LONDON, June 16, 2011 /PRNewswire/ --
Silicon and Ferrosilicon: Global industry markets and outlook (13th edition)
The major recent development in the silicon industry is the tripling of demand for solar grade polysilicon, with the expectation that the quantity used in solar photovoltaic (PV) modules will start to rival that in the high volume silicon markets within a few years. Furthermore, high value solar grade silicon allows much higher profit margins than the bulk markets.
Silicon recovering from the impact of the global recession
After contracting sharply in 2009, global demand for both silicon and ferrosilicon recovered in 2010 to about 1.8Mt and 7.4Mt (gross wt) respectively. In 2010, China was the largest consumer of silicon products, due primarily to growing demand for steel and aluminium products.
World production of silicon metal increased from about 1.1Mt in 2001 to 1.76Mt in 2010, mainly because of increasing Chinese output. Silicon metal was produced in fifteen countries in 2010, and Chinese production accounted for about 46% of the world total.
Mainly because of over capacity in China, some of which is used seasonally, world silicon production capacity is about two third utilised.
World production of ferrosilicon in 31 countries totalled about 7.1Mt in 2010, recovering from 6.1Mt in 2009.
Aluminium and steel still largest end-uses for silicon and ferrosilicon
The main markets for silicon metal in 2010 were as an alloying element with aluminium (45%), in silicone and silane chemicals (35%) and PV (12%). The market for ferrosilicon is largely in steel (85%) and cast iron (15%), with very small amounts used in non-ferrous alloys, dense media and other applications.
Although most aluminium products and components contain some silicon, the bulk is added to cast aluminium used in automobile engine components. Cast aluminium alloys contain up to 23%Si, and typically 7%Si, and account for over 80% of silicon metal consumption in aluminium alloys.
Most silicon consumed by steel makers is in the form of 50%Si and 75%Si grade ferrosilicon, with 75%Si grade prevailing. The term 'silicon steels' generally refers to those carbon steels containing above 0.4%Si.
Silicon market outlook bright due to solar cells
In 2010, solar photovoltaics were generating electricity in more than 100 countries, and are the fastest growing power-generation technology in the world. Grid connected solar capacity was about 30GW at the beginning of 2011, still a tiny fraction of the 5TW (terawatt) of total global power-generating capacity. Between 2004 and 2010, grid-connected solar capacity increased at an annual average rate of 60%. Off-grid solar installations account for about an additional 4GW.
Driven by advances in technology and scale, the cost of solar power installations has declined steadily, and financial incentives, such as preferential feed-in tariffs for solar-generated electricity and government subsidies for new installations, have supported solar installations in many countries.
As costs of both producing solar grade silicon and generating solar energy fall, demand for silicon will rise. As the solar energy market expands and matures, growth rates of 50% to 60%py will become less common, but in the period up to 2015, an average growth rate in demand for silicon of 20%py is likely, resulting in a market of about 535kt.
Although demand for silicon in solar energy will increase sharply, we expect the largest end-uses for silicon metal and ferrosilicon to remain in aluminium and steel, respectively.
Growth in demand for silicon as an alloying element in aluminium will continue to depend largely on the use of cast aluminium components by the world's automobile industries. Increased global demand for all forms of silicon-bearing aluminium alloy in the medium term will largely depend on the expansion of Asian economies, as automobile production, electrification and construction grow. As a result of this expected demand, silicon consumption in aluminium alloys is expected to grow by around 5% per year over the next five years.
Demand for ferrosilicon in steel will be driven by rising steel production in emerging markets, particularly in the BRIC countries, with total world crude steel production forecast to grow by an annual average rate of 5-6% through to 2015.
Although falling sharply in 2009, silicon prices have reacted strongly over the latter half of 2010 and early 2011, getting back to the record levels seen in early 2008 In the longer term, assisted by anti-dumping duties in both the USA and Europe and high power costs in China, there appears to be no reason why silicon prices should not remain above US$3,000/t, possibly moving towards US$4,000/t from 2013 onwards.
Silicon and Ferrosilicon: Global industry markets and outlook, 13th edition is available at £3300 / US$5400 / €4600 from Roskill Information Services Ltd, 54 Russell, London SW19 1QL, England. Tel: +44 20 8417 0087. Fax +44 20 8417 1308 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: http://www.roskill.com/silicon
Note to editors
The report contains 270 pages, 86 tables, 123 figures. It provides a detailed review of the industry, with subsections on the activities of the leading producing companies. It also analyses consumption, trade and prices.
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Silicon and Ferrosilicon: Global Industry Markets and Outlook, 13th edition Table of Contents 2011 1 Summary 1.1 Production 1.2 Consumption 1.3 Prices 1.4 Market outlook 2 Occurrence, history and properties of silicon and ferrosilicon 2.1 Occurrence and resources of silicon 2.2 Properties of silicon 3 Production processes, production costs and grades of silicon and ferrosilicon 3.1 Silicon production processes 3.2 Ferrosilicon production processes 3.3 Silicon and ferrosilicon production costs 3.4 Grades of silicon and ferrosilicon 3.4.1 Silicon grades 3.4.2 Ferrosilicon grades 4 World supply of silicon and ferrosilicon 4.1 Silicon production 4.1.1 Silicon producing companies and capacities 4.1.2 Changes in silicon capacity 4.2 Ferrosilicon production 4.2.1 Ferrosilicon capacities and producing companies 4.3 New projects 5 Notes on silicon and ferrosilicon producing countries 5.1 Argentina 5.1.1 Electrometalúrgica Andina SAIC 5.1.2 Globe Metales SA 5.1.3 Industrias Siderurgicas Grassi 5.2 Australia 5.2.1 Simcoa Operations Pty Ltd. 5.2.2 Lithgow silicon project 5.3 Bhutan 5.3.1 Bhutan Ferro Alloys Ltd 5.3.2 SD Eastern Bhutan Ferro Silicon Pvt Ltd 5.4 Bosnia-Herzegovina 5.4.1 BSI d.o.o. 5.4.2 Ferrosil d.o.o. 5.5 Brazil 5.5.1 Silicon and ferrosilicon producing companies in Brazil 18.104.22.168 Cia Brasileira Carbureto de Cálcio 22.214.171.124 Dow Corning Metais do Pará Ltda 126.96.36.199 Cia de Ferro Ligas da Bahia (Ferbasa) 188.8.131.52 Cia Ferroligas Minas Gerais (Minasligas) 184.108.40.206 Italmagnésio Nordeste SA 220.127.116.11 Ligas de Alumínio SA (Liasa) 18.104.22.168 Ligas do Brasil SA 22.214.171.124 Nova Era Silicon SA 126.96.36.199 Rima Industrial SA 188.8.131.52 Rio Doce Manganês SA 184.108.40.206 Other companies 5.6 Bulgaria 5.7 Canada 5.7.1 Quebec Silicon Limited Partnership 5.7.2 Bécancour Silicon Inc 5.7.3 Elkem Metals Canada Inc. 5.7.4 Gossan Resources Ltd 5.8 Chile 5.9 China 5.9.1 Silicon producers in China 220.127.116.11 Dalian Kangning Silicon Development 18.104.22.168 Zhejiang Kaihua Yuantong Silicon 22.214.171.124 Yunnan Yongchang Silicon 126.96.36.199 Simag Industrial Corp 188.8.131.52 Jaco Metal Ltd 184.108.40.206 Ganzi Ferroatlántica Silicon Industry 220.127.116.11 Mangshi Sinice Silicon Industry/Ferroatlántica 18.104.22.168 Ruixin Mining 22.214.171.124 Other companies 5.9.2 Ferrosilicon producers in China 126.96.36.199 Dragon Northwest Ferroalloy 188.8.131.52 Erdos Electrical Power & Metallurgical 184.108.40.206 Inner Mongolia Baotou Daqingshan Smelting 220.127.116.11 Qinghai Wutong 18.104.22.168 Other companies 5.1 Egypt 5.10.1 Egyptian Ferroalloy Co 5.10.2 Egyptian Chemical Industries - Kima 5.11 France 5.11.1 FerroPem 5.12 Germany 5.12.1 RW Silicium GmbH 5.12.2 Other companies 5.13 Hungary 5.14 Iceland 5.14.1 Elkem Iceland 5.14.2 Timminco 5.14.3 Iceland Silicon Corporation (Globe) 5.15 India 5.15.1 Ferrosilicon producing companies in India 22.214.171.124 Indian Metals & Ferro Alloys Ltd (IMFA) 126.96.36.199 Sandur Manganese & Iron Ores Ltd 188.8.131.52 Silcal Metallurgic Ltd 184.108.40.206 Snam Alloys Pvt Ltd 220.127.116.11 VBC Ferro Alloys Ltd 18.104.22.168 Other producers 5.16 Iran 5.16.1 Iran Ferroalloy Industries Co 5.16.2 Iran Ferrosilice Co 5.17 Italy 5.18 Japan 5.19 Kazakhstan 5.19.1 Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation 5.19.2 Silicium Kazakhstan LLP 5.2 South Korea 5.21 Laos 5.22 Macedonia 5.22.1 Metal Invest EFT 5.23 Netherlands 5.24 New Zealand 5.25 Norway 5.25.1 Silicon and ferrosilicon producing companies 22.214.171.124 Elkem ASA 126.96.36.199 Fesil ASA 188.8.131.52 Wacker Chemie Ag 184.108.40.206 Finnfjord Smelteverk ASA 5.26 Poland 5.26.1 Huta Laziska SA 5.27 Romania 5.28 Russia 5.28.1 Silicon and ferrosilicon producing companies 220.127.116.11 Bratsk Ferroalloy (Mechel) 18.104.22.168 Chelyabinsk Electric Steelworks 22.214.171.124 JSC Kuznetskie Ferroalloys 126.96.36.199 Novolipetsk Steel 188.8.131.52 Rusal 184.108.40.206 Serovsky Ferroalloy Plant 220.127.116.11 Yurga Ferroalloys 5.29 Saudi Arabia 5.3 Slovakia 5.31 Slovenia 5.32 South Africa 5.32.1 Silicon and ferrosilicon producing companies in South Africa 18.104.22.168 Kumba Ferroalloys 22.214.171.124 Rand Carbide 126.96.36.199 Silicon Smelters (Pty) Ltd 188.8.131.52 Silicon Technology (Pty) Ltd (Siltech) 184.108.40.206 Siyanda-Inkwali Resources 5.33 Spain 5.33.1 Ferroatlántica SL 5.34 Sweden 5.35 Taiwan 5.36 Turkey 5.37 Ukraine 5.37.1 Silicon and ferrosilicon producing companies in Ukraine 220.127.116.11 Stakhanov Ferroalloy Works 18.104.22.168 Zaporozhye Ferroalloy Works 5.38 UK 5.39 USA 5.39.1 Silicon and ferrosilicon producing companies in the USA 22.214.171.124 CC Metals & Alloys Inc (CCMA) 126.96.36.199 Dow Corning Corp 188.8.131.52 Globe Specialty Metals 184.108.40.206 Northwest Silicon 220.127.116.11 Other producers of silicon and ferrosilicon 5.4 Uruguay 5.41 Venezuela 5.41.1 Ferro Atlantica of Venezuela (Ferroven) 6 Consumption of ferrosilicon and silicon metal 6.1 Consumption of silicon 6.2 Consumption of ferrosilicon 6.3 Consumption of silicon metal and ferrosilicon by use 7 Uses of silicon metal 7.1 Use of silicon metal in aluminium alloys 7.1.1 Markets for silicon-bearing aluminium alloys 7.1.2 Use of silicon-bearing aluminium alloys in transport 18.104.22.168 Motor vehicles 22.214.171.124 Railways 126.96.36.199 Aerospace 188.8.131.52 Marine 7.1.3 Use of silicon-bearing aluminium alloys in machinery and equipment 7.1.4 Use of silicon-bearing aluminium alloys in building and construction 7.1.5 Use of silicon-bearing aluminium alloys in consumer durables 7.1.6 Use of silicon-bearing aluminium alloys in electricity 184.108.40.206 Electricity transmission 220.127.116.11 Telecommunications 18.104.22.168 Other 7.1.7 Use of silicon-bearing aluminium alloys in containers and packaging 7.1.8 Uses of silicon-bearing aluminium alloys in other applications 22.214.171.124 Metallurgy 126.96.36.199 Other applications 7.2 Use of silicon in silicones and silanes 7.2.1 Silanes 7.2.2 Silicones 7.2.3 The markets for silicones 7.2.4 Producers of silicone products and intermediates 188.8.131.52 Dow Corning 184.108.40.206 Momentive Performance Materials 220.127.116.11 Wacker-Chimie GmbH 18.104.22.168 Shin Etsu 22.214.171.124 Bluestar Silicones 126.96.36.199 Evonik Industries 188.8.131.52 Chinese producers 7.3 Use of silicon metal in the production of polycrystalline silicon 7.3.1 Hemlock Semiconductor Group 7.3.2 Wacker Polysilicon 7.3.3 Tokuyama Corp 7.3.4 Renewable Energy Corporation 7.3.5 MEMC Electronic Materials 7.3.6 OCI 7.3.7 Chinese polysilicon companies 184.108.40.206 GCL-Poly Energy 220.127.116.11 LDK Solar 18.104.22.168 Other companies 7.3.8 Other producers 7.4 Use of silicon metal in photovoltaic (solar) cells 7.4.1 Solar wafers 7.4.2 Solar cells and modules 7.5 Use of silicon metal in semiconductors 7.5.1 Production of silicon semiconductor wafers 7.5.2 Markets for silicon semiconductor wafers 22.214.171.124 Silicon integrated circuits - chips 7.6 Other uses of silicon 7.6.1 Iron and steel 7.6.2 Superalloys 7.6.3 Nickel and iron-based alloys 7.6.4 Silicon nitride 7.6.5 Sialons 7.6.6 Silicon nanoparticles 7.6.7 Porous silicon 7.7 Microsilica and silicon carbide (carborundum) 7.7.1 Microsilica 7.7.2 Silicon carbide 8 Uses of ferrosilicon 8.1 Use of ferrosilicon in steel 8.1.1 Comparison of ferrosilicon and crude steel production 8.1.2 Crude steel production 126.96.36.199 Carbon steels 188.8.131.52 Production and consumption of carbon steels 8.1.3 Alloy engineering steels 184.108.40.206 Electrical steels 220.127.116.11 Full alloy steels 18.104.22.168 HSLA steels 8.1.4 Tool and high speed steels 22.214.171.124 Hot-work tool/die and valve steels 126.96.36.199 Cold-work tool steels 188.8.131.52 Carbon tool steels 8.1.5 Stainless steels 184.108.40.206 Production of stainless steel 220.127.116.11 Metallurgy of stainless steels 18.104.22.168 Markets for stainless steel 22.214.171.124 Process industries 126.96.36.199 Building and construction 188.8.131.52 Transport 184.108.40.206 Other 8.2 Use of ferrosilicon in cast iron 8.2.1 Production of cast irons 8.2.2 Metallurgy and applications of cast irons 220.127.116.11 Ductile cast iron 18.104.22.168 Acicular and austenitic grey cast iron 22.214.171.124 White, malleable and pearlitic cast irons 8.3 Other uses for ferrosilicon 9 Analysis of international trade data for silicon and ferrosilicon 9.1 International trade in standard grade silicon metal 9.1.1 Exports 9.1.2 Imports 9.2 International trade in high purity silicon 9.2.1 Exports 9.2.2 Imports 9.3 International trade in >55%Si ferrosilicon 9.3.1 Exports 9.3.2 Imports 9.4 International trade in <55%Si ferrosilicon 9.4.1 Exports 9.4.2 Imports 10 Outlook for silicon metal and ferrosilicon demand and future capacity 10.1 Outlook for silicon 10.1.1 Outlook for silicon in aluminium alloys 10.1.1.1 Transport 10.1.1.2 Machinery and equipment 10.1.1.3 Consumer durables 10.1.1.4 Construction 10.1.1.5 Electrical 10.1.2 Outlook for silicone-based chemicals 10.1.3 Outlook for silicon demand in solar cells 10.1.4 Outlook for silicon demand in semiconductors 10.2 Outlook for ferrosilicon 10.2.1 Outlook for use of ferrosilicon in steel 10.2.2 Outlook for ferrosilicon use in cast irons 10.3 Future silicon metal and ferrosilicon capacity 11 Prices and marketing of silicon and ferrosilicon 11.1 Silicon metal prices 11.1.1 Historic price trends of silicon metal 126.96.36.199 Price trends 1995 to 2003 188.8.131.52 Price trends 2004 to 2011 11.2 Ferrosilicon prices 11.2.1 Historic price trends for ferrosilicon 184.108.40.206 Ferrosilicon price trends 1995 to 2003 220.127.116.11 Ferrosilicon price trends from 2004 to 2011 11.3 Outlook for prices of silicon metal and ferrosilicon
SOURCE Roskill Information Services