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The North American Market for Produced Water Treatment Equipment

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NEW YORK, Oct. 17, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

 

The North American Market for Produced Water Treatment Equipment

http://www.reportlinker.com/p01013568/The-North-American-Market-for-Produced-Water-Treatment-Equipment.html#utm_source=prnewswire&utm_medium=pr&utm_campaign=Water_distribution_and_treatment

 

INTRODUCTION

 

Until renewable, sustainable sources are fully developed, the demand for fossil fuels will continue to grow. According to the International Energy Agency's (IEA) most recent World Energy Outlook, the production of conventional crude oil, the largest single component of the global oil supply, will remain at current levels before declining slightly, to 68 million barrels per day, by 2035. To offset declining production at existing fields, 47 million barrels per day of additional gross capacity are required. This volume is twice the current total oil production of all Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in the Middle East. A growing share of this output (10 million barrels per day) will come from unconventional sources.

 

The IEA forecasts a bright future, even a golden age, for natural gas, especially for so-called unconventional gas, such as shale gas and coal bed methane. Unconventional gas now accounts for 50% of the estimated natural gas resource base. By 2035, unconventional gas is predicted to rises to 20% of total gas production, although the pace of development will vary considerably by region. The growth in output also will depend on the gas industry dealing successfully with the environmental challenges. "A golden age of gas," says the IEA, "will require golden standards for production."

 

The demand for carbon-based energy is a major market driver for products and services used to treat the water produced during oil and gas exploration and production (E&P). Produced water, the effluent that rises to the surface during E&P, includes naturally occurring water in energy deposits and water injected into formations during drilling processes.

 

Produced water comprises approximately 98% of the total waste volume generated by the industry. Current global E&P activities generate more than 115 billion bbl per year (bbl/y) of produced water. For every barrel of oil, an average of three barrels of water is produced. In the U.S., the water to oil ratio (WOR) averages eight barrels of water to one of oil. On average, for every barrel of oil currently recovered, eight barrels of wastewater are also generated. During the next 15 years, the water to oil ratio is forecast to increase from 8:1 to 12:1. In the worst cases, the WOR reaches 50:1. To dispose of produced water, energy companies pay from $3 per barrel to as much as $12 per barrel. With the need to manage such large water volumes, the oil and gas production industry has become as much about water as it is about energy.

 

In addition to large water volumes and high disposal costs, energy developers using traditional produced water practices are facing increased opposition from environmental activists, local and state governments, and the public. These groups are concerned that the water is leaking from traditional containment pits and entering groundwater and surface water bodies. Historically, produced water has been contained temporarily in pits, and then either transported to treatment plants or evaporated.

 

During a producing oil well's life cycle, it initially produces oil along with a small amount of water; but, over time, the percentage of water increases. Throughout the well's service life, the produced water must be separated from the oil it contains. Following treatment, the water may be handled via one of three methods: safely discharged (used mainly in offshore applications), reinjected into the hydrocarbon formation (used in onshore, coastal or environmentally sensitive areas) or reused (either to maintain reservoir pressure and enhance heavy oil production or in other beneficial applications). In most world regions and for all of the end uses/disposal options, treated water quality must meet certain standards, including low toxicity, high biodegradability and low potential for bioaccumulation in the food chain.

 

A number of water treatment technologies and equipment types are commercially available for use at oil or gas production sites. These processes can reduce the cost, inefficiency and risks associated with treatment pits and the transport of toxic water. The treatment technologies include methods for de-oiling, de-sanding, desalinating and disinfecting produced water. Numerous systems types are on the market. Separators; hydrocyclones; and distillation-, ion exchange-, adsorbent- and membrane-based units, as well as proprietary equipment and combinations of equipment are among the choices.

 

Some of these products and technologies enable the treatment of produced water to a quality suitable for beneficial reuse. Presently, most of the water reused is employed for reinjection in enhanced oil recovery operations. However, there is also future potential for recycling the water in agriculture or a new source of municipal or industrial water supply, especially where water scarcity is an issue.

 

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

 

This report is intended to provide an in-depth analysis of the market for produced water treatment equipment. The study examines market value by world region, equipment type and offshore versus onshore use. The world regions discussed are the Americas, North America (the U.S., Canada and Mexico), and Central and South America; Europe; the Asia-Pacific region; and the Middle East and Africa.

 

The market evaluation by equipment type looks at produced water treatment systems within three broad categories: primary and secondary treatment oil separation equipment (minimizes oil in water content to 25 parts per million [ppm] to 30 ppm), tertiary treatment equipment (further reduces oil in water to less than 10 ppm) and advanced treatment (processes for desalinating produced water and enabling zero liquid discharge).

 

In the market analysis by hydrocarbon resource, value and growth are evaluated for equipment used in treating produced water from conventional oil and gas production and the development of unconventional resources: tight oil, oil sands bitumen, shale gas and coal bed methane. (For the purposes of this report, tight gas, natural gas that is difficult to access because of the nature of the rock and sand surrounding the deposit, is included in conventional resources.)

 

Because regulations governing offshore versus onshore produced water discharge differ, the equipment market also is evaluated by that parameter. In addition, the two markets are growing at different rates and are propelled by somewhat different drivers.

 

Technical and market drivers are considered in evaluating the current value of the technologies and in forecasting growth and trends over the next five years. The conclusions are illustrated with a wealth of statistical information on markets, applications, industry structure and dynamics along with technological developments.

 

Because of the diverse and somewhat fragmented nature of the produced water treatment industry, it is difficult to find studies that gather such extensive data from such far-flung resources into one comprehensive document. This report contains a unique collection of information, analyses, forecasts and conclusions that are very hard or impossible to find elsewhere.

 

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY

 

Global population growth and economic expansion are driving energy demand, while simultaneously driving significant increases in the demand for water. The challenge of meeting these demands is intensified by the nexus between water and energy. Large volumes of water are consumed to produce and generate energy, while vast amounts of energy are used to treat and distribute clean water. Furthermore, there is growing competition for water from the municipal, agricultural and industrial sectors, which exacerbates the mounting problem of global water scarcity. These issues pose a significant business risk to oil and gas companies seeking to achieve sustainable growth.

 

Major water-related challenges facing the oil and gas sector are mature oilfields that increasingly require water-based enhanced oil recovery methods and produce more water over time; growing exploration and production complexity due to emerging unconventional hydrocarbon resources, with their large water needs; and greater environmental and regulatory pressures related to water management and scarcity.

 

For these reasons, oil and gas companies must reevaluate water as a strategic element in their value chain. Water is no longer solely an environmental issue but is increasingly tied to production growth and cost. As a result, it must be handled through a strategy that recognizes its status as a critical component to ongoing viability in the oil and gas sector.

 

INTENDED AUDIENCE

 

This report is designed to be of value to a wide array of readers. Those expected to have the greatest interest are players already active in oil and gas production and/or produced water treatment. The study will be of value to startup companies with novel water treatment technology, especially for the hydraulic fracturing sector, since that market is still emerging and has no dominant players. Oilfield services businesses should find the report useful for its overview of treatment technologies, which include performance data, as well as capital and operating cost information.

 

It should be of interest to venture investors, entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial companies interested in entering or expanding into the produced water treatment sector. Other public- and private-sector interest groups, market analysts and general readers wishing to gain broader knowledge of the dynamics of the produced water treatment equipment market also are expected to find the report worthwhile.

 

SCOPE OF REPORT

 

The scope of this report is focused on global produced water treatment equipment for the oil and gas industry. The market is broken down by several different parameters, including world region, equipment type, produced water source and offshore/onshore application.

 

There are a number of expenses related to produced water management, including expenditures for services and equipment for downhole water minimization, for lifting water to the surface, for treatment, for reinjection, and for hauling and off-site disposal. This report will evaluate only oil and gas sector purchases for treatment equipment.

 

The study covers the industry on a worldwide basis in terms of the manufacture and deployment of treatment systems. BCC examines government roles in support of global markets, including regulatory support, government requirements and promotional incentives for various technologies as relevant and available.

 

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES

 

Both primary and secondary research methodologies were used in preparing this report. Research for this technical/marketing report began with an analysis of available technical and business literature related to sludge treatment. Conversations with industry experts and company representatives provide the backbone for the analysis.

 

Capital equipment expenditure estimates are based on anticipated future treatment capacity, existing and expected regulatory standards, and alterna­tives for disposing of oil and gas field wastewater.

 

Both primary and secondary research methods were used in this research study. Internet, literature and patent searches were undertaken, and key industry participants were queried. Growth rates for each market were calculated based on expected revenues from sales of process equipment during the forecast period. Values and forecasts are given in current U.S. dollars. Construction, engineering and design costs are excluded from market size calculations.

 

ANALYST CREDENTIALS

 

During the past 16 years, Susan Hanft has authored more than 35 market research reports for BCC Research in the fields of membrane technology, water and wastewater treatment, and separations used in food and beverage manufacture, medicine and biotechnology.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

STUDY GOALS AND OBJECTIVES 2

REASONS FOR DOING THE STUDY 2

INTENDED AUDIENCE 3

SCOPE OF REPORT 3

METHODOLOGY AND INFORMATION SOURCES 3

ANALYST CREDENTIALS 4

RELATED BCC PUBLICATIONS 4

BCC ONLINE SERVICES 4

DISCLAIMER 4

CHAPTER 2 SUMMARY 6

SUMMARY TABLE NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER

TREATMENT EQUIPMENT, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 7

SUMMARY FIGURE NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED

WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT, BY APPLICATION, 2007–2017 ($ MILLIONS) 7

CHAPTER 3 OVERVIEW 10

WATER AND WASTEWATER AT UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS SITES 10

STORMWATER RUNOFF OF DISTURBED LAND 10

FRAC FLUIDS AND FLOWBACK 11

PRODUCED WATER 11

WHAT IS PRODUCED WATER? 11

CONSTITUENTS IN PRODUCED WATER 12

Components in Produced Water from Conventional Oil and Gas Production 12

Oil 12

Chemical Additives 13

Produced Solids 13

Mineral Scales 14

Microorganisms 14

Metals 14

Sulfates 14

NORM 14

TABLE 1 TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF PRODUCED WATER 15

Produced Water from Gas Production 16

Constituents in Produced Water from CBM Production 16

TDS 16

Sodium 16

Other Constituents 17

TABLE 2 CBM PRODUCED WATER CHARACTERISTICS (POWDER RIVER BASIN) 17

HOW MUCH PRODUCED WATER IS GENERATED? 17

TABLE 3 GLOBAL ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES, THROUGH

2017 (1,000 BBL/D) 18

FIGURE 1 GLOBAL ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES, 2000–2017

(1,000 BBL/D) 18

TABLE 4 FATE OF PRODUCED WATER, BY END USE/DISPOSAL ROUTE, 2012 VS. 2017 (1,000

BBL/D, %) 19

FIGURE 2 FATE OF PRODUCED WATER, BY END USE/DISPOSAL ROUTE 2012 VS. 2017 (1,000

BBL/D, %) 19

COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT 20

TABLE 5 TYPICAL COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT BY PROCESS

STEP (%) 20

FIGURE 3 TYPICAL COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT BY PROCESS

STEP (%) 20

TABLE 6 PRODUCED WATER DISPOSAL COSTS FOR OFF-SITE COMMERCIAL FACILITIES, BY

OPTION ($) 21

Well Life Cycle Costs 21

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS 22

PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES 22

Minimization 22

Mechanical Blocking Devices 22

Packers 22

Plugs 23

Cement 23

Water Shut-off Chemicals 23

Downhole Separation 23

Downhole Oil/Water Separation 24

Downhole Gas/Water Separation 24

Bypass Tools 24

Modified Plunger Rod Pumps 24

ESPs 24

Progressive Cavity Pumps 25

Downhole Water Sink 25

Sea Floor Separation 25

Subsea Separation and Injection System (SUBSIS) 25

Recycle/Reuse 26

Injection for Recovering More Oil 26

Treatment Prior to Injection 27

Injection for Future Use 27

Aquifer Storage and Recovery 27

Injection for Hydrological Purposes 28

Subsidence Control 28

Salt Water Intrusion 28

Flow Augmentation 28

Agricultural Use 28

Crop Irrigation 29

Subsurface Irrigation 29

Livestock and Wildlife Watering 29

Aquaculture and Hydroponics 30

Managed Wetlands 30

Industrial Use 30

Use in Drilling Fluids or Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids 30

Cooling Water Makeup 31

Dust Control 31

Other 31

Drinking Water and Other Domestic Uses 31

CHAPTER 4 TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 34

CURRENT PRACTICES 34

REINJECTION 34

TABLE 7 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (%) 35

FIGURE 4 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (%) 35

TABLE 8 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED ONSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (%) 36

FIGURE 5 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED ONSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (%) 36

PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT STAGES 37

TABLE 9 EQUIPMENT SELECTION BASED ON SIZE OF PARTICLES REMOVED (MICRON) 38

TABLE 10 TYPICAL WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY 39

TREATMENT FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGED THROUGH UNDERGROUND

INJECTION 39

TREATMENT FOR PRODUCED WATER REUSED IN HYDRAULIC FRACTURING 40

TREATMENT FOR PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED TO SURFACE WATER OR

REUSED FOR IRRIGATION 40

COST CONSIDERATIONS 40

PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT CHALLENGES 41

TABLE 11 PRODUCED WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL REQUIREMENTS AND SUITABLE

TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 41

DE-OILING 42

TABLE 12 DE-OILING TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 42

PHYSICAL SEPARATION 43

Gravity Separators 43

API Separators 44

Inclined Plate Separator 44

Flat Corrugated Plate Separators 44

Hydrocyclones 45

Centrifuges 45

Voraxial Separators 46

Media Filtration 46

Further Specifications 46

Granular Media 47

Further Specifications 47

Biological Aerated Filtration 47

System Performance 47

Further Specifications 47

COALESCENCE 48

FLOTATION 48

System Performance 49

Further Specifications 49

ADSORPTION 49

Organoclay 50

Activated Carbon 50

Zeolites 50

MyCelx 51

COMBINED PHYSICAL AND EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY 51

SOLVENT EXTRACTION 51

OIL IN WATER DISCHARGES IN ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE APPLICATIONS 52

TABLE 13 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGES, ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE,

2004–2010 (MG/L) 52

FIGURE 6 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGES, ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE,

2004-2010 (MG/L) 52

TABLE 14 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (MG/L) 53

FIGURE 7 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,

2008–2010 (MG/L) 53

TABLE 15 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED ONSHORE, BY REGION,

2008–2010 (MG/L) 54

FIGURE 8 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED ONSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (MG/L) 54

DESALINATION 54

TABLE 16 DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 55

TABLE 17 PRESSURE-DRIVEN MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER

TREATMENT 57

MICROFILTRATION, ULTRAFILTRATION 58

MF 58

UF 58

Ceramic MF, UF 59

Polymeric MF, UF 59

NF 60

Vibratory Shear Enhanced Processing (VSEP) 61

System Performance 61

Costs 61

Further Specifications 62

TABLE 18 VSEP INSTALLATIONS FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 62

RO 62

High Efficiency RO (HERO) 62

System Performance 63

Costs 63

Further Specifications 63

Slurry Precipitation and Recycling RO (SPARRO) 64

Costs 64

Further Specifications 64

Double Pass Preferential Precipitation RO (DP3RO) 65

System Performance 65

Further Specifications 65

Dual-pass RO with Chemical Precipitation 65

System Performance 65

Further Specifications 66

CDM Smith Produced Water Technology 66

Further Specifications 67

Optimized Pretreatment and Separation Technology (OPUS) 67

System Performance 68

Further Specifications 68

GeoPure AdvancedHydro Treatment 68

System Performance 69

Costs 69

Further Specifications 69

Brine Concentrate 69

Concentrate Management 70

FORWARD OSMOSIS (FO) 70

System Performance 71

Further Specifications 71

HYBRID FO/RO 72

Further Specifications 72

ED/EDR 73

High Efficiency ED (HEED) 74

Further Specifications 74

MEMBRANE DISTILLATION (MD) 75

System Performance 75

Costs 76

Further Specifications 76

ION EXCHANGE 76

EMIT Higgins Loop 76

System Performance 77

Further Specifications 77

Drake Continuous Selective IX 77

System Performance 78

Further Specifications 78

Recoflo Compressed-bed IX 78

System Performance 79

Catalyx/RGBL IX 79

CAPACITIVE DEIONIZATION 79

ELECTROCOAGULATION 80

THERMAL DISTILLATION 80

VC 80

System Performance 81

Costs 81

Further Specifications 81

MSF 82

System Performance 82

Costs 82

Further Specifications 82

MED 82

System Performance 83

Costs 83

Further Specifications 83

Other 84

Hybrid MED-VC 84

Freeze-Thaw Evaporation (FTE) 84

System Performance 84

Costs 85

Further Specifications 85

Dewvaporation 85

System Performance 86

Costs 86

Further Specifications 86

Enhanced Distillation/Evaporation 86

GE MVC 86

System Performance 87

Costs 87

Further Specifications 87

Aquatech MVC 88

Aquapure MVR 88

System Performance 89

Further Specifications 89

212 Resources MVR 89

System Performance 90

Further Specifications 90

Intevras EVRAS 90

System Performance 91

Further Specifications 91

AGV Wiped Film Rotating Disk (WFRD) 91

System Performance 92

Costs 92

Further Specifications 92

DISINFECTION 92

TABLE 19 DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 93

Ozonation 93

Ozonix 93

System Performance 94

Ultraviolet Light (UV) Disinfection 94

System Performance 95

Further Specifications 95

CHAPTER 5 WORLD OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY OVERVIEW 97

TABLE 20 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN 2011 AND 2012, BY WORLD REGION (NO. OF

WELLS, % SHARE) 97

FIGURE 9 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN 2011 AND 2012, BY WORLD REGION (NO. OF

WELLS, % SHARE) 97

MARKET DRIVERS 98

ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS 98

Onshore Regulations 99

Offshore Regulations 99

TABLE 21 OIL-IN-WATER LIMITS BY COUNTRY 100

CONVENTIONAL OIL PRODUCTION 102

Offshore Production 102

Onshore Production 102

EOR 103

TABLE 22 PEAK OIL PRODUCTION AT WORLD'S LARGEST OILFIELDS 103

Global EOR-Based Oil Production 104

TABLE 23 GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY REGION/COUNTRY, 2010 (BBL/D, %) 104

FIGURE 10 GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY REGION/COUNTRY, 2010 (BBL/D, %) 104

TABLE 24 GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (BBL/D, %) 105

FIGURE 11 GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (BBL/D, %) 105

TABLE 25 EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION BY REGION AND TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (%

SHARE) 106

FIGURE 12 EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION BY REGION AND TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (%) 106

Steam Flooding 107

"Smart" Waterflooding 108

CONVENTIONAL GAS PRODUCTION 108

UNCONVENTIONAL HYDROCARBONS PRODUCTION 109

Unconventional Oil 109

FIGURE 13 WORLD LIQUIDS SUPPLY BY TYPE IN THE NEW POLICY SCENARIO, 1990-2035

(MILLION BBL/D) 109

Tight Oil 109

Hydraulic Fracturing 110

Environmental Concerns Related to Fracking 110

Oil Sands 111

Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) 111

Unconventional Gas 111

Shale Gas 111

FIGURE 14 GLOBAL SHALE GAS RESERVES 112

CBM 113

FIGURE 15 GLOBAL CBM RESERVES 113

TABLE 26 CBM RESERVES BY COUNTRY (TRILLION FT3) 114

FIGURE 16 CBM RESERVES BY COUNTRY (TRILLION FT3) 114

BENEFICIAL REUSE 115

GLOBAL OIL-LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION 116

OPEC PROJECTIONS 116

NON-OPEC PROJECTIONS 117

PROVEN GLOBAL OIL RESERVES 117

TABLE 27 WORLD PROVED OIL RESERVES BY COUNTRY AS OF JANUARY 2011 (BILLION

BARRELS, % OF TOTAL) 118

TABLE 28 WORLD PROVED OIL RESERVES BY REGION, AS OF JANUARY 2011 (BILLION

BARRELS) 118

FIGURE 17 WORLD PROVED OIL RESERVES BY REGION, AS OF JANUARY 2011 (BILLION

BARRELS) 119

GLOBAL OIL PRODUCTION 119

TABLE 29 GLOBAL OIL PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY 119

TABLE 30 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF OIL WELLS, 2008 122

FIGURE 18 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF OIL WELLS, 2008 (NO. OF PRODUCING WELLS) 123

Oil Production Forecasts 123

TABLE 31 NON-OPEC OIL PRODUCTION IN THE NEW POLICIES SCENARIO, 2010-2035

(MILLION BBL/D) 123

TABLE 32 OPEC OIL PRODUCTION IN THE NEW POLICIES SCENARIO, 2010-2035 (MB/D) 124

GLOBAL NATURAL GAS RESERVES 125

TABLE 33 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY REGION AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011 (TRILLION

M3) 125

FIGURE 19 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY REGION, AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011

(TRILLION M3) 125

TABLE 34 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY COUNTRY, AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011

(TRILLION M3) 126

FIGURE 20 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY COUNTRY AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011

(TRILLION M3) 127

GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION 127

TABLE 35 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY (M3) 127

NATURAL GAS PROJECTIONS 129

TABLE 36 PRIMARY NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION IN THE NEW POLICIES SCENARIO,

2009-2035 (MB/D) 130

UNCONVENTIONAL NATURAL GAS PROJECTIONS 131

TABLE 37 WORLD NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY REGION/COUNTRY, CONVENTIONAL

VERSUS UNCONVENTIONAL, THROUGH 2035 (TRILLION M3) 133

CHAPTER 6 FOCUS ON NORTH AMERICA 136

TABLE 38 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN NORTH AMERICA, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF

WELLS DRILLED) 136

FIGURE 21 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN NORTH AMERICA, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF

WELLS DRILLED) 136

TABLE 39 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN NORTH AMERICA, 2011 AND 2012 137

FIGURE 22 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN NORTH AMERICA, 2011 AND 2012 137

FIGURE 23 NORTH AMERICAN OIL PRODUCTION COMPARED TO OUTPUT FROM RUSSIA

AND SAUDI ARABIA, 1965-2020 (MILLION BBL/D) 138

FIGURE 24 NORTH AMERICAN OIL PRODUCTION FORECAST BY RESOURCE, 2007 THROUGH

2025 138

FIGURE 25 NORTH AMERICAN OIL PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY, CONVENTIONAL AND

UNCONVENTIONAL, 2008-2030 (MILLION BBL/D) 139

FIGURE 26 NORTH AMERICAN GAS PRODUCTION FORECAST BY RESOURCE, 2007-2025 140

U.S. 140

OIL PRODUCTION 140

TABLE 40 U.S. CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION, 2009–2035 (MILLION BBL/D) 141

FIGURE 27 U.S. CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION, 2009–2035 (MILLION BBL/D) 141

FIGURE 28 ANNUAL CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION, 2000–2011 (THOUSAND BBL/D) 141

TABLE 41 NUMBER OF PRODUCING U.S. OIL WELLS, BY REGION, 2010 AND 2011 143

FIGURE 29 NUMBER OF PRODUCING U.S. OIL WELLS, BY REGION, 2010 AND 2011 143

GAS PRODUCTION 144

TABLE 42 NUMBER OF PRODUCING U.S. GAS WELLS, BY REGION, 2010 AND 2011 144

FIGURE 30 NUMBER OF PRODUCING U.S. GAS WELLS, BY REGION, 2010 AND 2011 (NO. OF

WELLS) 144

FIGURE 31 U.S. DRY GAS PRODUCTION, BY RESOURCE TYPE, 1990-2035 (TRILLIONS FT3

/YEAR, % OF TOTAL) 145

FIGURE 32 U.S. SHALE GAS PLAYS, LOWER 48 STATES 145

PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES IN THE U.S. 146

TABLE 43 PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES IN THE U.S., BY STATE, 2012 (BBL/YEAR,%) 146

FIGURE 33 PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES IN THE U.S., BY STATE, 2012 (BBL/YEAR) 147

U.S. FEDERAL REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS 147

Regulations Governing Produced Water Discharge 147

ELGs 148

Oil and Gas ELGs 148

Onshore Regulations 148

Coastal Regulations 148

TABLE 44 EGLS FOR DISCHARGE INTO COASTAL WATERS 149

Offshore Regulations 149

Regional NPDES Permits for Offshore Operators 149

Regulations Governing Produced Water Injection 150

BLM Regulations 151

BOEMRE Regulations 151

State Regulations 151

Anticipated Federal Regulations 152

Potential Fracking Legislation 153

TABLE 45 EXPECTATIONS FOR FRAC WATER LEGISLATION (%) 154

FIGURE 34 EXPECTATIONS FOR FRAC WATER LEGISLATION (%) 154

STATE REQUIREMENTS 154

CANADA 155

OIL PRODUCTION 155

Conventional Crude Oil Production Projections 155

Oil Sands Bitumen Projections 156

TABLE 46 CANADIAN CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION FORECAST, 2010-2025 (MILLION BBL/D) 156

FIGURE 35 CANADIAN CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION FORECAST, 2010-2025 (MILLION BBL/D) 156

TABLE 47 OIL SANDS: RAW BITUMEN PRODUCTION, 2011–2030 (MILLION BBL/D) 157

FIGURE 36 OIL SANDS: RAW BITUMEN PRODUCTION, 2011–2030 (MILLION BBL/D) 157

GAS PRODUCTION 157

FIGURE 37 CANADIAN NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION PROJECTIONS, 2005–2020, TWO PRICE

SCENARIOS 158

REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS 158

MEXICO 159

OIL PRODUCTION 159

GAS PRODUCTION 159

REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS 160

NORTH AMERICAN MARKET FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT 160

BY EQUIPMENT TYPE 160

Primary and Secondary Treatment Equipment 161

Tertiary Treatment 162

Advanced Treatment 162

TABLE 48 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER

TREATMENT, BY EQUIPMENT TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 163

FIGURE 38 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED W ($ MILLIONS) 163

Centralized Treatment 164

ONSHORE VERSUS OFFSHORE 164

U.S. 165

Canada 165

TABLE 49 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN NORTH AMERICA, ONSHORE VERSUS

OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. AND %) 166

FIGURE 39 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN NORTH AMERICA, ONSHORE VERSUS

OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. AND %) 166

TABLE 50 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER

TREATMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, 2007–2017 ($ MILLIONS) 167

FIGURE 40 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER

TREATMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, 2007–2017 ($ MILLIONS) 167

BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE 168

Conventional Oil 168

TABLE 51 U.S. EOR OIL PRODUCTION, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (%) 169

FIGURE 41 U.S. EOR OIL PRODUCTION, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (%) 169

Tight Oil 169

U.S. 170

Canada 170

Oil Sands 170

Canada 171

U.S. 171

Conventional Gas 171

Shale Gas 172

CBM 173

TABLE 52 U.S. CBM PRODUCTION, 1990-2010 (BILLION FT3) 173

FIGURE 42 U.S. CBM PRODUCTION, 1990-2010 (BILLION FT3) 174

TABLE 53 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER

TREATMENT EQUIPMENT BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007–2017 ($ MILLION) 175

FIGURE 43 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER

TREATMENT EQUIPMENT BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLION) 175

CHAPTER 7 INDUSTRY STRUCTURE 177

CAPITAL EQUIPMENT SPENDING 179

TABLE 54 GLOBAL CAPITAL SPENDING IN THE UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY,

2000-2012 ($ BILLIONS) 179

FIGURE 44 GLOBAL CAPITAL SPENDING IN THE UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY,

2000-2012 ($ BILLIONS) 179

TABLE 55 CAPITAL SPENDING BY THE UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY, BY REGION,

2011 AND 2012 ($ BILLIONS) 180

FIGURE 45 CAPITAL SPENDING BY THE UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY, BY REGION,

2011 AND 2012 ($ BILLIONS) 180

TABLE 56 PERCENTAGE BREAKDOWN OF CAPITAL SPENDING BY THE UPSTREAM OIL AND

GAS INDUSTRY, BY REGION, 2012 (%) 182

FIGURE 46 PERCENTAGE BREAKDOWN OF CAPITAL SPENDING BY THE UPSTREAM OIL AND

GAS INDUSTRY, BY REGION, 2012 (%) 182

TABLE 57 OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY INVESTMENT, BY COMPANY, 2010 AND 2011 ($ BILLIONS) 183

FUTURE INVESTMENT 183

CONSIDERATIONS FOR VENDORS SUPPLYING WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT 185

CHAPTER 8 COMPANY PROFILES 187

212 RESOURCES 187

AGV TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 187

AKER SOLUTIONS 187

ALTELA, INC. 188

AMCOL INTERNATIONAL CORP. 188

AQUA EWP 189

AQUA-PURE VENTURES 189

AQUATECH 190

AUXSOL, INC. 190

CAMERON INTERNATIONAL CORP. 191

DPS GLOBAL 191

DRAKE WATER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 192

ECOSPHERE TECHNOLOGIES 192

ECO-TEC 193

EPROCESS TECHNOLOGIES PTY. LTD. 194

EXTERRAN 194

FLSMIDTH 194

FMC TECHNOLOGIES (CDS) 195

FILTERBOXX PACKAGED WATER SOLUTIONS, INC. 195

GE WATER & PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES 196

GEO-PROCESSORS PTY. LTD. 196

GEOPURE HYDROTECHNOLOGIES 197

GLOBAL PROCESS SYSTEMS 197

GRADEK ENERGY, INC. 197

HALLIBURTON 198

HAMWORTHY 198

HYDRATION TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION (HTI) 199

LAYNE CHRISTENSEN 199

MYCELX TECHNOLOGIES CORP. 200

NOV MISSION PRODUCTS 200

NEW LOGIC RESEARCH 201

OVIVO 201

PROCESS GROUP INTERNATIONAL (PGI) 202

PROSEP INC. 202

SAIPEM 203

SCHLUMBERGER 203

SET CORP. 204

SEVERN TRENT 205

SIEMENS WATER TECHNOLOGIES 205

VEOLIA WATER SOLUTIONS & TECHNOLOGIES 206

VME PROCESS, INC. 206

WASTEWATER RESOURCES, INC. (WRI) 207

WATER STANDARD CO. 207

WATERTECTONICS 208

WATER & POWER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. (WPT) 208

 

LIST OF TABLES

SUMMARY TABLE NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER

TREATMENT EQUIPMENT, BY APPLICATION, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 7

TABLE 1 TYPICAL COMPOSITION OF PRODUCED WATER 15

TABLE 2 CBM PRODUCED WATER CHARACTERISTICS (POWDER RIVER BASIN) 17

TABLE 3 GLOBAL ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES, THROUGH 2017

(1,000 BBL/D) 18

TABLE 4 FATE OF PRODUCED WATER, BY END USE/DISPOSAL ROUTE, 2012 VS. 2017 (1,000

BBL/D, %) 19

TABLE 5 TYPICAL COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT BY PROCESS

STEP (%) 20

TABLE 6 PRODUCED WATER DISPOSAL COSTS FOR OFF-SITE COMMERCIAL FACILITIES, BY

OPTION ($) 21

TABLE 7 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (%) 35

TABLE 8 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED ONSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (%) 36

TABLE 9 EQUIPMENT SELECTION BASED ON SIZE OF PARTICLES REMOVED (MICRON) 38

TABLE 10 TYPICAL WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY 39

TABLE 11 PRODUCED WATER CONTAMINANT REMOVAL REQUIREMENTS AND SUITABLE

TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES 41

TABLE 12 DE-OILING TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 42

TABLE 13 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGES, ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE,

2004–2010 (MG/L) 52

TABLE 14 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (MG/L) 53

TABLE 15 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED ONSHORE, BY REGION,

2008–2010 (MG/L) 54

TABLE 16 DESALINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 55

TABLE 17 PRESSURE-DRIVEN MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER

TREATMENT 57

TABLE 18 VSEP INSTALLATIONS FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 62

TABLE 19 DISINFECTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCED WATER TREATMENT 93

TABLE 20 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN 2011 AND 2012, BY WORLD REGION (NO. OF

WELLS, % SHARE) 97

TABLE 21 OIL-IN-WATER LIMITS BY COUNTRY 100

TABLE 22 PEAK OIL PRODUCTION AT WORLD'S LARGEST OILFIELDS 103

TABLE 23 GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY REGION/COUNTRY, 2010 (BBL/D, %) 104

TABLE 24 GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (BBL/D, %) 105

TABLE 25 EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION BY REGION AND TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (%

SHARE) 106

TABLE 26 CBM RESERVES BY COUNTRY (TRILLION FT3) 114

TABLE 27 WORLD PROVED OIL RESERVES BY COUNTRY AS OF JANUARY 2011 (BILLION

BARRELS, % OF TOTAL) 118

TABLE 28 WORLD PROVED OIL RESERVES BY REGION, AS OF JANUARY 2011 (BILLION

BARRELS) 118

TABLE 29 GLOBAL OIL PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY 119

TABLE 30 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF OIL WELLS, 2008 122

TABLE 31 NON-OPEC OIL PRODUCTION IN THE NEW POLICIES SCENARIO, 2010-2035

(MILLION BBL/D) 123

TABLE 32 OPEC OIL PRODUCTION IN THE NEW POLICIES SCENARIO, 2010-2035 (MB/D) 124

TABLE 33 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY REGION AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011 (TRILLION M3) 125

TABLE 34 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY COUNTRY, AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011 (TRILLION

M3) 126

TABLE 35 GLOBAL NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY (M3) 127

TABLE 36 PRIMARY NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION IN THE NEW POLICIES SCENARIO,

2009-2035 (MB/D) 130

TABLE 37 WORLD NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION BY REGION/COUNTRY, CONVENTIONAL

VERSUS UNCONVENTIONAL, THROUGH 2035 (TRILLION M3) 133

TABLE 38 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN NORTH AMERICA, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF WELLS

DRILLED) 136

TABLE 39 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN NORTH AMERICA, 2011 AND 2012 137

TABLE 40 U.S. CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION, 2009–2035 (MILLION BBL/D) 141

TABLE 41 NUMBER OF PRODUCING U.S. OIL WELLS, BY REGION, 2010 AND 2011 143

TABLE 42 NUMBER OF PRODUCING U.S. GAS WELLS, BY REGION, 2010 AND 2011 144

TABLE 43 PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES IN THE U.S., BY STATE, 2012 (BBL/YEAR,%) 146

TABLE 44 EGLS FOR DISCHARGE INTO COASTAL WATERS 149

TABLE 45 EXPECTATIONS FOR FRAC WATER LEGISLATION (%) 154

TABLE 46 CANADIAN CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION FORECAST, 2010-2025 (MILLION BBL/D) 156

TABLE 47 OIL SANDS: RAW BITUMEN PRODUCTION, 2011–2030 (MILLION BBL/D) 157

TABLE 48 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER

TREATMENT, BY EQUIPMENT TYPE, THROUGH 2017 ($ MILLIONS) 163

TABLE 49 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN NORTH AMERICA, ONSHORE VERSUS OFFSHORE,

2011 AND 2012 (NO. AND %) 166

TABLE 50 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER

TREATMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, 2007–2017 ($ MILLIONS) 167

TABLE 51 U.S. EOR OIL PRODUCTION, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (%) 169

TABLE 52 U.S. CBM PRODUCTION, 1990-2010 (BILLION FT3) 173

TABLE 53 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER

TREATMENT EQUIPMENT BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007–2017 ($ MILLION) 175

TABLE 54 GLOBAL CAPITAL SPENDING IN THE UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY,

2000-2012 ($ BILLIONS) 179

TABLE 55 CAPITAL SPENDING BY THE UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY, BY REGION, 2011

AND 2012 ($ BILLIONS) 180

TABLE 56 PERCENTAGE BREAKDOWN OF CAPITAL SPENDING BY THE UPSTREAM OIL AND

GAS INDUSTRY, BY REGION, 2012 (%) 182

TABLE 57 OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY INVESTMENT, BY COMPANY, 2010 AND 2011 ($ BILLIONS) 183

 

LIST OF FIGURES

SUMMARY FIGURE NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER

TREATMENT EQUIPMENT, BY APPLICATION, 2007–2017 ($ MILLIONS) 7

FIGURE 1 GLOBAL ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES, 2000–2017

(1,000 BBL/D) 18

FIGURE 2 FATE OF PRODUCED WATER, BY END USE/DISPOSAL ROUTE 2012 VS. 2017 (1,000

BBL/D, %) 19

FIGURE 3 TYPICAL COST BREAKDOWN FOR PRODUCED WATER MANAGEMENT BY PROCESS

STEP (%) 20

FIGURE 4 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (%) 35

FIGURE 5 PERCENTAGE OF PRODUCED WATER REINJECTED ONSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (%) 36

FIGURE 6 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGES, ONSHORE AND OFFSHORE,

2004-2010 (MG/L) 52

FIGURE 7 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED OFFSHORE, BY REGION,

2008–2010 (MG/L) 53

FIGURE 8 OIL CONTENT OF PRODUCED WATER DISCHARGED ONSHORE, BY REGION,

2008-2010 (MG/L) 54

FIGURE 9 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN 2011 AND 2012, BY WORLD REGION (NO. OF

WELLS, % SHARE) 97

FIGURE 10 GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY REGION/COUNTRY, 2010 (BBL/D, %) 104

FIGURE 11 GLOBAL EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (BBL/D, %) 105

FIGURE 12 EOR-BASED OIL PRODUCTION BY REGION AND TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (%) 106

FIGURE 13 WORLD LIQUIDS SUPPLY BY TYPE IN THE NEW POLICY SCENARIO, 1990-2035

(MILLION BBL/D) 109

FIGURE 14 GLOBAL SHALE GAS RESERVES 112

FIGURE 15 GLOBAL CBM RESERVES 113

FIGURE 16 CBM RESERVES BY COUNTRY (TRILLION FT3) 114

FIGURE 17 WORLD PROVED OIL RESERVES BY REGION, AS OF JANUARY 2011 (BILLION

BARRELS) 119

FIGURE 18 GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF OIL WELLS, 2008 (NO. OF PRODUCING WELLS) 123

FIGURE 19 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY REGION, AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011 (TRILLION

M3) 125

FIGURE 20 WORLD NATURAL GAS RESERVES BY COUNTRY AS OF JANUARY 1, 2011

(TRILLION M3) 127

FIGURE 21 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN NORTH AMERICA, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. OF

WELLS DRILLED) 136

FIGURE 22 OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN NORTH AMERICA, 2011 AND 2012 137

FIGURE 23 NORTH AMERICAN OIL PRODUCTION COMPARED TO OUTPUT FROM RUSSIA AND

SAUDI ARABIA, 1965-2020 (MILLION BBL/D) 138

FIGURE 24 NORTH AMERICAN OIL PRODUCTION FORECAST BY RESOURCE, 2007 THROUGH

2025 138

FIGURE 25 NORTH AMERICAN OIL PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY, CONVENTIONAL AND

UNCONVENTIONAL, 2008-2030 (MILLION BBL/D) 139

FIGURE 26 NORTH AMERICAN GAS PRODUCTION FORECAST BY RESOURCE, 2007-2025 140

FIGURE 27 U.S. CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION, 2009–2035 (MILLION BBL/D) 141

FIGURE 28 ANNUAL CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION, 2000–2011 (THOUSAND BBL/D) 141

FIGURE 29 NUMBER OF PRODUCING U.S. OIL WELLS, BY REGION, 2010 AND 2011 143

FIGURE 30 NUMBER OF PRODUCING U.S. GAS WELLS, BY REGION, 2010 AND 2011 (NO. OF

WELLS) 144

FIGURE 31 U.S. DRY GAS PRODUCTION, BY RESOURCE TYPE, 1990-2035 (TRILLIONS FT3/YEAR,

% OF TOTAL) 145

FIGURE 32 U.S. SHALE GAS PLAYS, LOWER 48 STATES 145

FIGURE 33 PRODUCED WATER VOLUMES IN THE U.S., BY STATE, 2012 (BBL/YEAR) 147

FIGURE 34 EXPECTATIONS FOR FRAC WATER LEGISLATION (%) 154

FIGURE 35 CANADIAN CRUDE OIL PRODUCTION FORECAST, 2010-2025 (MILLION BBL/D) 156

FIGURE 36 OIL SANDS: RAW BITUMEN PRODUCTION, 2011–2030 (MILLION BBL/D) 157

FIGURE 37 CANADIAN NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION PROJECTIONS, 2005–2020, TWO PRICE

SCENARIOS 158

FIGURE 38 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED W ($ MILLIONS) 163

FIGURE 39 OIL AND GAS WELLS DRILLED IN NORTH AMERICA, ONSHORE VERSUS

OFFSHORE, 2011 AND 2012 (NO. AND %) 166

FIGURE 40 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER

TREATMENT, ONSHORE VS. OFFSHORE, 2007–2017 ($ MILLIONS) 167

FIGURE 41 U.S. EOR OIL PRODUCTION, BY TECHNOLOGY TYPE, 2010 (%) 169

FIGURE 42 U.S. CBM PRODUCTION, 1990-2010 (BILLION FT3) 174

FIGURE 43 NORTH AMERICAN MARKET SIZE AND GROWTH FOR PRODUCED WATER

TREATMENT EQUIPMENT BY HYDROCARBON RESOURCE, 2007-2017 ($ MILLION) 175

FIGURE 44 GLOBAL CAPITAL SPENDING IN THE UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY,

2000-2012 ($ BILLIONS) 179

FIGURE 45 CAPITAL SPENDING BY THE UPSTREAM OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY, BY REGION,

2011 AND 2012 ($ BILLIONS) 180

FIGURE 46 PERCENTAGE BREAKDOWN OF CAPITAL SPENDING BY THE UPSTREAM OIL AND

GAS INDUSTRY, BY REGION, 2012 (%) 182

 

 

 

To order this report:

Water_distribution_and_treatment Industry: The North American Market for Produced Water Treatment Equipment

 

Nicolas Bombourg
Reportlinker
Email: nicolasbombourg@reportlinker.com
US: (805)652-2626
Intl: +1 805-652-2626

 

SOURCE Reportlinker



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