetic diamonds    371

23.    Use of synthetic graphite in carbon fibres    372

23.1    Carbon fibre production process    374

23.2    Producers of carbon fibres    377

23.2.1    Toray Carbon    378

23.2.2    Zoltek    378

23.2.3    Toho Tenax    379

23.2.4    Mitsubishi Rayon    379

23.2.5    Formosa    380

23.2.6    Hexcel    380

23.2.7    SGL Group    381

23.2.8    DowAKSA    383

23.2.9    Cytec    383

23.3    End-uses for carbon fibres    384

24.    Competition and substitution of natural and synthetic graphite    389

25.    Prices of natural graphite    390

25.1    Trends in prices of natural graphite    395

25.2    Price history of natural flake graphite    396

25.3    Average value of exports from China    398

25.4    Average value of imports into the USA    401

25.5    Average value of imports into Japan    401

25.6    Future price trends for natural graphite    402

26.    Prices of synthetic graphite    404

26.1    China    408

26.2    USA    410

26.3    Future price trends for synthetic graphite    411


List of Tables

    Page

Table 1: World: Estimated consumption of natural and synthetic graphite by region

     and end-use, 2011     3

Table 2: Industrial applications for natural and synthetic graphite    4

Table 3: World: Estimated consumption of synthetic graphite by region and end-use,

    2011     6

Table 4: World: Forecast demand for synthetic graphite by region and end-use, 2016     7

Table 5: Typical chemical composition of natural amorphous, flake and lump graphite     10

Table 6: Ash content and analysis in natural graphite     10

Table 7: World: Reserves of natural graphite, 2012     11

Table 8: Location of major natural graphite deposits by type    12

Table 9: World: Particle size and carbon content of commercial graphite production    15

Table 10: Applications for high-purity graphites and alternatives    17

Table 11: Applications for expanded graphite    19

Table 12: Potential applications for graphene    22

Table 13: World: Production of natural graphite by country and graphite type, 2004

      to 2011     29

Table 14: World: Estimated capacity for natural graphite by producer, 2011    32

Table 15: World: Major synthetic graphite producers by end-use, 2012    39

Table 16: Austria: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011     44

Table 17: Brazil: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011     46

Table 18: Brazil: Production of natural graphite by company, 2002 to 2010     47

Table 19: Brazil: Production and sales of natural graphite by selected region, 2005

      to 2007    47

Table 20: Nacional de Grafite: Products and their uses    49

Table 21: Canada: Production, trade and reported consumption of graphite, 2004

      to 2011     51

Table 22: Québec: Imports of natural graphite by type, 2004 to 2011     53

Table 23: Canada: Status of major natural graphite developments, as of June 2012    54

Table 24: China: Explored deposits divided by size and type, 1996    61

Table 25: China: Classification of Chinese graphite deposit size    61

Table 26: China: Distribution of natural graphite resources, by region    61

Table 27: China: Distribution of natural graphite resources, by province    62

Table 28: China: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011     63

Table 29: China: Production of natural flake graphite, 1991 to 2011     63

Table 30: China: Production of flake graphite ore and stripping quantity, 2012     64

Table 31: China: Exports of natural graphite by type and district, 2004 to 2011     67

Table 32: China: Imports of natural graphite by type and district, 2004 to 2011     70

Table 33: China: Natural graphite producers, 2012    71

Table 34: Qingdao Hensen Graphite: Product list and capacity    77

Table 35: Qingdao Heilong Graphite: Product list, uses and capacity    78

Table 36: Czech Republic: Production and trade in natural graphite, 2004 to 2011     86

Table 37: Czech Republic: Deposits of natural graphite by type, 2009    86

Table 38: Czech Republic: Reserves of natural graphite, 2001 to 2009     86

Table 39: Germany: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011     87

Table 40: Graphit Kropfmühl: Mining and processing capacity, 2011    88

Table 41: Graphit Kropfmühl: Corporate structure    89

Table 42: Graphit Kropfmühl: Graphite segment sales, 2004 to 2011    89

Table 43: India: Reserves/resources of graphite by state and grade, April 2005,     93

Table 44: India: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011     94

Table 45: India: Production of graphite by sector, state and district, 2006/07

      to 2009/10     95

Table 46: India: Relative size of operating mines, 2008/09 and 2009/10    95

Table 47: India: Major producers of natural graphite, 2009/10    96

Table 48: India: Location of major graphite beneficiation plants, 2008/09    100

Table 49: North Korea: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011     101

Table 50: South Korea: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011     103

Table 51: Madagascar: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011     104

Table 52: Mexico: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011     107

Table 53: Norway: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011     110

Table 54: Romania: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011     112

Table 55: Russia: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011     113

Table 56: Sri Lanka: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011     116

Table 57: Bogala Graphite Lanka: Vein graphite products    118

Table 58: Sweden: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011     119

Table 59: Timcal: Details of major graphite operations    122

Table 60: Turkey: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011     123

Table 61: Ukraine: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011     124

Table 62: Zavalyevsky: Product list    125

Table 63: UK: Trade in natural graphite, 2004 to 2011     125

Table 64: USA: Trade and consumption of natural graphite, 2004 to 2011     127

Table 65: Asbury Carbons: Location of graphite processing plants, 2012    129

Table 66: Asbury Carbons: Specifications of natural graphite products by major

      application    130

Table 67: GrafTech: Segments, products and applications, 2009 to 2011    131

Table 68: Superior Graphite: Location of manufacturing facilities    132

Table 69: Uzbekistan: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011     133

Table 70: Vietnam: Trade in natural graphite, 2004 to 2011     133

Table 71: Zimbabwe: Production and trade in graphite, 2004 to 2011     134

Table 72: World: Recorded trade in natural graphite by type, 2002 to 2011     136

Table 73: World: Exports of natural graphite by region and country, 2002 to 2011     138

Table 74: World: Major reported trade flows of natural graphite exports, 2010     140

Table 75: World: Major reported trade flows of natural graphite exports, 2011     141

Table 76: World: Exports of natural graphite powder or flake by region and country,

      2002 to 2011     143

Table 77: World: Exports of natural graphite other than powder or flake by region

      and country, 2002 to 2011     145

Table 78: World: Reported imports of natural graphite by region and country, 2002

      to 2011     149

Table 79: World: Major reported trade flows of natural graphite imports, 2010     151

Table 80: World: Major reported trade flows of natural graphite imports, 2011     152

Table 81: World: Reported imports of flake natural graphite by region and country,

      2002 to 2011     154

Table 82: World: Reported imports of non-flake natural graphite by region and

      country, 2002 to 2011     155

Table 83: World: Recorded trade in synthetic graphite by type, 2002 to 2011     159

Table 84: World: Recorded trade in carbon electrodes of a kind used for furnaces,

      2002 to 2011     159

Table 85: World: Exports of artificial graphite by region and country, 2002 to 2011     165

Table 86: World: Major reported trade flows of artificial graphite exports, 2010     168

Table 87: World: Major reported trade flows of artificial graphite exports, 2011     169

Table 88: World: Major reported trade flows of colloidal or semi-colloidal graphite exports, 2010     170

Table 89: World: Major reported trade flows of colloidal or semi-colloidal graphite exports, 2011     171

Table 90: World: Major reported trade flows of carbonaceous pastes for electrodes

      and similar pastes for furnace lining exports, 2010     172

Table 91: World: Major reported trade flows of carbonaceous pastes for electrodes

      and similar pastes for furnace lining exports, 2011     173

Table 92: World: Major reported trade flows of preparations based on graphite,

      nesoi, exports, 2010     174

Table 93: World: Major reported trade flows of preparations based on graphite,

      nesoi, exports, 2011     175

Table 94: World: Major reported trade flows of carbon electrode exports, 2010     176

Table 95: World: Major reported trade flows of carbon electrode exports, 2011     177

Table 96: World: Reported imports of artificial graphite by region and country, 2002

      to 2011     180

Table 97: World: Reported imports of carbon electrodes of a kind used for furnaces

      by region and country, 2002 to 2011     182

Table 98: World: Major reported trade flows of artificial graphite imports, 2010     185

Table 99: World: Major reported trade flows of artificial graphite imports, 2011     186

Table 100: World: Major reported trade flows of colloidal and semi-colloidal

        graphite imports, 2010     187

Table 101: World: Major reported trade flows of colloidal and semi-colloidal

        graphite imports, 2011     188

Table 102: World: Major reported trade flows of carbonaceous pastes for electrodes

        and similar pastes for furnace lining imports, 2010     189

Table 103: World: Major reported trade flows of carbonaceous pastes for

        electrodes and similar pastes for furnace lining imports, 2011     190

Table 104: World: Major reported trade flows of preparations based on graphite,

        nesoi, imports, 2010     191

Table 105: World: Major reported trade flows of preparations based on graphite,

        nesoi, imports, 2011     192

Table 106: World: Major reported trade flows of carbon electrode imports, 2010     193

Table 107: World: Major reported trade flows of carbon electrode imports, 2011     194

Table 108: World: Estimated consumption of natural and synthetic graphite by

        region and end-use, 2011     195

Table 109: World: Estimated consumption of natural graphite by region, 2004

        to 2011     196

Table 110: World: Estimated consumption of natural graphite by region and

        end-use, 2011     197

Table 111: World: Estimated consumption of natural flake graphite by region and

        end-use, 2011     198


Table 112: World: Estimated consumption of synthetic graphite by region and

        end-use, 2011     199

Table 113: Canada: Reported consumption of natural graphite, 1998 to 2006     200

Table 114: India: Reported consumption of graphite by end-use, 1999/00 to

        2009/10     202

Table 115: USA: Reported consumption of natural graphite by end-use and type,

        2001 to 2010    206

Table 116: USA: Shipments of synthetic graphite by end-use, 1999 to 2010     209

Table 117: World: Forecast demand for natural graphite by region and end-use,

        2016     210

Table 118: World: Forecast demand for natural flake graphite by region and

        end-use, 2016     211

Table 119: World: Forecast demand for synthetic graphite by region and end-use,

        2016     212

Table 120: Major applications of primary and secondary natural and synthetic

        graphite    214

Table 121: Typical characteristics of synthetic and natural graphites    216

Table 122: Natural graphite specifications by end-use    216

Table 123: Natural graphite specifications by end-use    217

Table 124: General specification of anode grade petroleum coke    218

Table 125: Typical specifications for calcined petroleum needle coke    218

Table 126: VAW: Physical properties of graphite electrodes for electric arc furnaces    219

Table 127: World: Main UHP (ultra high power) graphite electrode producers    221

Table 128: Energoprom: Estimated production of graphite and carbon products,

        2006 to 2010     224

Table 129: World: Production of crude steel by region, 2001 to 2011     225

Table 130: World: Production of crude steel by process divided by region, 2010    227

Table 131: World: Estimated consumption of synthetic graphite electrodes for EAF

        steelmaking, 1995 to 2011     229

Table 132: Timcal: Specifications of natural flake graphite used in refractories    234

Table 133: World: Specific consumption of refractories    241

Table 134: Japan: Production of refractories by type, 2002 to 2011     247

Table 135: Japan: Consumption of graphite in refractories, 2002 to 2011     247

Table 136: India: Production of refractories by type, 2001/02 to 2005/06     248

Table 137: Spain: Production of refractories by type, 2005 to 2011     251

Table 138: South America: Capacity and production of basic refractories by type,

        form, and country, 2010 and 2011     252

Table 139: USA: Shipments of refractories by type, 2003 to 2010     253

Table 140: World: Identified producers of magnesia/alumina-carbon brick, 2012     254

Table 141: RHI: Estimated basic refractories production capacity by plant, 2012     257

Table 142: LWB Refractories: Details of refractory plants, 2012    263

Table 143: Russia: Production of magnesia refractories by company, 2000 to 2008     268

Table 144: Nikomogneupor: Production of magnesia and other refractories, 2000

        to 2008     268

Table 145: Ukraine: Production of magnesia refractory products by company, 2000

        to 2008     270

Table 146: World: Regional steel production carried out by continuous casting,

        2001 to 2010     274


Table 147: Comparison of the gas analysis of synthetic graphite with Desulco®,

        and calcined petroleum coke carbon raiser materials    284

Table 148: Zhenjiang Coking & Gas Group: Specifications of carbon raiser

        products     284

Table 149: Asbury Carbons: Details of lubricants containing graphite    287

Table 150: World: Principal producers of synthetic graphite shapes: isostatic,

        extruded and moulded, 2012    292

Table 151: World: Production of castings by main countries, 2010     299

Table 152: Major uses of graphite in batteries and fuel cells    302

Table 153: Asbury Carbons: Specification of carbon products for batteries    303

Table 154: Japan: Sales of batteries by type, 1990 to 2011     306

Table 155: Japan: Production of small secondary batteries, 2007-2012    307

Table 156: North America: Domestic shipments of SLI batteries, 1995 to 2011     311

Table 157: World: Vehicle population by region/country, 2005 to 2011     311

Table 158: Nominal energy density of energy sources for use in automobiles    313

Table 159: World: Major HEV, PHEV and EV models, 2012    315

Table 160: World: Forecast production of cars and light vehicles 2011 to 2016     320

Table 161: World: Forecast production of HEVs, PHEVs and BHEVs, 2011 to 2020    320

Table 162: World: Estimated production of coated spherical graphite for use in

        lithium-ion batteries by region, 2011     324

Table 163: Selected countries: Consumption of lead in batteries, 2000, 2005

        and 2010    334

Table 164: Major fuel cell designs    336

Table 165: Typical specifications of graphite for friction materials    339

Table 166: Types of brake pad for cars and trucks    340

Table 167: Timcal: Typical specifications of TIMREX® natural angular flake and

        microporous graphite for friction materials    340

Table 168: Timcal: Typical specifications of TIMREX® natural irregular spheroid

        graphite for friction materials    340

Table 169: Timcal: Typical specifications of TIMREX® natural flake graphite for

        friction materials    341

Table 170: World: Vehicle production by region, 2002 to 2011     343

Table 171: USA: Estimated unit consumption of graphite in brake linings of new

        motor vehicles, 2001 to 2011    345

Table 172: Examples of applications for graphite in the glass industry    350

Table 173: Graphite applications in powder metallurgy and hard metals markets    354

Table 174: Asbury Carbons: Specifications of natural graphite for use in powder

        metallurgy    355

Table 175: Asbury Carbons: Specifications of natural graphite for use in hard metals    355

Table 176: Timcal Graphite & Carbon: Specifications and applications of TIMREX

        natural graphites for use in powder metallurgy and hard metals    356

Table 177: Timcal Graphite & Carbon: Specifications and applications of selected

        TIMREX synthetic graphites for use in powder metallurgy and hard

        metals    356

Table 178: China: Production of cemented carbides, 2002 to 2011     357

Table 179: Japan: Production of cemented carbide tools, 2002 to 2011     359

Table 180: Japan: Production of cemented carbide tools by end-use, 2005 to 2011     359

Table 181: Japan: Consumption of graphite in ultra-hard alloys, 2005 to 2011     359

Table 182: GrafTech International: GRAFOIL products    366

Table 183: Details of nuclear reactors in use, 2011    368

Table 184: World: Nuclear power reactors in operation and under construction,

        March 2012    369

Table 185: China: Annual and cumulative increase in wind turbine capacity,

        2000 to 2011    374

Table 186: World: Principal producers of carbon fibre, 2012    378

Table 187: Hexcel Corporation: Carbon fibre operations, 2012    381

Table 188: SGL Group: Financial results by region, 2011    382

Table 189: Carbon fibre characteristics and applications    386

Table 190: Price of natural flake graphite, 1984 to 2012    393

Table 191: Price of amorphous natural graphite powder (80-85% C), 1984 to 2012    394

Table 192: Year-end price of synthetic graphite1 (99.95% C), 2005 to 2011    405

Table 193: USA: Average value of imports for consumption of synthetic graphite

        electrodes, by country, 2009 and 2010    410

Table 194: USA: GrafTech synthetic graphite electrodes and pins pricing table for

        deliveries before 31 December 2012    411


List of Figures

Figure 1: World: Estimated consumption of natural graphite by region, 2004 to 2011     5

Figure 2: Natural graphite manufacturing process    16

Figure 3: Synthetic graphite from petroleum coke - manufacturing process    26

Figure 4: World production of natural graphite by type, 2011     27

Figure 5: World: Production of natural graphite by region, 2004 to 2011     30

Figure 6: Austria: Imports of natural graphite by country of origin, 2002 to 2011     45

Figure 7: China: Production of natural graphite compared to Chinese and global production of crude steel, 2004 to 2012     60

Figure 8: China: Exports of natural graphite by country, 2004 to 2011     66

Figure 9: China: Average value of exports of natural graphite by major countries of destination, 1995 to 2011     68

Figure 10: China: Comparison of average value of imports and exports, 2002 to 2011     68

Figure 11: China: Imports of natural graphite by country, 2004 to 2011     69

Figure 12: North Korea: Inferred exports of natural graphite by country of

    destination, 2004 to 2011     102

Figure 13: North Korea: Average value of inferred exports to China, 2000 to 2011     102

Figure 14: Norway: Inferred exports of natural graphite by country of destination,

     2000 to 2011     111

Figure 15: Russia: Imports of natural graphite by country of origin, 2000 to 2011     114

Figure 16: Sri Lanka: Exports of natural graphite by country of destination, 2000

     to 2011     116

Figure 17: Sri Lanka: Quantity and average value of exports to selected countries,

     2011    117

Figure 18: USA: Imports of natural graphite by country, 2004 to 2011     127

Figure 19: World: Difference between reported exports and imports of natural

     graphite by type, 2002 to 2011     136

Figure 20: Reported exports of natural graphite by type, 1995 to 2011     137

Figure 21: World: Exports of natural graphite by major country,, 2002 to 2011     137

Figure 22: China: Exports of natural graphite by region, 1995 to 2011     142

Figure 23: China: Exports of natural flake graphite by region, 1997 to 2011     145

Figure 24: China: Exports of natural non-flake graphite by region, 1995 to 2011     147

Figure 25: Reported imports of natural graphite by type, 1995 to 2011     148

Figure 26: World: Reported imports of natural graphite by major country, 2002

     to 2011     148

Figure 27: Japan: Imports of natural graphite by main countries, 1994 to 2011     153

Figure 28: World: Differences between reported exports and imports of synthetic

     graphite by type, 2002 to 2011     159

Figure 29: World: Differences between reported exports and imports of carbon electrodes of

     a kind used for furnaces, 2002 to 2011     160

Figure 30: World: Reported exports of synthetic graphite by type, 2002 to 2011     161

Figure 31: World: Reported exports of carbon electrodes of a kind used for

     furnaces, 2002 to 2011     162

Figure 32: World: Exports of artificial graphite by main country, 2002 to 2011     163

Figure 33: World: Exports of colloidal or semi-colloidal synthetic graphite by main

     country, 2002 to 2011     163

Figure 34: World: Exports of carbonaceous pastes for electrodes and furnace

     linings by main country, 2002 to 2011     164

Figure 35: World: Exports of preparations based on synthetic graphite, 2002

     to 2011     164

Figure 36: World: Reported imports of synthetic graphite by type, 2002 to 2011     178

Figure 37: World: Reported imports of artificial graphite by main country, 2002

     to 2011     179

Figure 38: USA: Imports of carbon electrodes of a kind used for furnaces by main

     country, 1995 to 2011     184

Figure 39: World: Estimated consumption of natural graphite by region, 2004

     to 2011     196

Figure 40: World: Estimated consumption of natural graphite by region, 2004

     to 2011     197

Figure 41: World: Estimated consumption of synthetic graphite by region, 2011     198

Figure 42: Brazil: Consumption of beneficiated natural graphite by end-use, 2008     200

Figure 43: China: Consumption of natural graphite by end-use, 2008 and 2012     201

Figure 44: USA: Trade in natural graphite, 1990 to 2011     203

Figure 45: USA: Imports of natural graphite by type, 1990 to 2011     204

Figure 46: USA: Comparison of average values of imports and exports of natural

     graphite, 1990 to 2011     204

Figure 47: USA: Apparent consumption of natural graphite, 1975 to 2011     205

Figure 48: USA: Reported consumption of natural graphite by type, 1993 to 2010     206

Figure 49: USA: Reported consumption of natural graphite by end-use, 1975

     to 2010     208

Figure 50: World: Market for natural and synthetic graphite, 2012     213

Figure 51: Production costs for synthetic graphite electrodes by component, 2012    220

Figure 52: World: Regional crude steel production, 2001 and 2011     226

Figure 53: China: Crude steel production compared to rest of world, 1992 to 2012     226

Figure 54: World: Production of crude steel by process, 1988 to 2010     228

Figure 55: World: Production of crude steel by leading companies, 2011     229

Figure 56: World: Production of crude steel by region and process route, 2010     231

Figure 57: World: Production of ferroalloys and silicon metal in EAFs by type, 2010     232

Figure 58: World: Estimated production of refractories by region and country,

     2000 to 2011     240

Figure 59: China: Production and trade in refractories, 2006 to 2011     243

Figure 60: China: Production of refractories by type, 2006 to 2011     244

Figure 61: China: Production of refractories by province, 2011    244

Figure 62: China: Refractory production compared with flake graphite supply,

     2004 to 2011    245

Figure 63: Japan: Production of shaped and unshaped refractories, 1980 to 2011     246

Figure 64: Europe: Production of refractories by type, 2003 to 2009     248

Figure 65: Europe: Sales of refractories by type, 2003 to 2010     249

Figure 66: Europe: Sales of refractory ceramic constructional goods, 1995 to 2010     250

Figure 67: Europe: Sales of refractory ceramic goods, 1995 to 2010     250

Figure 68: World: Estimated consumption of refractories by end-use, 2012     273

Figure 69: Price development of magnesia, bauxite and graphite, 2005 to 2011     275

Figure 70: World: Refined production of aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, tin and

     zinc, 1970 to 2011     279

Figure 71: China: Refined production of aluminium, copper, lead, nickel, tin and

     zinc, 2001 and 2011     280


Figure 72: China: Secondary production of aluminium, copper and lead, 2001

     and 2011     280

Figure 73: USA: Reported consumption of natural graphite in refractories, 1993

     to 2010     281

Figure 74: India: Reported consumption of natural graphite in crucibles and

     refractories, 1999/00 to 2009/10     282

Figure 75: USA: Consumption of natural graphite in steelmaking, 1974 to 2010     285

Figure 76: USA: Reported consumption of natural graphite in lubricants, 1974

     to 2010     289

Figure 77: World: Production of castings by type, 1998 to 2010     298

Figure 78: World: Regional production of castings, 2000 and 2010     298

Figure 79: China: Production of castings by type, 2000 to 2010     299

Figure 80: USA: Reported consumption of natural graphite in foundries and foundry

     facings compared to castings production, 1974 to 2010     300

Figure 81: World: Battery market by value of major battery types, 2011     305

Figure 82: Japan: Sales of secondary (rechargeable) batteries by type, 1990

     to 2011    307

Figure 83: Japan: Average values of secondary batteries by type, 2007-2012    308

Figure 84: World: Motor vehicle production by region, 2000 to 2011    310

Figure 85: World: Estimated cumulative HEV sales by region, 2011    314

Figure 86: World: Forecast sales of HEVs, PHEVs and BHEVs, 2011-2020    321

Figure 87: Production of spherical graphite    323

Figure 88: World: Lithium-ion battery production by country, 2000 to 2011    330

Figure 89: World: Division of lithium-ion battery production by major company, 2010    330

Figure 90: World: Production of motor vehicles by region, 2011    342

Figure 91: World: Production of motor vehicles by main countries, 2002 to 2011    342

Figure 92: USA: Reported consumption of natural graphite in brake linings, 1974

     to 2010     344

Figure 93: USA: Consumption of graphite in brake linings compared to vehicle

     production, 2001 to 2011    345

Figure 94: USA: Consumption of natural graphite in carbon products, 1993 to 2010     351

Figure 95: China: Production of cemented carbides by end-use, 2010     358

Figure 96: USA: Consumption of natural graphite in powder metallurgy, 1988

     to 2010     360

Figure 97: USA: Consumption of natural graphite in rubber, 1993 to 2010     361

Figure 98: World: Market for carbon fibres, 2011     372

Figure 99: World: Market for carbon fibres, 2016     373

Figure 100: Carbon fibre production: A cost calculation model for 50k fibre, 2012    375

Figure 101: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor manufacturing process    375

Figure 102: Carbon fibre manufacturing process    376

Figure 103: Materials used in the airframes of the MD80 and B787    385

Figure 104: Average value of natural flake graphite exports, by major exporters,

       1995 to 2012     391

Figure 105: Europe: Average price of natural graphite by type, 2003 to 2012     392

Figure 106: Europe: Average price of medium size flake natural graphite by grade,

       2003 to 2012      392

Figure 107: China: Exports of graphite compared to average value of exports,

       1995 to 2012    398

Figure 108: China: Average value of natural graphite exports by type, 1997 to 2011     399

Figure 109: China: Average value of flake graphite exports by main countries,

       1997 to 2011     400

Figure 110: China: Average value of powder graphite exports by main countries,

       1997 to 2008     400

Figure 111: USA: Average value of imports of natural graphite by main country,

       1990 to 2011     401

Figure 112: Japan: Average value of imports of natural graphite by type, 1994

       to 2011     402

Figure 113: Average unit value of exports of artificial graphite, by major exporters,

       2000 to 2011     405

Figure 114: Average unit value of exports of colloidal or semi-colloidal graphite,

       by major exporters, 2000 to 2011     406

Figure 115: Average unit value of exports of carbonaceous pastes for electrodes

       and similar pastes for furnace linings, by major exporters, 2000 to 2011     406

Figure 116: Average unit value of exports of preparations based on graphite

       by major exporters, 2000 to 2011     407

Figure 117: Average unit value of exports of carbon electrodes of a kind used for

       furnaces, by major exporters, 2000 to 2011     407

Figure 118: China: Exports of artificial graphite compared to average value of

       exports, 2000 to 2011    409

Figure 119: China: Average value of synthetic graphite exports by type, 2000

       to 2011     409

Figure 120: USA: Average value of imports of synthetic graphite electrodes by

       main country, 2000 to 2011     410


SOURCE Roskill Information Services



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