2014

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Technologies and Global Markets



 

 

 

NEW YORK, Jan. 23, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:



Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Technologies and Global Markets
http://www.reportlinker.com/p0619257/Solid-Oxide-Fuel-Cells-Technologies-and-Global-Markets.html#utm_source=prnewswire&utm_medium=pr&utm_campaign=Battery


STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Fuel cells are viewed as potential candidates for auxiliary power, mobile power, stationary distributed or central power, and portable product power. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are among the most efficient and cost–effective. Although relatively high operating temperatures limit the range of applications stationary, mobile and even portable product configurations are possible.
Advances in technology have been made, but sometimes these advances reveal even more challenges. SOFCs contribute to securing energy security for the country, improving the environment, greatly reducing urban pollution, and creating jobs in manufacturing as the technology advances. They can also provide a cost–effective and performance–driven rival for other fuel cells, batteries, internal combustion engines, and coal– or oil–fired heat engines.
This study analyzes components of the SOFC, a technology offering the promise of greatly reduced environmental impact and excellent performance, price, fuel flexibility, and efficiency advantages. Technology, applications, and recent commercial developments are described.


REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

This report can provide valuable information in terms of assessing investment in particular technologies and, therefore, should benefit investors directly or indirectly. Others may find the broad discussions of energy policy and environmental impact to be of considerable value in understanding the opportunities and problems in the near– to mid–term.


INTENDED AUDIENCE

This report is intended to provide a unique analysis of the SOFC market and will be of interest to a variety of current and potential fuel cell users and integrators as well as competing battery, fuel cell, and conventional power generation makers.
BCC Research wishes to thank those companies, government agencies, and university researchers that contributed information for this report.


SCOPE OF REPORT

This report discusses the North American, European, Far Eastern, and Rest–of–World market values. Target markets are based on optimistic, pessimistic, and consensus alternatives. This is compared to the conventional power generation target and peak shifting opportunities. The current market is emerging, with niche products, pre–commercial demos, and subsidized pilot projects.
Over the next five years these pilots will be expanding into commercial implementations. The 2018 market is also characterized in terms of optimistic, pessimistic, and consensus scenarios.
SOFC applications are described and analyzed. The following applications are considered:
• Combined heat and power (CHP).
• Remote power and auxiliary power units (APUs).
• Military.
• Portable product power.
• Exotic.

SOFC companies are listed and detailed profiles prepared in the Company Profiles chapter.


METHODOLOGY

An in–depth analysis of technical and business literature and published dissertations; a review of the history of the technologies involved; and interviews with industry experts, company representatives, federal government researchers, and university scientists provide an assessment of the outlook for alternative electrical power storage. Other information sources include product literature from suppliers, scientific references, conferences, and patent searches.
Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report, which is based on interviews with commercial and government sources, literature reviews, and patent examinations. Throughout the report, past market data is expressed in current dollars, and estimates and projections are in constant 2013 dollars. Historic and current markets and the projected market for 2018 are provided.
Most market summaries are based on a consensus scenario that assumes no unanticipated technical advances and no unexpected legislation. When appropriate, pessimistic, consensus, and optimistic market scenarios characterize several developmental markets. Totals are rounded to the nearest million dollars. When appropriate, information from previously published sources is identified to allow a more detailed examination by clients.


INFORMATION SOURCES

Market assumptions used in this report include those based on updates of material from an earlier version of this analysis, as well as from BCC Research studies. This report's author prepared these studies as well. He was also a long–time editor of BCC Research newsletters Fuel Cell Industry Report and Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Progress. Although many segments of the industry are well documented, much of this information is based on estimates, not hard facts. The distinction between these estimates and hard facts can be vital, and wherever possible, sources are identified.


ANALYST CREDENTIALS

This report's project analyst, Donald Saxman, edited BCC Research's Fuel Cell Industry Report and Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Progress newsletters. Mr. Saxman has more than 28 years of experience in market analysis, technical writing, and newsletter editing. Since 1983, he has operated as a technical market consultant and subcontractor to BCC Research and in this capacity has prepared more than 85 technology market research reports, including many that covered battery technology and battery markets. His previous experience includes supervision of a quality–control laboratory at a major secondary lead refinery, experience as an analytical chemist at a hazardous waste testing service, product assurance manager for a space station life–support–system project, and an information technology business analyst and project manager.

REPORT HIGHLIGHTS

Global solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) market in 2013 is worth more than $906 million, up from $303 million in 2008. The forecasted revenues will likely reach almost $1.3 billion by 2018, demonstrating a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.5%.
This report provides:
• An overview of the global market for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs).
• Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2008 and 2012, estimates for 2013, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2018.
• Discussion of the current state, setbacks, innovations, and the future needs of the market.
• Examination of the market by application and by product sizes; utility scale, medium scale and small scale.
• Analyses of the technology and recent commercial developments in SOFCs global market.



TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 2

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2
REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2
INTENDED AUDIENCE 2
SCOPE OF REPORT 2
METHODOLOGY 3
INFORMATION SOURCES 3
ANALYST CREDENTIALS 4
RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 4
BCC RESEARCH ONLINE SERVICES 4
DISCLAIMER 4

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE 1 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY YEAR, 2008–2018 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE 2 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2013 ($ MILLIONS/%) 8

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10

FUEL CELL BACKGROUND 10
TABLE 1 SOFC COMPARED TO OTHER FUEL CELLS 10
SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL BACKGROUND 11
SOFC MATERIALS 12
SOFC Electrodes, Electrolytes, and Interconnects 12
SOFC Glass Seals 13
SOFC Gaskets 14
TABLE 2 SOFC GASKET MATERIALS 15
Recent SOFC Material Developments 15
Georgia Tech SOFC Ceramic Material 15
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and
Technology and the Fine Ceramics Research Association
Electrode Compositions
17
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Ceramic
Microreactors 17
Cornell University One-Pot Process 18
West Virginia University Interconnect Coatings 18
Nippon Shokubai Zirconia Sheets 19
TABLE 3 NIPPON SHOKUBAI ZIRCONIA SOFC SHEET SPECIFICATIONS 19
University of Birmingham Electrode Doping 20
Virginia Tech Self-healing Glass Seals 20
SOFC TECHNOLOGY: CURRENT AND DEVELOPMENTAL CONFIGURATIONS 21
Generic Planar SOFC Configuration 22
FIGURE 1 PLANAR SOFC CONFIGURATION 22
Generic Thin-film Configuration 23
FIGURE 2 THIN-FILM SOFC CONFIGURATION 23
Generic Tubular Configuration 24
FIGURE 3 TUBULAR SOFC CONFIGURATION 24
Westinghouse Tubular Design 24
Siemens Power Generation Tubular Design 25
Advanced Microtubular Designs 26
FIGURE 4 TUBULAR CELL AND CURRENT PATH WITH SIEMENS CELLS
CONFIGURATION 26
FIGURE 5 TUBULAR CELL AND CURRENT PATH WITH A STRAIGHT METAL WIRE AS
CURRENT COLLECTOR 28
FIGURE 6 CURRENT PATH IN RADIAL AND AXIAL DIRECTION WITH A SPRING COIL
AS CURRENT COLLECTOR 29
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
(AIST) Microtubular Design 29
NanoDynamics Energy Microtubular Configuration 31
MIT SOFC Power Plant Design 32
Ceres Power CHP Design 33
Bloom Energy Design 35
TABLE 4 BLOOM ENERGY SERVER SPECIFICATIONS 35
FuelCon SOFC Test Station 36
SOFC Gas Turbine Hybrids 37
FIGURE 7 FUELCELL ENERGY SOFC/T HYBRID SYSTEM AND TORPEDO
CONFIGURATION 37
GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS AND SUBSIDIES 39
U.S. FEDERAL FUEL CELL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES 39
U.S. Department of Energy 39
History of U.S. DOE Fuel Cell Subsidies 41
U.S. Fuel Cell Budget Situation in 2009 42
U.S. Fuel Cell Budget Situation in 2010 45
TABLE 5 HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES FUNDING PROFILE BY
SUBPROGRAM IN 2010 BUDGET ($ THOUSANDS) 45
U.S. Fuel Cell Budget Situation in 2011 47
TABLE 6 FISCAL FUEL CELL BUDGET, 2010-2012 ($ MILLIONS) 48
The Sequestration Transparency Act of 2012 48
TABLE 7 FISCAL FUEL CELL BUDGET, 2011-2013 ($ MILLIONS) 49
U.S. DOE Draft Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Plan 50
Office of Science 53
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Interagency Task Force 54
Federal Excise Tax Exemption for Anti-idling 55
Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association 55
JOBS FC Model 56
National Science Foundation 56
Department of Defense 57
State Incentives 58
GLOBAL SUBSIDIES AND INCENTIVES 59
Canadian Subsidies and Incentives 59
European Subsidies and Incentives 59
Japanese Subsidies and Incentives 60
South Korean Subsidies and Incentives 60
Australian Subsidies and Incentives 63
SOFC RESEARCH 63
ACADEMIC INSTITUTIONS 63
TABLE 8 MAJOR INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH INTO PEM FUEL CELLS 63


CHAPTER 4 MARKETS BY APPLICATION 66

COMBINED HEAT AND POWER 66
CHP DEVELOPMENTS 67
U.S. DOE EERE CHP Developments 67
TABLE 9 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1 KWE TO 10 KWE RESIDENTIAL
COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FUEL CELLS OPERATING ON NATURAL GAS,
2008-2020
67
TABLE 10 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1 KWE TO 10 KWE FUEL CELL
AUXILIARY POWER UNITS OPERATING ON STANDARD ULTRA-LOW SULFUR DIESEL
FUEL THROUGH 2020
68
European Union SOFC Research Partnership CHP Developments 68
Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Advisory Committee (HTAC) CHP
Developments 70
Ceres Power CHP Developments 70
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 72
GENERATORS, REMOTE POWER, AND AUXILIARY POWER 73
GENERATORS AND PORTABLE POWER PLANTS 74
RECREATIONAL VEHICLE POWER 74
ANTI-IDLING APUS 75
AIRCRAFT APUS 76
MARINE VESSEL APUS 78
PORTABLE PRODUCTS 78
MILITARY 79
EXOTIC 79


CHAPTER 5 SOFC MARKET SUMMARY 82

SOFC SEGMENTS ANALYZED 82
SOFC MARKET DRIVERS AND BASIS FOR SCENARIOS 83
SOFC APPLICATION MARKET DRIVER SCENARIOS 84
TABLE 11 SOFC CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOS, BY
APPLICATION 84
SOFC REGIONAL MARKET DRIVER SCENARIOS 89
TABLE 12 SOFC CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOS, BY
REGION 89
SOFC PRODUCT MARKET DRIVER SCENARIOS 93
TABLE 13 SOFC CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOS, BY SCALE 93
SOFC MARKETS BY APPLICATION 98
TABLE 14 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY APPLICATION CONSENSUS
SCENARIO, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 98
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION CONSENSUS SCENARIO,
2008-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 98
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2013
(%) 99
TABLE 15 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 100
TABLE 16 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 100
SOFC MARKETS BY REGION 101
TABLE 17 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION CONSENSUS SCENARIO THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 101
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2013 (%) 101
TABLE 18 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 102
TABLE 19 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 102
SOFC MARKETS BY PRODUCT 103
TABLE 20 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY PRODUCT CONSENSUS
SCENARIO, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 103
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2013 (%) 103
TABLE 21 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 104
TABLE 22 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 105


CHAPTER 6 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE AND COMPETITIVE ANALYSIS 107

COMPETITION 107
CONVENTIONAL TURBINE-BASED POWER GENERATION 107
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 108
ULTRACAPACITORS 108
OTHER FUEL CELLS 108
TABLE 23 COMPETING FUEL CELLS 109
Alkaline Fuel Cells 109
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells 109
Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells 110
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells 110
BATTERIES 110
TABLE 24 BATTERIES THAT COULD COMPETE WITH SOFCS 112
Lead-acid Batteries 112
Nickel-metal Hydride Batteries 112
Lithium-ion and Lithium-ion polymer Batteries 113
Metal-air Batteries 114
Nickel-hydrogen Secondary Batteries 115
Sodium-sulfur Batteries 115
Redox and Flow Batteries 116
Nickel-iron Batteries 116
Nickel-Zinc Batteries 117
INDUSTRY LEADERS 117
TABLE 25 SOFC COMPANIES AND STATUS 118
TABLE 26 SOFC COMPANY SHIPMENT STATUS 121
MARKET TIERS 122
LEADING CHP SOFC COMPANIES 122
TABLE 27 LEADING SOFC CHP COMPANIES 122
LEADING SOFC GENERATOR, REMOTE AND APU COMPANIES 122
TABLE 28 LEADING SOFC GENERATOR, REMOTE AND APU COMPANIES 123
LEADING MILITARY SOFC COMPANIES 123
TABLE 29 LEADING MILITARY SOFC COMPANIES 123
LEADING PORTABLE SOFC COMPANIES 124
TABLE 30 LEADING PORTABLE SOFC COMPANIES 124
LEADING EXOTIC SOFC COMPANIES 124
TABLE 31 LEADING EXOTIC SOFC COMPANIES 124
NO LONGER ACTIVE SOFC COMPANIES 125
TABLE 32 NO LONGER ACTIVE SOFC COMPANIES 125
CHANNELS OF DISTRIBUTION 126
TABLE 33 SOFC DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 126
PURCHASING INFLUENCES 127
PRICE INFLUENCE 127
TABLE 34 SOFC PURCHASING INFLUENCES 127
PRICE TRENDS 128
FIGURE 12 DRIVING DOWN COSTS FOR FUEL CELLS (ORDER OF MAGNITUDE COST
REDUCTION) 128
TECHNOLOGY LIFE CYCLE 130
MANUFACTURING PROCESS 131
FIGURE 13 SOFC MANUFACTURING TREE 131
FIGURE 14 SOFC MANUFACTURING FLOW 131
SOFC PATENT ANALYSIS 133
TABLE 35 U.S. SOFC PATENTS 133
TABLE 36 RECENT U.S. SOFC PATENT ASSIGNEES 139


CHAPTER 7 COMPANY PROFILES 143

ACUMENTRICS HOLDING CORP. 143
ADELAN U.K. LTD. 145
ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES (ACCURON TECHNOLOGIES) 146
ADVANCED MEASUREMENTS INC. 147
ALPPS FUEL CELL SYSTEMS 147
ALSTOM TECHNOLOGY INC. 148
ALTAIR NANOTECHNOLOGIES INC. 148
AMERICAN ELEMENTS 148
BLASCH PRECISION CERAMICS 149
BLOOM ENERGY 149
BTU INTERNATIONAL INC. 151
CERAMATEC INC. 152
CERAMIC FUEL CELLS LTD. 153
CERES POWER HOLDINGS 160
CHAO ZHOU THREE-CIRCLE (GROUP) CO. LTD. 164
CHUBU ELECTRIC POWER COMPANY INC. 165
CMR PROTOTECH 165
CONVION OY 166
TABLE 37 CONVION SOFC TECHNOLOGY GOALS 167
CUMMINS POWER GENERATION INC. 168
DANA HOLDING CORPORATION 170
DANA CANADA CORP. 170
DELPHI CORP. 171
EBZ ENTWICKLUNGS 172
ELCOGEN AS 173
EMPRISE CORPORATION 173
ENERGIENED 174
ENRG INC. 174
FCO POWER INC. 175
FEV MOTORENTECHNIK GMBH 176
FIDERIS 177
TABLE 38 TYPICAL TURN–KEY, SOFC FUEL CELL TEST SYSTEMS THAT UTILIZE THE
FIDERIS INNOVATOR SERIES MODULES 177
FORSCHUNGSZENTRUM JULICH 178
FUELCELL ENERGY INC. 179
GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY 182
GEORGE WESTINGHOUSE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY PARK 182
HABCO INC. 182
HALDOR TOPSOE A/S/ TOPSOE FUEL CELL 183
HC STARCK GMBH 186
FIGURE 15 AMPERIT AND AMPERGY POWDERS FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS 186
HEXIS LTD. 187
TABLE 39 HEXIS GALILEO FUEL CELL SYSTEM 189
HOSOKAWA POWDER TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE 190
ITN ENERGY SYSTEMS INC. 190
K-STYLE ADVANCED CERAMICS CO. LTD. 190
KANSAI ELECTRIC POWER CO. INC. 191
KERAFOL (KERAMISCHE FOLIEN GMBH) 191
LG FUEL CELL SYSTEMS INC. (ROLLS-ROYCE FUEL CELL SYSTEMS LTD.) 191
LILLIPUTIAN SYSTEMS 193
LITHUANIAN ENERGY INSTITUTE 194
LOGANENERGY CORP. 194
MATERIALS & SYSTEMS RESEARCH INC. 194
MEIDENSHA CORP. 196
MERIDIAN ENERGY LTD. 196
MERLONI TERMOSANITARI SPA (ARISTON THERMO GROUP) 197
NATIONAL FUEL CELL RESEARCH CENTER 197
NEXTECH MATERIALS LTD. 198
FUELCELLMATERIALS.COM DIVISION 198
NGIMAT CO. 201
NGK INSULATORS LTD. 201
NIPPON SHOKUBAI CO. LTD. 202
NIPPON TELEGRAPH & TELEPHONE CORP. 202
NOAH TECHNOLOGIES CORP. 203
ONTARIO POWER GENERATION INC. 204
PLANSEE SE 204
PLUG POWER INC. 205
POHANG IRON AND STEEL COMPANY (POSCO) 205
POINT SOURCE POWER INC. 206
PRECISION FLOW TECHNOLOGIES 207
PRESIDIO COMPONENTS INC. 207
PROTONEX 207
MESOSCOPIC DEVICES SUBSIDIARY 207
RAGAN TECHNOLOGIES INC. 209
REDOX POWER SYSTEMS 211
RISO DTU NATIONAL LABORATORY 211
SAFCELL 213
SAINT-GOBAIN 214
SANDVIK 214
SIEMENS POWER GENERATION INC. 215
SIENERGY SYSTEMS (ALLIED MINDS) 217
SOFCPOWER 218
SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE 219
FIGURE 16 SECA ADVANCED POWER SYSTEM COST COMPARISON 220
STANFORD MATERIALS CORP. 222
SUMITOMO CORP. 223
SUNFIRE GMBH (STAXERA) 223
TABLE 40 MK200 SOFC TECHNICAL DATA 224
TERMINUS ENERGY INC. 225
TOKYO GAS CO. LTD. 226
TOSOH CORP. CERAMICS DIVISION 227
TOTO LTD. 227
TOYOTA 228
TABLE 41 TOYOTA POWER GENERATING UNIT SPECIFICATIONS 229
ULTRA ELECTRONICS AMI 230
VAILLANT GMBH 232
VIOLET FUEL CELL STICKS 232
WATT FUEL CELL CORP. 233
WEBASTO AG 234
ZIRCAR ZIRCONIA INC. 234
ZTEK CORP. 234

CHAPTER 8 APPENDIX U.S. PATENTS THAT MENTION SOFCS 237

TABLE 42 U.S. SOFC PATENTS 237


LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, CONSENSUS SCENARIO,
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 7
TABLE 1 SOFC COMPARED TO OTHER FUEL CELLS 10
TABLE 2 SOFC GASKET MATERIALS 15
TABLE 3 NIPPON SHOKUBAI ZIRCONIA SOFC SHEET SPECIFICATIONS 19
TABLE 4 BLOOM ENERGY SERVER SPECIFICATIONS 35
TABLE 5 HYDROGEN AND FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES FUNDING PROFILE BY
SUBPROGRAM IN 2010 BUDGET ($ THOUSANDS) 45
TABLE 6 FISCAL FUEL CELL BUDGET, 2010-2012 ($ MILLIONS) 48
TABLE 7 FISCAL FUEL CELL BUDGET, 2011-2013 ($ MILLIONS) 49
TABLE 8 MAJOR INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH INTO PEM FUEL CELLS 63
TABLE 9 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1 KWE TO 10 KWE RESIDENTIAL
COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FUEL CELLS OPERATING ON NATURAL GAS,
2008-2020
67
TABLE 10 PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL TARGETS: 1 KWE TO 10 KWE FUEL CELL
AUXILIARY POWER UNITS OPERATING ON STANDARD ULTRA-LOW SULFUR DIESEL
FUEL THROUGH 2020
68
TABLE 11 SOFC CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOS, BY
APPLICATION 84
TABLE 12 SOFC CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOS, BY REGION 89
TABLE 13 SOFC CONSENSUS, OPTIMISTIC AND PESSIMISTIC SCENARIOS, BY SCALE 93
TABLE 14 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY APPLICATION CONSENSUS
SCENARIO, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 98
TABLE 15 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 100
TABLE 16 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO
THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 100
TABLE 17 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION CONSENSUS SCENARIO THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 101
TABLE 18 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO THROUGH 2018
($ MILLIONS) 102
TABLE 19 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO, THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 102
TABLE 20 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET PROJECTIONS BY PRODUCT CONSENSUS
SCENARIO, THROUGH 2018 ($ MILLIONS) 103
TABLE 21 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT OPTIMISTIC SCENARIO THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 104
TABLE 22 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT PESSIMISTIC SCENARIO THROUGH
2018 ($ MILLIONS) 105
TABLE 23 COMPETING FUEL CELLS 109
TABLE 24 BATTERIES THAT COULD COMPETE WITH SOFCS 112
TABLE 25 SOFC COMPANIES AND STATUS 118
TABLE 26 SOFC COMPANY SHIPMENT STATUS 121
TABLE 27 LEADING SOFC CHP COMPANIES 122
TABLE 28 LEADING SOFC GENERATOR, REMOTE AND APU COMPANIES 123
TABLE 29 LEADING MILITARY SOFC COMPANIES 123
TABLE 30 LEADING PORTABLE SOFC COMPANIES 124
TABLE 31 LEADING EXOTIC SOFC COMPANIES 124
TABLE 32 NO LONGER ACTIVE SOFC COMPANIES 125
TABLE 33 SOFC DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS 126
TABLE 34 SOFC PURCHASING INFLUENCES 127
TABLE 35 U.S. SOFC PATENTS 133
TABLE 36 RECENT U.S. SOFC PATENT ASSIGNEES 139
TABLE 37 CONVION SOFC TECHNOLOGY GOALS 167
TABLE 38 TYPICAL TURN–KEY, SOFC FUEL CELL TEST SYSTEMS THAT UTILIZE THE
FIDERIS INNOVATOR SERIES MODULES 177
TABLE 39 HEXIS GALILEO FUEL CELL SYSTEM 189
TABLE 40 MK200 SOFC TECHNICAL DATA 224
TABLE 41 TOYOTA POWER GENERATING UNIT SPECIFICATIONS 229
TABLE 42 U.S. SOFC PATENTS 237



LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE 1 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY YEAR, 2008–2018 ($ MILLIONS) 7
SUMMARY FIGURE 2 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION, 2013 ($ MILLIONS/%) 8
FIGURE 1 PLANAR SOFC CONFIGURATION 22
FIGURE 2 THIN-FILM SOFC CONFIGURATION 23
FIGURE 3 TUBULAR SOFC CONFIGURATION 24
FIGURE 4 TUBULAR CELL AND CURRENT PATH WITH SIEMENS CELLS
CONFIGURATION 26
FIGURE 5 TUBULAR CELL AND CURRENT PATH WITH A STRAIGHT METAL WIRE AS
CURRENT COLLECTOR 28
FIGURE 6 CURRENT PATH IN RADIAL AND AXIAL DIRECTION WITH A SPRING COIL AS
CURRENT COLLECTOR 29
FIGURE 7 FUELCELL ENERGY SOFC/T HYBRID SYSTEM AND TORPEDO
CONFIGURATION 37
FIGURE 8 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION CONSENSUS SCENARIO,
2008-2018 ($ MILLIONS) 98
FIGURE 9 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY APPLICATION CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2013 (%) 99
FIGURE 10 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY REGION CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2013 (%) 101
FIGURE 11 GLOBAL SOFC MARKET BY PRODUCT CONSENSUS SCENARIO, 2013 (%) 103
FIGURE 12 DRIVING DOWN COSTS FOR FUEL CELLS (ORDER OF MAGNITUDE COST
REDUCTION) 128
FIGURE 13 SOFC MANUFACTURING TREE 131
FIGURE 14 SOFC MANUFACTURING FLOW 131
FIGURE 15 AMPERIT AND AMPERGY POWDERS FOR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS 186
FIGURE 16 SECA ADVANCED POWER SYSTEM COST COMPARISON 220


To order this report: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Technologies and Global Markets
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