World Biofuels Report

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World Biofuels Report

http://www.reportlinker.com/p01094728/World-Biofuels-Report.html#utm_source=prnewswire&utm_medium=pr&utm_campaign=Fuel_Additive

 

This new biofuels market research report looks at the global Biofuels industry now and the predictions for future growth and development. 2009 was a hard year for the biofuels industry with low oil prices and reduced demand for transport fuels. Biofuels investment was down by just over a third compared to the previous year. Plants were idle or operating at less than capacity. The biofuels industry in the EU, US, Malaysia and Indonesia were particularly feeling the effects; both the US and EU were struggling to compete with cheaper fuels from Latin America. The projects that did receive biofuels investments mainly used mixed feedstocks and thus could adapt to changing commodity prices and supply shortages. Projects using sugar cane or next generation feedstocks such as jatropha, cellulosics or algae received significant investments.

 

 

 

Table of Contents

 

Published By 2

Copyright Notice .2

Table of Contents 3

List of Figures 7

List of Tables .11

 

1 Executive Summary .15

 

2 Introduction .17

 

3 First generation biofuels .21

3.1 Ethanol (Bioethanol) 21

3.1.1 Corn .22

3.1.2 Sugar beet 23

3.1.3 Sugar cane 23

3.1.4 Sorghum 25

3.2 Biodiesel 26

3.2.1 Palm oil 26

3.2.2 Soy beans (Soya; Soya beans) .28

3.2.3 Rapeseed .28

 

4 Energy Crops 31

4.1.1 Jatropha .31

4.1.2 Camelina 35

4.1.3 Croton trees 36

4.1.4 Miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus) 37

4.1.5 Poplar trees 37

4.1.6 Salicornia (Salicornia Bigelovii, Dwarf saltwort, Dwarf glasswort) 37

4.1.7 Switch grass .38

 

5 Waste vegetable oil and tallow .39

5.1.1 Fuel: Biodiesel .39

 

6 Cellulosic biofuels (lignocellulosic biofuels) .40

6.1 Second generation 40

6.1.1 Fuel: Ethanol 40

 

7 Algae 49

7.1 Third generation biofuel 49

7.1.1 Fuel: Diesel substitute 49

 

8 Biotechnology .54

 

9 Conversion process .56

 

10 Environmental Impact 58

 

11 Food versus fuel debate .64

 

12 Market 65

12.1 Financials 65

12.2 Companies .71

12.3 Petroleum transport fuels 74

 

13 Biofuel production .78

 

14 Europe 84

14.1 EU Biofuels Directive 85

14.2 Renewable Energy Directive 87

14.3 REACH .90

14.4 Import and export regulations 91

14.5 Biofuel production .93

14.5.1 Biodiesel 93

14.6 Ethanol .98

14.7 Biofuel consumption 108

14.8 Next generation biofuels 109

14.9 Job creation 110

14.10 Factors affecting the market 111

14.11 EU competitiveness 113

 

15 European countries 114

15.1 Austria 114

15.2 Belgium 114

15.3 Bulgaria .115

15.4 Denmark 116

15.5 Estonia 117

15.6 Finland 117

15.7 France 117

15.8 Germany 118

15.9 Ireland .124

15.10 Latvia 125

15.11 Luxembourg 125

15.12 Netherlands 126

15.13 Norway 126

15.14 Poland 126

15.15 Portugal .127

15.16 Romania 127

15.17 Spain 127

15.18 Sweden 131

15.19 Switzerland 134

15.20 Turkey .136

15.21 UK 137

 

16 USA .138

16.1 Incentives .138

16.2 Renewable Fuel Standard 139

16.3 Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (Farm Bill 2008) .142

16.4 State legislation 142

16.5 Biofuel imports and exports 144

16.6 Market .145

16.7 Next generation biofuels 156

16.8 Economic downturn 161

16.9 Animal feed 162

16.10 Biodiesel 163

 

17 Brazil 171

17.1 Sugar production 172

17.2 Sugar cane production .173

17.3 Ethanol plants 173

17.4 Ethanol 176

17.5 Blending mandates 179

17.6 Export market 179

17.7 Biodiesel 181

17.8 Investment 183

17.9 Foreign Investment 185

 

18 Latin America 186

18.1 Argentina 186

18.2 Colombia 191

18.3 Honduras 192

18.4 Paraguay 194

18.5 Peru .195

18.6 Uruguay .195

 

19 North America 198

19.1 Canada 198

19.2 Biodiesel 204

19.3 Ethanol 204

19.4 Mexico 205

 

20 Oceania .208

20.1 Australia .208

20.2 New Zealand 213

 

21 ASIA .222

21.1 China 222

21.2 Chinese Taiwan 226

21.3 India .226

21.4 Indonesia 231

21.5 Japan 234

21.6 Korea, South .236

21.7 Malaysia 236

21.8 Pakistan .238

21.9 Thailand .239

21.10 The Philippines 248

21.11 Vietnam .251

 

22 Russia and the CIS countries .252

22.1 Russia .252

22.2 Ukraine 252

22.3 Other countries 253

 

23 Africa 254

23.1 South Africa 254

23.2 Sudan .255

23.3 Other countries 255

23.3.1 Kenya 255

23.3.2 Mozambique 255

23.3.3 Tanzania .255

 

24 Aviation sector .256

24.1 Carbon emissions 256

24.2 Bio-jet fuels 257

24.3 Air force and the military 263

 

25 Oil & Gas Involvement 266

 

26 Biofuel targets, subsidies and incentives 279

 

27 Conversion units .297

 

28 Acknowledgements 298

 

 

 

List of Figures

 

Figure 2.1. Development of biofuels

Figure 2.2. Products from biofuel feedstocks

Figure 3.1. World corn price projections, US $ per tonne

Figure 3.2. World sugar price projections, US $ per tonne

Figure 3.3. Fuel yield for biofuel feedstocks, gasoline equivalent, gallons per acre

Figure 3.4. World vegetable oil prices, US $ per tonne

Figure 3.5. World oil seed prices, US $ per tonne

Figure 4.1. Jatropha curcas

Figure 4.2. Scale of jatropha projects (hectares) and number of projects, 2008 and 2015

Figure 4.3. Camelina*

Figure 4.4. Salicornia (Salicornia Bigelovi)

Figure 6.1. Breakdown of operating costs for a cellulosic plant using enzyme pre-treatment

Figure 6.2. Status of cellulosic ethanol plants as of February 2010

Figure 6.3. Adjusted feedstock potential for cellulosic feedstocks

Figure 6.4. Planned development of cellulosic ethanol capacity by the top ten developers, million

litres

Figure 7.1. Microalgae and macroalgae. Microalgae (left) Macroalgae (right)

Figure 8.1. Role of biotechnology in biofuel production

Figure 9.1. Levelised cost of energy for transport fuels, US $ per litre

Figure 9.2. Conversion pathways to produce biofuels

Figure 10.1. Greenhouse gas savings of biofuels by feedstock and country of origin, % - Biodiesel

Figure 10.2. Greenhouse gas savings of biofuels by feedstock and country of origin, % - Ethanol

and Biogas

Figure 10.3. Future research challenges for assessing the environmental impacts of biofuels

Figure 10.4. Global average water footprint for ethanol feedstocks, m³/GJ

Figure 10.5. Global average water footprint for biodiesel feedstocks, m³/GJ

Figure 12.1. New investment by technology, 2009, US $billion

Figure 12.2. Global Asset Financing (GAF), US $ million, Q1 2009 – Q2 2010

Figure 12.3. Global Asset Financing (GAF) per biofuel project, US $ million, Q1 2009 – Q2 2010

Figure 12.4. Biofuels New Build Asset Investment Waves, US $ billion

Figure 12.5. Investments in terms of feedstocks, US $ million, 2009

Figure 12.6. VC/PE investments in biofuels, US $ million, Q1 2009 – Q2 2010

Figure 12.7. Average VC/PE investments in biofuels per deal, US $ million, Q1 2009 – Q2 2010

Figure 12.8. Top ten companies in 2009 in terms of investments, US $ million

Figure 12.9. Corporate and government R&D investment by technology, 2009, and total growth on

2008, US $ billion

Figure 12.10. Average crude oil import costs, US $/barrel*

Figure 12.11. Short term oil price forecast, West Texas Spot price, US$ per barrel

Figure 12.12. DOE EIA World oil price projections, US $ per barrel

Figure 14.1. Biofuel chain and supply measures in the EU

Figure 14.2. Proportion of biofuel meeting sustainability standards

Figure 14.3. Idle and used biodiesel capacity in the EU, million litres

Figure 14.4. Average installed capacity of biodiesel plants in the EU, million litres

Figure 14.5. Biodiesel production in the top six EU countries, million litres

Figure 14.6. Market share of biodiesel production in the top six EU countries, %, 2009 (left) and

2011 (right)

Figure 14.7. Feedstock used for biodiesel production, thousand tonnes

Figure 14.8. Idle and used ethanol capacity in the EU, million litres

Figure 14.9. Average installed capacity of ethanol plants in the EU, million litres

Figure 14.10. Ethanol production in the top six EU countries, million litres

Figure 14.11. Market share of ethanol production in the top six EU countries, %, 2009 (left) and

2011 (right)

Figure 14.12. Balance of ethanol trade, net exporters +and net importers -, million litres

Figure 14.13. Feedstock used for ethanol production, thousand tonnes

Figure 14.14. Fate of ethanol produced in the EU, million litres

Figure 14.15. Imports of biofuels into the EU, million litres

Figure 14.16. Production of DDGS during ethanol production in the EU, thousand tonnes

Figure 14.17. Consumption of biofuels in the EU, 2006 - 2011

Figure 14.18. Biodiesel consumption in the EU, 2009 - 2011, million litres

Figure 14.19. Ethanol consumption in the EU, 2009 - 2011, million litres

Figure 15.1. Projections on the production of biodiesel and ethanol in Bulgaria, 2008 – 2020

Figure 15.2. Standard greenhouse gas emissions for biofuels, established by the UFOP in Germany,

gCO2eq per MJ, %

Figure 15.3. Ethanol market in Sweden, thousand litres

Figure 15.4. Biodiesel market in Sweden, thousand litres

Figure 15.5. Quantity of feedstock used in biofuel production in Sweden, thousand tonnes

Figure 15.6. Biodiesel consumption in Switzerland, million litres

Figure 15.7. Ethanol consumption in Switzerland, million litres

Figure 16.1. Renewable fuel volume obligation as established in the RFS program, billion litres

Figure 16.2. Blending mandates in the US, launch dates

Figure 16.3. Historical US ethanol imports, million litres

Figure 16.4. Growth of the ethanol industry in the US, billion litres

Figure 16.5. Average production capacity of ethanol plants in operation in the US, million litres

Figure 16.6. Top ten states for ethanol production, million litres

Figure 16.7. US Ethanol biorefinery locations

Figure 16.8. Top ten ethanol producers in terms of installed capacity, million litres

Figure 16.9. Breakdown of funding for advanced biorefinery projects, December 2009, US $

million

Figure 16.10. Fate of corn harvested for ethanol production in the USA, 2009

Figure 16.11. Breakdown of feedstocks for biodiesel plants in operation and under construction in

the US, %

Figure 16.12. Breakdown of biodiesel production costs

Figure 16.13. Top ten biodiesel manufacturers in the US, million litres

Figure 16.14. Production and consumption of biodiesel in the US, million litres

Figure 17.1. Sugar producing regions and ethanol plants in Brazil

Figure 17.2. Sugar cane and sugar production in Brazil for each crop harvest, million tonnes

Figure 17.3. Balance of cane products and by-products, 1,000 kg of planted cane

Figure 17.4. Ethanol production in Brazil for each crop harvest, million litres

Figure 17.5. Average price of Brazilian ethanol exports, US $ per litre

Figure 18.1. Anticipated fate of biodiesel produced by the ten largest biodiesel producers by

installed capacity, million litres, 2010

Figure 18.2. Map showing biofuel production and blending terminal locations in Argentina

Figure 18.3. Supply commitments for ethanol producers for the Argentinan market from the

government, million litres, 2010

Figure 18.4. Supply commitments for biodiesel producers for the Argentinan market from the

government, million litres, 2010

Figure 18.5. Fate of palm oil produced in Honduras, tonnes

Figure 18.6. Development of the biofuel market in Paraguay, million litres

Figure 18.7. Quantity of feedstock used in biofuel production in Uruguay, tonnes

Figure 19.1. Ethanol and biodiesel plants in Canadian provinces, million litres

Figure 19.2. Feedstocks used by Canadian biofuel plants, million litres

Figure 19.3. Map of potential areas for biofuel feedstock cultivation in Mexico

Figure 20.1. Ethanol production capacity in operation in Australia, million litres

Figure 20.2. Biodiesel production capacity in operation in Australia, million litres

Figure 20.3. Breakdown of biodiesel sold on the Australian market, million litres

Figure 21.1. Fuel ethanol plants in China

Figure 21.2. Sugar cane feedstocks in India, thousand tonnes

Figure 21.3. Production and consumption of ethanol in India, 2006 – 2011, million litres

Figure 21.4. Breakdown of fate of biodiesel produced by manufacturers in Indonesia, million litres

Figure 21.5. Map of installed ethanol plants in Indonesia

Figure 21.6. Map of installed biodiesel plants in Indonesia

Figure 21.7. Annual and forecast of crude palm oil production in Malaysia, million tonnes

Figure 21.8. Main feedstock used to produce ethanol in Thailand, thousand litres per day

Figure 21.9. Anticipated production of ethanol from cassava and molasses in Thailand, million

litres per day

Figure 21.10. Prices of ethanol blends and gasoline in Thailand, 2005 – 2009, THB per litre

Figure 21.11. Prices of biodiesel blends and gasoline in Thailand, 2005 – 2009, THB per litre

Figure 21.12. Feedstocks used in biodiesel plants in Thailand

Figure 21.13. Projections on domestic demand for biodiesel in Thailand, million litres

Figure 21.14. Breakdown of manufacturers of biodiesel in Thailand, thousand litres per day

Figure 21.15. Projections of idle and operating ethanol capacity in the Philippines, million litres

Figure 21.16. Projections of ethanol production and imports in the Philippines, million litres

Figure 21.17. Projections of biodiesel production and consumption in the Philippines, million litres

Figure 24.1. Timeline of proposed legislation and voluntary targets for the aviation sector

Figure 24.2. Aviation fuel demand and supply scenarios

Figure 24.3. CAAFI R&D roadmap for biofuel feedstocks

 

 

 

List of Tables

 

Table 2.1. Production processes for first generation biofuels

Table 3.1. Advantages and disadvantages of ethanol compared to gasoline

Table 3.2. Yields of ethanol per feedstock

Table 3.3. Monthly prices for corn, US $ per tonne

Table 3.4. Products from sugar cane production

Table 3.5. Monthly sugar prices, US $ cents per pound

Table 3.6. Advantages and disadvantages of biodiesel compared to petroleum diesel

Table 3.7. Monthly prices for feedstocks for the production of biodiesel, US $ per tonne

Table 4.1. By-products from jatropha

Table 4.2. The advantages and disadvantages of jatropha

Table 4.3. Key companies involved in jatropha projects

Table 4.4. Main developers of biodiesel from Camelina

Table 6.1. Cellulosic waste materials of food crops

Table 6.2. Top cellulosic ethanol manufacturers in terms of installed capacity in 2009

Table 6.3. The advantages and disadvantages of cellulosic ethanol as an alternative to firstgeneration

biofuels feedstocks on the market

Table 7.1. The biodiesel yield per acre for different feedstocks

Table 7.2. Production capacity for algae biofuel developers, million litres, 2010 and 2012

Table 7.3. Products derived from algae

Table 7.4. The advantages and disadvantages of algae as an alternative to first-generation

biofuels feedstocks on the market

Table 9.1. Description of Conversion Pathway

Table 10.1. Emissions Lifecycle for each Feedstock

Table 10.2. How green are biofuels?

Table 12.1. Business model of the top ten biofuel companies in terms of investments last year

Table 12.2. Estimates of subsidies for different energy sources

Table 12.3. Transport fuel prices and taxes per litre, June 2010

Table 12.4. Transport fuel prices, May 2010, US dollars per litre

Table 12.5. Relationships between crude oil, gasoline, ethanol and break-even corn prices

Table 12.6. Average oil price projections, US $ per barrel

Table 13.1. Biodiesel production, million litres

Table 13.2. Ethanol production, million litres

Table 13.3. Biodiesel projections

Table 13.4. Bioethanol projections

Table 14.1. Energy content of marginal transport fuel – pure and blends, MJ/litre

Table 14.2. Energy content of marginal transport fuel blends, MJ/litre

Table 14.3. EU Member States goals for the use of biofuels as transportation fuel, % of total fuel

use

Table 14.4. Road transportation fuels consumption in the EU, 2006 – 2011, ktoe

Table 14.5. Renewable Energy Directive targets

Table 14.6. Greenhouse gas emissions for biofuel feedstocks according to the European Commission

Table 14.7. Milestones for the biofuel industry in the EU

Table 14.8. REACH costs

Table 14.9. Development of biodiesel plants in the EU, thousand litres

Table 14.10. EU 2008 and 2009 biodiesel capacity estimates

Table 14.11. Production capacity of the main biodiesel producers in Europe

Table 14.12. Development of ethanol plants in the EU, million litres

Table 14.13. Production capacity of the main ethanol producers, 2010

Table 14.14. Ethanol plants in the EU, million litres, March 2010

Table 14.15. Advanced biofuel plants in the EU

Table 14.16. Jobs created by the sector in key European countries

Table 15.1. Fuel Taxes

Table 15.2. Breakdown of transport fuels in Bulgaria

Table 15.3. Quota for Biodesel and Bioethanol from 2003-2010

Table 15.4. Quotas and taxes for biofuels in Germany

Table 15.5. Tax exemptions in € per litre of biofuels

Table 15.6. Land use criteria for sustainable biofuels in Germany

Table 15.7. Energy tax on pure biodiesels, € per litre

Table 15.8. Consumption of biofuels in Germany, thousand tonnes

Table 15.9. Average price at the filling station for biodiesel and diesel in Germany, June 2010

Table 15.10. Biodiesel plants in operation in Germany, end 2009

Table 15.11. Incentives for Irish farmers producing energy crops

Table 15.12. Financial support for production facilities

Table 15.13. Albengoa Bioenergy global presence

Table 15.14. Biodiesel plants in operation, under construction and planned in Spain

Table 15.15. Ethanol plants in Spain, excluding Abengoa's plants

Table 15.16. Ethanol plants in Sweden

Table 15.17. Biodiesel plants in Sweden

Table 15.18. Planned biodiesel projects in Switzerland, million litres

Table 16.1. History of ethanol subsidy legislation in the US

Table 16.2. State fuel taxes

Table 16.3. Biofuel blends and car manufacturing compatibility in the US

Table 16.4. Ethanol plants in the USA, July 2010

Table 16.5. Business structure of the top 5 ethanol producers in the US

Table 16.6. US cellulosic ethanol projects under development and construction

Table 16.7. Awardees of US Department of Energy and Department of Agriculture funding,

December 2009

Table 16.8. Valero Renewables' ethanol plants

Table 16.9. DDGS produced for a 20 million gallon (91 million litres) plant using different feedstocks

Table 16.10. Business models for the top five biodiesel producers in the US

Table 16.11. Biodiesel plants in the USA, July 2010

Table 17.1. Production costs for ethanol in the USA, Germany and Brazil, € per 1,000 litres

Table 17.2. Installed biofuel capacity and targets in Brazil

Table 17.3. Top ten sugar cane facilities in Sao Paulo State for the 2008/2009 harvest

Table 17.4. Key Companies using SCA Brazil Ethanol brokerage

Table 17.5. Biodiesel plants in operation in Brazil

Table 17.6. Investment in renewable energies

Table 17.7. Ethanol plants owned by Cosan in Brazil

Table 18.1. Argentina Renovables' list of biodiesel plants in operation, large scale

Table 18.2. Ethanol plants in operation in Colombia

Table 18.3. Biodiesel plants in operation in Colombia

Table 18.4. Top five biodiesel plants in operation in Honduras

Table 19.1. Blending mandates in Canadian provinces, target dates

Table 19.2. Incentives for biofuels in Canadian provinces

Table 19.3. Federal programmes to promote a domestic renewable fuels industry in Canada

Table 19.4. Ethanol plants in operation or under construction in Canada

Table 19.5. Biodiesel plants in operation or under construction in Canada

Table 19.6. Tax exemptions for E10 by Canadian province

Table 19.7. Ethanol pilot project in Mexico

Table 20.1. Biodiesel plants in Australia, January 2010

Table 20.2. Ethanol plants in operation in Australia, January 2010

Table 20.3. Biofuels Excise Rates for Australia

Table 20.4. Effective fuel tax rates for alternative fuels in Australia

Table 20.5. Blending mandates in Australia, target dates

Table 20.6. Second generation Biofuels Research and Development Programme projects in

Australia

Table 20.7. Leading biofuel players in New Zealand, as of August 2009

Table 21.1. China investment in renewable energy markets

Table 21.2. Ethanol plants in operation in China, million litres

Table 21.3. Cities with the E10 blend mandate in China

Table 21.4. Cost analysis of using different feedstocks for ethanol using 2006 prices in China

Table 21.5. Major biodiesel facilities in China

Table 21.6. Project financing for biofuel projects in India

Table 21.7. Blending mandate for biodiesel in Indonesia

Table 21.8. Blending mandate for ethanol in Indonesia

Table 21.9. Biodiesel projects in operation in Malaysia

Table 21.10. Fifteen year Renewable Energy Development Plans for biofuels in Thailand, million

litres per day

Table 21.11. Ethanol plants in Thailand, March 2010

Table 21.12. Breakdown o

 

 

 

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