NEW YORK, Jan. 12, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- The scientific research and development services industry comprises establishments engaged in research and experimental development on a contract, consultancy or outsourced basis in the areas such as biotechnology, physical sciences, engineering sciences, life sciences and social sciences.
The USA was the largest market for the scientific research and development services industry, accounting for $50 billion or 21% of the market in 2015. This was mainly due to increase in demand for products related to health and medicine. China was the second largest market, accounting for $30 billion or 13% of the market. The UK was the third largest market accounting for $20 billion or 10% of the market. Spain was the lowest of the featured countries in the scientific research and development services market accounting for 1%. Other countries together represented 20% of the global market.
4D Bio printing Using Time As An Additional Variable
4D printing has evolved from 3D printing with an additional feature of changing the geometrical shape and mechanical properties with time being integrated as an additional fourth dimension. One of the major drawbacks of 3D printing is it can only take the shape in which it was originally made and is static and inanimate. Now with the latest development of 4D printing, objects can now be made with responsive materials with certain inherent properties that can change or transform in response to external stimuli. It has widespread applications in medical science such as tissue regeneration in biomedical field. For example, printed micro tissue from bio ink can undergo maturation via cellular coating to form functional tissue constructs such as engineered tissue constructs
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