Supercapacitors: Technology Developments and Global Markets

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Supercapacitors: Technology Developments and Global Markets

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The global market for supercapacitors is estimated at $470 million in 2010. Demand for supercapacitors is projected to continue growing at a very healthy rate during the next 5 years, reaching a value of $1.2 billion in 2015, a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 20.6%

The energy sector is projected to represent the second-largest segment in 2010, with total revenues of $82 million, equal to 17.5% of the total.  This sector is projected to increase at a 13.5% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) to reach $611 million in 2015.

The third most relevant sector is transportation, with a 13.5% share. This sector is projected to increase at a 34.8% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) to reach $282 million in 2015.

INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Supercapacitors are devices utilized to store and release energy that are gaining increasing interest not only in their traditional field of application (electronics) but also in other sectors such as power generation and transportation.  

The main goal of this report is to provide new insights into supercapacitor technology by outlining technological trends and supplying a market analysis for these products.

Specifically, the major objectives of this study are to:

Provide a detailed review of supercapacitors, including a description of their types and fabrication technologies.

Highlight new technological developments in supercapacitor manufacturing, while outlining technical issues.

Review current fields of application for supercapacitors and investigate emerging applications.

Estimate current global markets for supercapacitors by type, application, and region, with growth forecasts through 2015 for each market segment.

Identify important technology and market trends within each market segment.

Supply an updated review of current producers of supercapacitors.

Provide a description of current worldwide research activities and evaluate their impact on industry growth.

Determine trends in recently issued U.S. patents.

REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY

Supercapacitors (also known as electrical double-layer capacitors or EDLCs) are devices with design and electrical characteristics between those of capacitors and batteries.

The origins of supercapacitors can be traced back to the year 1745, when the first electrostatic capacitor was created. The first electrical double layer capacitor, however, was fabricated more than 200 years later, in 1957, by scientists at General Electric. The first commercial product was introduced by Nippon Electric Company of Japan in 1978.

During the following 2 decades several other manufacturers developed supercapacitors and entered the EDLC market. In the late 1990s, the number of research activities resulting in patent applications and issued patents began to increase rapidly. By the end of the first decade of the new millennium the number of new patents had risen by a factor of 3, leading to the development of products with improved electrical properties and lower unit costs.

The market for EDLCs is currently valued at approximately a half-billion dollars and continues to grow at a very healthy pace.

The principal reason for doing this study is to present a current assessment of the supercapacitor industry from both a technological and a market point of view and to outline future trends and key developments.

There is also a need to evaluate the current status and future trends of the EDLC industry from a global standpoint. As use of this technology expands, information on regional production, sales, and type of suppliers becomes more valuable.

An equally important reason for performing this study is to provide technical insights into supercapacitor manufacturing by:

Supplying a review of EDLC types, their applications, and production methods.

Identifying current technical issues.

Providing an overview of global R&D activities related to supercapacitors, both within public and private organizations.

Illustrating the latest technological developments. 

This information can assist companies in finding opportunities for process and productivity improvements, resulting in a positive impact on future market growth. 

INTENDED AUDIENCE 

This study will be of primary interest to all companies that:

Manufacture, sell, and distribute supercapacitors and other energy devices (e.g., batteries and fuel cells).

Supply raw materials for EDLC production.

Manufacture devices and systems that utilize supercapacitors (such as mobile phones, photovoltaic cells, wind turbines, and automobile electrical components).

Provide technical and/or marketing services in conjunction with the above- mentioned devices.

Are planning to enter the supercapacitor industry as a supplier, manufacturer, or end-user. 

Overall, this study applies to industry sectors such as electronics, energy, sensors and instrumentation, medical, and transportation.

This study is mainly directed toward executives, directors, operations managers, sales and marketing managers, and strategic planners working within the above industries. Universities and research facilities may find this study to be a good source of technical information regarding supercapacitor technology, materials, equipment, and applications, which can be used as a baseline for new or expanded R&D activities. Librarians of technical information and research centers can also use this report to provide critical data to product managers, market analysts, researchers, and other professionals needing detailed and updated insights into the supercapacitor industry.   

SCOPE OF REPORT 

This study provides an updated review of supercapacitor technology, including materials and production processes, and identifies current and emerging applications for this technology.

BCC Research determines the current market status of supercapacitors, defines trends, and presents forecasts of growth over the next 5 years. Technological issues, including the latest process developments, are also discussed.

BCC Research analyzes the supercapacitor industry on a worldwide basis from the standpoint of both manufacturing and consumption. In addition, the study examines commercial and public research activities in major regions of the world. Research objectives and areas of interest related to materials, production methods, and applications of supercapacitors are also outlined.

More specifically, BCC's market analysis is divided into five parts.

In the first part, a historical review of supercapacitors is provided, including an outline of recent events. In addition, the report supplies a detailed description of EDLC types and their fabrication processes.   In this section, current and emerging applications for these products are also identified and divided by sector (i.e., electronics, energy, transportation, medical, and sensors and instrumentation).

The second part of the report entails a global market analysis of EDLCs. Current technical issues are described, followed by a review of related, recent technological developments and patent abstracts. Global revenues (sales data in millions of dollars) are presented by supercapacitor type, application, and region, with actual data for the years 2008 and 2009 and estimated data for the year 2010.

This section concludes with a presentation of market growth trends based on industry growth, technological trends, and regional trends. Projected revenues are reported, with forecast compound annual growth rates (CAGR) for the period 2010 through 2015.

In the third part, covering global industry structure, the report provides a complete list of suppliers of supercapacitors and a description of their products. The analysis includes a description of the geographical distribution of these firms and an evaluation of production versus consumption, always from a geographical standpoint. Detailed company profiles of the top industry players are also provided.

In the fourth part of this study, an analysis of industry competitiveness is performed. This analysis encompasses a review of global research and development activities, with profiles of the most important R&D players by region, and an outline of the most critical factors contributing to industry competitiveness.

The fifth and final section includes an extensive U.S. patent analysis, with a summary of patents related to supercapacitor types, fabrication methods, and applications issued during the period 2007 through 2010. Patent analysis is performed by region, country, assignee, patent category, application, and EDLC type.

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used to obtain market data and analyze the overall market and market segments.

The technology section of this report is based on information derived from technical literature, related BCC reports, professional journals, the author's field experience, and online sources.

Global market analysis was performed by analyzing 73 manufacturers of supercapacitors, accounting for at least 95% of the global market. Data for each company was obtained by thoroughly analyzing Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings, Internet websites, annual reports, industry directories, industry magazines and catalogs, government sources, and other public sources.

Additional data was obtained from the direct contribution of primary sources, including: company executives, managers, engineers and other technical personnel representing manufacturers, developers, and users of supercapacitors and related materials and process equipment; representatives of academia and trade associations; and industry market analysts.  

Secondary sources of information include: 

EDGAR – U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission filings

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

European Patent Office

Company websites

Company annual reports

Thomas Registry

Moody's Directory

S&P Industry Survey

Dun & Bradstreet Business Directory

American Ceramic Society publications

Foreign Chamber of Commerce directories

Foreign Stock Exchange listings 

In addition to utilizing the above-noted primary and secondary sources, market growth trends and forecasts were compiled by gaining additional insights from relevant financial and market information, relevant BCC reports, and the author's own in-depth and comprehensive analysis of the collected information.   

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

Margareth Gagliardi, BCC's chief research analyst in advanced materials, has more than 25 years of experience in the field of advanced materials, specializing in ceramic formulations, materials processing, and new product development.  She has held management positions in both manufacturing and R&D within U.S. and European firms producing electronic, mechanical, chemical, and structural components. She holds a B.S. in Chemical Engineering and an M.S. in Ceramic Engineering.

Ms. Gagliardi has authored numerous BCC Research studies, including the following that are related to advanced materials and electronics: 

NAN043B  Nanofibers: Technologies and Developing Markets, 2010

AVM069A Photocatalysts: Technologies and Global Markets, 2010

SMC061B Atomic Layer Deposition, 2010

AVM046B Thick Film Devices, Processes and Applications, 2010

AVM052B Aerogels, 2009

AVM065A Smart Glass: Technologies and Global Markets, 2009

SMC037D Sputtering Targets and Sputtered Films: Technology and Markets, 2008

NAN043A  Nanofibers: Technologies and Developing Markets, 2007

NAN042A  Nanorobotics and NEMS, 2007

AVM052A  Aerogels, 2006

SMC061A  Atomic Layer Deposition, 2006

SMC037C  Sputtering Targets and Sputtered Films: Technology and Markets, 2005

SMC057A Thin Films: Raw Materials, Technology and Applications, 2005

AVM046A Thick Film Devices, Processes and Applications, 2004

Chapter- 1: INTRODUCTION

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 1

REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY 1

INTENDED AUDIENCE 2

SCOPE OF REPORT 3

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 4

RELATED BCC RESEARCH STUDIES 5

ANALYST CREDENTIALS 6

BCC ONLINE SERVICES 7

DISCLAIMER 7

Chapter-2: SUMMARY

SUMMARY 8

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL MARKET FOR SUPERCAPACITORS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 9

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL MARKET FOR SUPERCAPACITORS, 2008-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 9

Chapter-3: OVERVIEW

ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES 10

TABLE 1 ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES 10

CAPACITORS, BATTERIES, AND SUPERCAPACITORS 10

CAPACITORS 10

BATTERIES 11

SUPERCAPACITORS 11

COMPARISON OF ENERGY STORAGE CAPABILITY 12

Ragone Plot 12

TABLE 2 CAPACITORS, SUPERCAPACITORS, BATTERIES: TYPICAL PROPERTIES, 2010 13

HISTORY OF SUPERCAPACITORS 13

HISTORY OF SUPERCAPACITORS (CONTINUED) 14

TABLE 3 SUPERCAPACITORS - TECHNOLOGICAL MILESTONES 15

TABLE 3 (CONTINUED) 16

FIGURE 1 SUPERCAPACITORS - WORLDWIDE PATENT APPLICATIONS AND PATENTS ISSUED, 1990-2009 17

SUPERCAPACITORS: MATERIALS, TYPES AND FABRICATION PROCESSES 18

Electrodes 18

Carbon Electrodes 18

Polymer Electrodes 19

Metal Oxide Electrodes 19

Symmetric and Asymmetric EDLCs 20

Supercapacitor/Battery Hybrid Devices 20

Separators 21

Electrolytes 21

Organic Electrolytes 21

Aqueous Electrolytes 21

Capacitor Design Optimization 22

FABRICATION PROCESS 22

Monopolar Cells 22

Bipolar Cells 23

CURRENT AND EMERGING APPLICATIONS FOR SUPERCAPACITORS 24

TABLE 4 CURRENT AND EMERGING APPLICATIONS OF SUPERCAPACITORS BY INDUSTRY 24

TABLE 4 (CONTINUED) 25

ELECTRONICS 25

TRANSPORTATION 26

ENERGY 26

SENSORS AND INSTRUMENTATION 27

MEDICAL 27

Chapter-4: GLOBAL MARKET

ANALYSIS OUTLINE 28

GLOBAL MARKET SUMMARY 29

TABLE 5 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SUPERCAPACITORS, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 30

FIGURE 2 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SUPERCAPACITORS, 2008-2015 ($ MILLIONS) 30

THE MARKET FOR SUPERCAPACITORS 31

INTRODUCTION 31

CURRENT TECHNICAL ISSUES 31

Advantages of EDLCs 31

Disadvantages of EDLCs 32

Cost 32

TABLE 6 UNIT PRICE FOR SUPERCAPACITORS, 1985-2010 ($ MILLIONS) 33

Electrical Properties 33

Shapes and Sizes 33

High-Surface-Area Electrode Materials 33

LATEST TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS, 2008 TO PRESENT 33

UltraBattery 34

Paper-Thin Electrodes for Supercapacitors 34

Nano Supercapacitor 34

Flexible and Transparent Supercapacitor 35

Electrolyte for High-Voltage Supercapacitor 35

Hierarchical Nanowire Composites for EDLC Electrodes 36

Metal Oxide/Graphene Nanocomposite for EDLC Electrodes 37

Micro-Supercapacitors for Portable Electronics 38

Paper Supercapacitors 38

Miniature Asymmetric Electrochemical Supercapacitor 39

Micro-Supercapacitors from Onion-like Carbon Particles 39

Supercapacitor with Aerogel Electrodes 40

Paper-Thin Supercapacitors 40

CURRENT MARKET STATUS 41

Current Market Summary 41

Revenues by Supercapacitor Type 41

TABLE 7 SUPERCAPACITORS: GLOBAL REVENUES BY TYPE, 2010 ($ MILLIONS/%) 42

FIGURE 3 SUPERCAPACITORS: MARKET SHARE BY TYPE, 2010 (%) 43

Revenues by Application 43

TABLE 8 SUPERCAPACITORS: GLOBAL REVENUES BY APPLICATION, 2010 ($ MILLIONS) 44

FIGURE 4 SUPERCAPACITORS: MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2010 (%) 44

Revenues by Region 45

TABLE 9 SUPERCAPACITORS: REVENUES BY REGION, THROUGH 2010 ($ MILLIONS) 46

FIGURE 5 SUPERCAPACITORS: MARKET SHARE BY REGION, 2010 (%) 46

MARKET GROWTH TRENDS 47

INDUSTRY GROWTH 47

Electronics 47

General Semiconductor Industry 47

TABLE 10 FORECAST - SEMICONDUCTORS: REVENUES BY REGION, THROUGH 2015 ($ BILLIONS) 48

Mobile Phones 48

TABLE 11 FORECAST – MOBILE PHONES, SMART PHONES AND PDAS: GLOBAL REVENUES, THROUGH 2015 ($ BILLIONS) 48

Portable Computers and E-Book Readers 49

TABLE 12 FORECAST – PORTABLE COMPUTERS AND E-BOOK READERS: GLOBAL REVENUES, THROUGH 2015 ($ BILLIONS) 49

Digital Cameras 49

Appliances and Home Improvement 49

Safety and Security 50

TABLE 13 FORECAST – SAFETY AND SECURITY: GLOBAL REVENUES, THROUGH 2015 ($ BILLIONS) 50

Transportation 50

General Automotive Industry 50

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles 51

TABLE 14 FORECAST – ELECTRIC AND HYBRID VEHICLES: GLOBAL REVENUES, THROUGH 2015 ($ BILLIONS) 51

Energy 51

Wind Turbines 52

Photovoltaic Modules 52

TABLE 15 FORECAST - PHOTOVOLTAIC MODULES: GLOBAL PRODUCTION BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 (MW) 52

Fuel Cells 52

TABLE 16 FORECAST – FUEL CELLS: GLOBAL REVENUES, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 53

Uninterruptible Power Supplies 53

Electrical Grids 53

Sensors and Instrumentation 54

TABLE 17 FORECAST – PORTABLE INSTRUMENTS AND WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS: GLOBAL REVENUES, THROUGH 2015 ($ BILLIONS) 54

Medical 55

TABLE 18 FORECAST: DEFIBRILLATORS AND CARDIAC PACEMAKERS: GLOBAL REVENUES, THROUGH 2015 ($ BILLIONS) 55

TECHNOLOGICAL TRENDS 55

Trends in the Energy and Environmental Sectors 55

Trends in the Electronics Sector 56

Trends in Power Electronics 56

Other Trends 56

REGIONAL TRENDS 57

PROJECTED SUPERCAPACITOR MARKET 58

KEY OBSERVATIONS 58

TABLE 19 FACTORS AFFECTING SALES OF SUPERCAPACITORS, TO 2015 58

MARKET FORECAST 59

Revenues by Application 59

TABLE 20 FORECAST – SUPERCAPACITORS: GLOBAL REVENUES BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 60

FIGURE 6 FORECAST – SUPERCAPACITORS: MARKET SHARE BY APPLICATION, 2015 (%) 61

Revenues by Supercapacitor Type 61

TABLE 21 FORECAST – SUPERCAPACITORS: GLOBAL REVENUES BY TYPE, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 62

FIGURE 7 FORECAST – SUPERCAPACITORS: MARKET SHARE BY TYPE, 2015 (%) 63

Revenues by Region 63

TABLE 22 FORECAST– SUPERCAPACITORS: REVENUES BY REGION, THROUGH 2015 ($ MILLIONS) 64

FIGURE 8 FORECAST - SUPERCAPACITORS: MARKET SHARE BY REGION, 2015 (%) 65

Chapter-5: GLOBAL INDUSTRY STRUCTURE

GLOBAL INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 66

MANUFACTURERS OF SUPERCAPACITORS 67

TABLE 23 MANUFACTURERS OF SUPERCAPACITORS 67

TABLE 23 (CONTINUED) 68

TABLE 23 (CONTINUED) 69

MANUFACTURERS OF … (CONTINUED) 70

FIGURE 9 SUPPLIERS OF SUPERCAPACITORS: DISTRIBUTION BY SIZE (NUMBER OF COMPANIES) 71

FIGURE 10 HISTORICAL GROWTH OF SUPERCAPACITOR MANUFACTURERS (NUMBER OF COMPANIES) 72

OTHER PLAYERS IN THE SUPERCAPACITOR INDUSTRY 72

TABLE 24 OTHER RELEVANT PLAYERS IN THE SUPERCAPACITOR INDUSTRY 73

TABLE 24 (CONTINUED) 74

SUPERCAPACITOR PRODUCTION BY REGION 74

TABLE 25 SUPERCAPACITORS: MANUFACTURING BY REGION, 2008-2015 (PERCENT OF SALES) 75

SUPERCAPACITOR CONSUMPTION BY REGION 76

TABLE 26 SUPERCAPACITORS: CONSUMPTION BY REGION, 2008-2015 (PERCENT OF SALES) 76

COMPANY PROFILES 77

AVX 77

CAP-XX 78

ELNA 79

ESMA 80

SANDVIK MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY 81

LS MTRON 81

MAXWELL 82

Maxwell (Continued) 83

NESSCAP 84

NEC TOKIN 84

Nec Tokin (Continued) 85

NICHICON 86

NIPPON CHEMI-CON 87

PANASONIC 88

SAMWHA CAPACITOR GROUP 89

SEIKO 90

SHIZUKI ELECTRIC 91

Chapter-6: INDUSTRY COMPETITIVENESS

SUPERCAPACITOR DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES 92

TABLE 27 ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN SUPERCAPACITOR RESEARCH, WORLDWIDE 92

TABLE 27 (CONTINUED) 93

TABLE 27 (CONTINUED) 94

TABLE 27 (CONTINUED) 95

TABLE 27 (CONTINUED) 96

UNITED STATES 96

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 96

TABLE 28 LBNL RESEARCH 97

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 97

TABLE 29 MIT RESEARCH 98

National Renewable Energy Laboratory 98

TABLE 30 NREL RESEARCH 99

Oak Ridge National Laboratory 99

TABLE 31 ORNL RESEARCH 100

Sandia National Laboratories 100

TABLE 32 SNL RESEARCH 101

University of California at Los Angeles 101

TABLE 33 UCLA RESEARCH 102

Stanford University 102

TABLE 34 STANFORD UNIVERSITY RESEARCH 103

EUROPE 103

Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 103

TABLE 35 CNRS/CIRIMAT RESEARCH 104

Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft Institutes 104

TABLE 36 FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTES RESEARCH 105

Imperial College 106

TABLE 37 IMPERIAL COLLEGE RESEARCH 106

ASIA-PACIFIC 106

Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology 106

TABLE 38 KAIST RESEARCH 107

National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan 107

TABLE 39 AIST RESEARCH 108

REST OF THE WORLD 108

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization 108

TABLE 40 CSIRO RESEARCH 109

SUMMARY OF GLOBAL R&D ACTIVITIES IN SUPERCAPACITOR TECHNOLOGY 110

FIGURE 11 CURRENT GLOBAL SUPERCAPACITOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT BY TYPE (%) 111

FIGURE 12   CURRENT GLOBAL SUPERCAPACITOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, BY SUBJECT (%) 112

FIGURE 12 (CONTINUED) 113

Industry Initiatives 113

OTHER CONSIDERATIONS 113

COST FACTOR 113

QUALITY FACTOR 114

TECHNOLOGY FACTOR 114

MANUFACTURING CAPABILITY 114

KEY GROWTH MARKETS 115

TABLE 41 GLOBAL GROWTH FORECAST FOR CURRENT AND POTENTIAL SUPERCAPACITOR APPLICATIONS, 2010-2015 115

TABLE 41 (CONTINUED) 116

Electronics 116

Transportation 116

Energy 116

Sensors and Instrumentation 117

Medical/Biological/Pharmaceutical 117

DRIVING FORCES AND THEIR IMPACT ON MARKET GROWTH 117

TABLE 42 PERCENTAGE IMPACT OF MAJOR COMPETITIVE FACTORS ON THE GROWTH OF THE SUPERCAPACITOR MARKET, 2010-2015 118

Chapter-7: U.S. PATENT ANALYSIS

INTRODUCTION 119

SUMMARY OF PATENTS AWARDED DURING THE PERIOD 2007 THROUGH 2010 119

TABLE 43 SUPERCAPACITORS – U.S. PATENTS, 2010 120

TABLE 43 (CONTINUED) 121

TABLE 43 (CONTINUED) 122

TABLE 43 (CONTINUED) 123

TABLE 43 (CONTINUED) 124

TABLE 43 (CONTINUED) 125

TABLE 43 (CONTINUED) 126

TABLE 44 SUPERCAPACITORS – U.S. PATENTS, 2009 126

TABLE 44 (CONTINUED) 127

TABLE 44 (CONTINUED) 128

TABLE 44 (CONTINUED) 129

TABLE 44 (CONTINUED) 130

TABLE 44 (CONTINUED) 131

TABLE 45 SUPERCAPACITORS – U.S. PATENTS, 2008 132

TABLE 45 (CONTINUED) 133

TABLE 45 (CONTINUED) 134

TABLE 45 (CONTINUED) 135

TABLE 45 (CONTINUED) 136

TABLE 45 (CONTINUED) 137

TABLE 46 SUPERCAPACITORS – U.S. PATENTS, 2007 137

TABLE 46 (CONTINUED) 138

TABLE 46 (CONTINUED) 139

TABLE 46 (CONTINUED) 140

TABLE 46 (CONTINUED) 141

TABLE 46 (CONTINUED) 142

TABLE 46 (CONTINUED) 143

TABLE 46 (CONTINUED) 144

GENERAL TRENDS 144

TABLE 47 SUPERCAPACITORS: U.S. PATENT TRENDS, 2007-2010 145

FIGURE 13 SUPERCAPACITORS: U.S. PATENT TRENDS, 2007-2010 (NUMBER OF PATENTS) 146

TRENDS BY COUNTRY AND REGION 146

FIGURE 14 SHARES OF U.S. PATENTS RELATED TO SUPERCAPACITORS BY REGION, 2007-2010 (%) 147

FIGURE 15 SUPERCAPACITORS: PATENTS BY COUNTRY, 2007-2010 (%) 148

TRENDS BY ASSIGNEE 149

TABLE 48 ASSIGNEES OF U.S. PATENTS RELATED TO SUPERCAPACITORS, 2007-2010 150

TABLE 48 (CONTINUED) 151

TABLE 48 (CONTINUED) 152

FIGURE 16 SUPERCAPACITORS: SHARES OF U.S. PATENTS BY ORGANIZATION TYPE, 2007-2010 (%) 153

TRENDS BY PATENT CATEGORY 153

TRENDS BY PATENT CATEGORY (CONTINUED) 154

FIGURE 17 SUPERCAPACITORS: SHARES OF U.S. PATENTS BY CATEGORY, 2007-2010 (%) 155

TRENDS BY APPLICATION 155

FIGURE 18 SUPERCAPACITORS: SHARES OF U.S. PATENTS BY APPLICATION, 2007-2010 (%) 156

FIGURE 18 (CONTINUED) 157

TRENDS BY SUPERCAPACITOR TYPE 157

FIGURE 19 SUPERCAPACITORS: SHARES OF U.S. PATENTS BY TYPE, 2007-2010 (%) 158

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